Recent Submissions


    Wilkins, Christian; Wade, Carol A.; Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M. (North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education,, 2020)
    Cognitive Load Theory’s Four Component Instructional Design (4C/ID) Model has been used in mathematics education but not confirmed as an instructional theory. Using the Factors Influencing College Success in Mathematics (FICSMath) project and confirmatory factor equation modeling, we empirically validated the model and created the 4C/IDMath Model. Instructional experiences of respondents completing the FICSMath survey were mapped to the theoretical components of the 4C/ID Model. The Mathematical Learning Task, Conceptual Understanding, Procedural Fluency, and Practice for Recall Components correspond to the Learning Task, Support, Procedure, and Part Task Components, respectively, from the original 4C/ID Model. The 4C/IDMath Model can be used to guide instruction in secondary precalculus and calculus courses to support transfer of learning to single variable college calculus.
  • The effects of deicing salts on vegetation in Pinhook Bog, Indiana

    Wilcox, Douglas A. (Canadan Journal of Botany, 1986)
    A four-year study identified the effects of road salt contamination on the vegetation of Pinhook Bog after an operation of an uncovered salt storage pile adjacent to the bog for 10 years. Nearly all the endemic plant species (including moat species) were absent from the portion of the bog where mean salt concentrations as high as 468 ml/L sodium and 1215 mg/L chloride were measured in the interstitial waters of the peat mat. Skeletons of dead tamaracks. The impacted was invade by nonbog species and dominated by Typha angustifolia. As salt concentrations decreased by 50% over four years, many of the endemic bog plants, including Sphagnum, returned to the impacted area. Declines were noted in the abundance of some of the invading species, while others continue expansion. Many of the invading and reestablished bog plants are known to be salt tolerant and pioneers in secondary succession of disturbed bogs.
  • Instruction to Understanding: The Emotional Underpinnings of New Teachers' Professional Development

    Schlosser, Linda Kramer; Balzano, Betsy; Saint John Fisher College; The College at Brockport (2009-10-01)
    This study focuses on the professional development of 54 newly certified, preservice teachers who participated in a masters program that incorporated a 15-hour-per-week internship in an urban school. Perceptual and independent data were collected from 10 cohorts who completed the program between 1998 and 2007. Findings suggest that new teachers' knowledge and practices change when rigorous year-long masters programs are situated in schools. The roots of these changes are the connections between cognition and emotion that emerge from intensive, context-rich professional development.
  • Cultural Validity in Assessment Instruments for Children with Autism from a Chinese Cultural Perspective.

    Zhang, Jie; Wheeler, John J.; Richey, Dean; Tennessee Technological University; The College at Brockport (2006-01-01)
    Autism is a chronic developmental disorder characterized by impairments in the areas of social interaction, communication, and repetitive behavior. Early detection followed by early intervention is likely to provide the best chance of long-term beneficial outcome for those children with autism. As demonstrated from research findings, it is important to use developmentally appropriate assessment tools for early detection, diagnosis, and evidence-based interventions. In a diversified society as the United States, it is extremely important to provide cultural competent services to children with autism and their families from diverse cultural backgrounds. The purpose of this paper is to examine from a Chinese cultural perspective the qualities of cultural validity in four assessment instruments designed for young children with autism.

    Wade, Carol Henderson; Wilkens, Christian P.; Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.; Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics; The College at Brockport (2020-12-01)
    Cognitive load theory (CLT) was introduced in the 1980s as an instructional theory based on well accepted aspects of human cognitive architecture (Sweller, van Merriënboer, & Paas, 2019). A major premise of the theory is that working memory load from cognitive processes is decreased when domain specific schemas are activated from long term memory. Comprehension, schema construction, schema automation, and problem solving in working memory often create high cognitive load. Hence, schemas transported from long term memory into working memory support learning and transfer of learning (Ginns & Leppin, 2019). One of the key developments from CLT has been the Four-Component Instructional Design (4C/ID) Model generated from evolutionary theorizing (Geary, 2008; Ginns & Leppink, 2019). Since its creation, the 4C/ID Model has been successfully applied to instruction that requires the learning of complex tasks. Van Merriënboer, Kester, and Paas (2006) defined a complex task as having many different solutions, real world connections, requiring time to learn, and as creating a high cognitive load. Based on this definition, the instruction and learning of mathematics is a complex task. For example, different solutions are algebraic, analytic, numeric, and graphic. Relative to real world connections, mathematics is one of the domains in the broader science, technology, engineering, mathematics (STEM) field and is regarded as the language of the sciences. Regarding taking time to learn and creating a high load on learner’s cognitive systems, mathematics teachers deal with the tension between covering all the required standards and taking the time to teach for understanding. Teachers face challenging decisions about instructional approaches, materials, productive struggle, and the amount of classroom time spent on various standards. Better models for instruction that support transfer of learning could help teachers improve instructional decision making. Although the 4C/ID Model has been used in secondary mathematics education (Sarfo, & Elen, 2007; Wade, 2011), it has never been confirmed as a mathematical instructional theory. The purpose of this research report is to present an empirical confirmation of the 4C/ID Model, using data from the Factors Influencing College Success in Mathematics (FICSMath) project from Harvard University.
  • Using Roller Coasters to Bridge Mathematics, Science and the Arts

    Szilagyi, Janka; Zarazinski, Jill; The College at Brockport (2010-07-01)
    The goal of this workshop presentation is to help teachers find meaningful ways to integrate the arts, mathematics, and science to promote creativity, and interdisciplinary and real-life connections in their classrooms. Through designing and building roller coasters the participants will develop their own creativity and understanding of the problem solving and inquiry approaches to teaching mathematics and science.
  • Today’s University Students and Their Need to Connect

    Russo, Theresa J.; Fallon, Moira; Zhang, Jie; Acevedo, Veronica; SUNY Oneonta; The College at Brockport (2014-04-01)
    Higher education is rapidly changing and university instructors are presented with new types of students for whom technology is a significant influence. They perceive technology as a way of life and express a need to feel connected at all times. With increasingly diverse university classroom, technology integration is both a challenge and an opportunity. Supportive communication is important in the promotion of relationships and essential in a university classroom. A convenience sample of 390 students was surveyed to investigate the perceived influences of technology on relationships, including preferences, usage and time with technologies. Results indicated that technology makes communication easier, allows students to stay in touch with more people, and have relationships that would otherwise not be possible. Implications of this study suggest positive influences of technology on academic work, performance and maintenance of relationships. However, disadvantages with using technology such as increased stress, addictive feelings toward technologies, and increased misunderstandings in relationships and conflict also exist.
  • Using Course Assessments to Train Teachers in Functional Behavior Assessment and Behavioral Intervention Plan Techniques

    Fallon, Moira; Zhang, Jie; Kim, Eun-Joo; The College at Brockport (2011-01-01)
    As the need to train more teachers to work in inclusive classrooms increases, college instructors should identify and implement course assessments measuring their effectiveness in training practices. Skills in managing the challenging behaviors of students with disabilities, such as autism and emotional disturbances are important for teachers worldwide. The purpose of this paper is to explore the use of a course assessment to develop Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA) and Behavior Intervention Plan (BIP). The course assessment used in this study was developed, revised, and then implemented to evaluate participants‘ knowledge to identify, assess and develop plans to improve challenging behaviors of students with behavior disabilities. The course assessment was used in training teachers who currently hold general education certification in obtaining special education training. All participants were new teachers, previously certified in childhood education, and seeking additional certification in special education. Results show there were significant differences across the years of implementation of the study. The paper includes recommendations for other institutions of higher education to utilize similar course assessments into their teacher training programs.
  • Matilda Joslyn Gage: Writing and "Righting" the History of Woman Suffrage

    Corey, Mary E.; The College at Brockport (2001-10-01)
    The information in this article is drawn from the writings, correspondence, newspapers, and speeches, etc. of the woman suffrage movement housed and on microfilm in the following archival collections: The Matilda Joslyn Gage Papers, Women's Studies Manuscript Collections, Schlesinger Library; The Records of the National American Woman Suffrage Association, Manuscript Division of the Library of Congress; The Papers of Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony, edited by Patricia G. Holland and Ann D. Gordon; and the Papers of the New York State Woman Suffrage Association, Rare Books and Manuscripts Division, Columbia University.
  • Students With Disabilities In Urban Massachusetts Charter Schools: Access To Regular Classrooms

    Wilkens, Christian P.; The College at Brockport (2011-01-01)
    This paper examines the access of students with disabilities to regular classrooms in charter and traditional schools in cities across Massachusetts. Public school enrollment and placement data are examined for 2003-07; overall, access to regular classrooms showed high variability by city. Urban charter schools educated significantly lower percentages of students with disabilities in substantially separate classrooms (0-5.7%), compared to urban traditional schools (15.0%-45.8%); however, charter schools enrolled significantly fewer students who are not easily included in regular classes. Both charter and traditional schools have increased regular classroom access considerably from 2003-2007. Discussion focuses on the challenges of interpreting variability in regular classroom access, given major enrollment gaps of students with disabilities between charter and traditional schools. Future policy and regulatory work should emphasize improving charter school access among students with disabilities.
  • Faculty Learning Community (FLC) on Student Leadership: Applying Student Voices to Leadership Development

    Zhang, Jie; LeSavoy, Barbara; Lieberman, Lauren J.; Barrett, Leah; The College at Brockport (2014-01-01)
    While college student leadership is well studied, the faculty’s role in developing student leaders is an area that is underexplored. Twenty students joined eleven members of a faculty learning community (FLC) in a mid-sized college to discuss their perspectives on student leadership. The FLC members/researchers used semi-structured focus group interviews and a phenomenological approach to identify traits of student leaders and to explore opportunities colleges can offer to promote students’ growth as leaders. Using thematic analysis, this study discusses the ways colleges can use FLCs as a platform to facilitate student leadership effectively.
  • A Meta-Analysis of Peer-Mediated Interventions for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Zhang, Jie; Wheeler, John J.; The College at Brockport; Western Michigan University (2011-03-01)
    This meta-analysis investigated the efficacy of peer-mediated interventions for promoting social interactions among children from birth to eight years of age diagnosed with ASD. Forty-five single-subject design studies were analyzed and the effect sizes were calculated by the regression model developed by Allison and Gorman (1993). The overall effect sizes suggest that peer-mediated interventions were highly effective. Further categorical comparisons suggest that these interventions were more effective in enhancing social responses in younger boys, when older male siblings served as interventionists, when the interventions took place in the home, when peer modeling was used, and when consideration was given to maintenance and generalization across participants, behaviors and activities, and in involving collaboration among all researchers, peers/siblings, school staff, and parents/families.
  • Influence of perceived technology use of university students on academic and social performance in college.

    Russo, Theresa J.; Zhang, Jie; Fallon, Moira; SUNY Oneonta; The College at Brockport (2015-06-01)
    Many believe we are in the midst of one of the most dramatic technological revolutions in history. As such, education is evolving to meet the demands of a global society. Colleges and universities act as a cultural bridge to those new literacies empowering individuals and groups traditionally excluded from education thereby reconstructing the classroom to make it responsive to the challenges of an ever-changing society. A convenience sample of 390 students was surveyed to investigate the perceived influences of technology on relationships, including preferences, usage and time with technologies. Results of this study suggest positive influences of technology on academic work, performance and maintenance of relationships, but disadvantages such as increased stress, addictive feelings toward technologies, and increased misunderstandings in relationships and conflict. These findings suggest technology has a mixed impact on students. Although technology will continue to be a significant influence in the lives of individuals, we need to consider how these forms of communication are best used in university classrooms. Discussion and recommendations to university instructors include suggestions on facilitating the use of technology to connect with college students in positive ways, while ameliorating the negative influences in the college classroom.
  • An Analysis of Evidence-Based Practices in the Education of Learners with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Mayton, Michael R.; Wheeler, John J.; Menendez, Anthony L.; Zhang, Jie; Cleveland State University; The College at Brockport; West Virginia University; Western Michigan University (2010-12-01)
    Horner et al. (2005) present a review substantiating how single-subject research methodology can be utilized to determine whether interventions are evidence-based practices (EBPs). The current study utilized the Horner et al. research piece to: (a) systematically identify a set of quality standards for the evaluation of single-case research methodology used with learners with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), (b) operationalize these standards for evaluators, (c) investigate three additional quality indicators related to external validity (multiple studies, locations, and researchers), (d) create a protocol for evaluators, and (e) gather and analyze data from studies that meet a set of predefined criteria. Published in seven journals across ten years, identified studies (N = 160) were subjected to an analysis across 23 EBP quality standards that revealed increasing compliance with EBP standards over time yet persistent and pervasive difficulty in adequately satisfying at least five indicators integrally tied to external validity.
  • Supporting the language development and service needs of young children from Chinese immigrant families: Utilizing best practices from international education.

    Zhang, Jie; Fallon, Moira; The College at Brockport (2013-01-01)
    As many more families emigrate to the United States (US) and other countries from China, it becomes vital that families, service providers, and professionals understand the basic demographic characteristics of these families. Early detection followed by culturally competent intervention services is more likely to provide the best chance of longterm beneficial outcomes for children with varying educational needs. This research investigation aims to provide more detailed information and cultural support for evidenced based interventions to school providers so that they will know how to better serve students from Chinese immigrant families. The research investigators used three approaches in this exploratory study: a survey instrument, a follow-up interview, and a case study. The results of this study demonstrate that these immigrant families, especially those from Chinese cultures, possess unique characteristics and strengths. The usefulness of this information to practitioners is two-fold: a more comprehensive summary of the demographic characteristics of Chinese immigrant families and the self-reported concerns and challenges of these families with unmet educational needs.
  • Exploring the emotions and needs of English Language Learners: Facilitating pre-service and in-service teachers’ recognition of the tasks facing language learners

    Zhang, Jie; Pelttari, Carole; The College at Brockport (2013-08-01)
    The population in the United States has become more diverse, but the number of teachers in public schools who are fluent in another language is limited. Furthermore, statistics attest that few teachers have adequate training to work with English language learners (ELLs). Teachers who lack training and have not struggled to learn another language may not realize the complexity faced daily by ELLs. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to apply instructional methods, which mirror experiences faced by real children in real classrooms, in order to allow pre-service and/or in-service teachers to be subjected to the mixed emotions experienced by English language learners in their class. In six different classes, the researchers immersed a total number of 155 undergraduate and graduate students in a 15-minute oral presentation in Dutch. Data from a post-survey indicated that teacher candidates developed empathy and extrapolated the message that ELL students in classrooms in the United States face serious but surmountable challenges that take time to overcome. As a result of the findings, we recommend teacher preparation programs include language requirements and interactions between teacher candidates and language learners.
  • Implementing Portfolios Using Tk20: An Educational Assessment System

    Zhang, Jie; Fallon, Moira; Wright, Allison; The College at Brockport (2016-01-01)
    The purpose of this paper is to share results of collaborative effort introducing special education portfolios into an inclusive teacher education program using the Tk20 assessment system. Tk20 is an assessment system for both providing evidence of educational skills and achieving that evidence in such a way as to demonstrate growth of teacher candidates. This is not only important for the teacher candidates as they push themselves professionally, but it is also a crucial aspect of accreditation requirements for teacher education programs. Therefore, the focus of the paper is on the usefulness of standards based, working and exit electronic special education portfolios in teacher education. The three instructors report teacher candidates’ learning outcomes and professional development by analyzing data in a special education portfolio via Tk20 from special education courses in three phases of a teacher preparation program prior to student teaching practicum. We describe the lessons learned and focus on victories and challenges in our planning and implementation process. We also suggest recommendations for others to implement the interdisciplinary efforts for effective collaboration into a college wide, electronic educational assessment system in order to track the performances of teacher candidates over time.
  • Perspectives on Educative Teacher Performance Assessment (edTPA) from Teacher Candidates and College Supervisors

    Zhang, Jie; Nam, Younkyeong; Pelttari, Carole; The College at Brockport (2016-07-01)
    As a response to the need of systematic teacher performance assessment, recently the Educative Teacher Performance Assessment (edTPA) has been developed and implemented in over 600 teacher preparation programs across nearly 40 states in the US (Stanford Center for Assessment, Learning, and Equity, 2015). However, little research has been conducted investigating ways teacher preparation programs improve the quality of their programs while helping their teacher candidates be well prepared for the edTPA. This study investigated perspectives of student teachers and their college supervisors regarding (1) the effectiveness of the teacher preparation program in a middle-sized public college in relation to edTPA completion and (2) the perceived value of the edTPA as preparation for becoming an effective teacher when New York State began to require successful completion of the edTPA for initial certification. Ninety-nine student teachers in both inclusive elementary and adolescence education programs and fourteen student teaching supervisors participated in the study. A teacher perception survey data including Likert Scale items and open-ended questions was collected as a main data source. Mixed methods were utilized to analyzed both quantitative and qualitative data during the academic year of 2014-2015. Based on the results, suggestions are discussed to better prepare teacher candidates for edTPA and the teaching profession. Lastly, implications about assessment systems of teaching practice in the context of South Korea are discussed.
  • Mercury and Autism: A Review

    Zhang, Jie; Wheeler, John J.; Tennessee Technological University; The College at Brockport (2010-03-01)
    The prevalence of autism has increased approximately four times in children in nearly one decade (California Health and Human Services Agency, 2003). It has been reported that explanations such as immigration, shifts in the interpretation of diagnostic criteria, improved identification, or diagnostic accuracies cannot explain the observed increase (Geier Geier, 2005). One potential cause that has alarmed many has been the presence of thimersol, the mercury-based preservative found among immunizations. Although many refute this, concern has been leveled by many families and professionals concerning the potential impact of mercury poisoning as a causal factor. Researchers have proposed that autism may be in part caused by mercury, because there was cumulative mercury exposure throng denial amalgam, fish consumption, environment pollution, and additionally, through increased thimerosal-containing vaccines for both mothers and newborns (Mutter, Naumann, Schneider, Walach, Haley, 2005). The purpose of this study is to review the information from studies concerning the relationship between mercury exposure and autism.
  • Effectiveness of gluten-free and casein-free diets for individuals with autism spectrum disorders: An evidence-based research synthesis.

    Zhang, Jie; Mayton, Michael R.; Wheeler, John J.; East Tennessee State University; The College at Brockport; West Virginia University (2013-06-01)
    In order to better assist practitioners and better serve persons with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and their families, it is vital for professionals to systematically evaluate the existing body of literature and synthesize its scientific evidence, so that the efficacy of research can be translated to evidence-based practices (EBPs) (Wheeler, 2007; Zhang & Wheeler, 2011). This research synthesis evaluated adherence to EBP standards and analyzed the effectiveness of gluten-free and casein-free (GFCF) diets for individuals with ASD. Four hundred and seventy articles were screened among peer-reviewed journals in English language published through 2010 using the Academic Search Complete search database. Twenty-three studies were selected, and the researchers used a systematic analysis model developed by Mayton, Wheeler, Menendez, and Zhang (2010) to investigate the degree of adherence to specific evidence-based practice standards. In addition, the study utilized quality indicators proposed by (a)Horner et al (2005) for single-subject design studies and (b) Gersten et al. (2005) for group experimental design, to evaluate the efficacy of GFCF diet interventions. Results of this synthesis indicated that the efficacy of GFCF diet interventions for individuals with ASD is inconclusive, and the field needs better controlled studies to provide the scientific evidence base for the intervention.

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