• A Kaleidoscope View of Urban and Rural Policing: How Misunderstanding and Uncaring May Impact on Police Officers

      Lumb, Richard C.; The College at Brockport (1/1/2016)
      Excerpt from author's book, “Issues in Policing and Requisite Challenges” (2016), ISBN-13: 978-1540375841, first published in LinkedIn.
    • A Question of Police Role?

      Lumb, Richard C.; The College at Brockport (1/1/2016)
      Laws are created and passed by civilian legislative bodies to include: (a) the stated statute, (b) the elements of a crime, (c) criminal procedures, and (d) prescribed punishment if found guilty. Moreover, appropriately these become the duty of the District Attorney, Judge, and Jury. Civilians make the law, not the police! Police are created to enforce the law. Citizens are expected to adhere to the law. A broader picture often lost in the discussion as some feel any behavior, any attitude, any disdain for society is acceptable. Not so!
    • Addressing & Preventing PTSD in Civilian Emergency Services

      Lumb, Richard C.; The College at Brockport (1/1/2016)
      The face and eyes of police and first responders provide a window into the internal world of thoughts and feelings. When exposed to danger, adversity or traumatic events, they learn to cope, over time, by presenting a mask of calmness, strength, and resiliency. Below the surface lies the accumulating stress, adversity, and trauma whose very presence is harmful to the mind and body of the individual, a lurking danger whose existence may lead to severe consequences.
    • An Examination of the Chicago Dilemma: By Implication, the Remainder of the Country

      Lumb, Richard C.; The College at Brockport (1/1/2016)
      Excerpt from author's book, “Issues in Policing and Requisite Challenges” (2016), ISBN-13: 978-1540375841, first published in LinkedIn.
    • Does Reducing Supervision for Low-risk Probationers Jeopardize Community Safety?

      Duru, Haci; Lovins, Lori B.; Lovins, Brian; Justice System Partners; State University of New York College at Brockport; University of Houston, Downtown (6/1/2020)
      THE NUMBER OF individuals on community supervision in the U.S. far surpasses those incarcerated. Of the 6.6 million adults in 2016 under correctional control, more than 4.5 million (68 percent) were serving a term of community supervision Eighty-one percent of the individuals placed on community supervision were probationers ( With large numbers of individuals supervised on probation, agencies must explore how to allocate resources more wisely, all while meeting the mandate for enhanced public safety.
    • Eight Hours in the Shadow of a Police Officer

      Lumb, Richard C.; The College at Brockport (1/1/2016)
      Comments on police and community interaction often follow an incident resulting in a protest march, demands for the removal of a public office holder, for police to be arrested and other proposed actions. The focus is singularly on police and not the similar behavior of individuals who initiated the confrontation in the opening minutes of interaction. The hue and cry are not about finding sustainable solutions to long-standing problems; it is seeking some quick fix, the sustainability of which is elusive. There is always a larger story than what the media fixates on, and in ignoring it, a disservice is a result. For every encounter with adverse outcomes, the police have confronted someone or a group from the community with whom they are seeking interaction. The behavior of individuals also contributes to the results of the encounter and they must be included in the overall examination. Hindsight, including a variety of agendas, emotions, the inevitable “what it?” questions and many other variables fail to bring clarity to the event before the investigation is complete. The resolution is not possible. The combination of many contributing factors often directs what happens during the call for service.
    • Examining terrorism threat and police performance

      Duru, Haci; Bakiev, Erlan; Kyrgyz National Police (5/15/2018)
      The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between terrorism threat and police performance. Hierarchical multivariate linear modelling technique is used in this study. The units of analyses were provinces of Turkey (at level two) and years (at level one). The relationship between terrorism threat (operationalised as ideological incidents reported to the police) and police performance (operationalised as crime clearance rate) is assessed. Socio-economic development, population size, and the size of minority population are controlled. This paper concludes that there is a significant relationship between terrorism threat and police performance within the provinces of Turkey. However, this relationship is contextualised by the size of the minority population within the provinces. More specifically, as the size of the minority population increases, the negative effect of terrorism threat on police performance strengthens. Police performance is operationalised as crime clearance rates. Moreover, only the more serious crimes are included in the calculation of crime clearance rates. Other operationalisations of police performance might yield different results. The level of terrorism threat needs to be considered while assessing police performance.
    • Examining Underlying Causes of Concern about Police Action

      Lumb, Richard C.; The College at Brockport (1/1/2016)
      Excerpt from author's book, “Issues in Policing and Requisite Challenges” (2016), ISBN-13: 978-1540375841, first published in LinkedIn.
    • From the Center Outward! Implementation Model of Sustainable Community Capacity Building

      Lumb, Richard C.; The College at Brockport (1/1/2016)
      Implementation Model of Sustainable Community Capacity Building Steps: Collaborate Believe Motivate Organize Develop Capacity Implement Evaluate
    • Have We Reached the Point of Critical Mass in Community and Police Relations?

      Lumb, Richard C.; The College at Brockport (1/1/2016)
      Excerpt from author's book, “Issues in Policing and Requisite Challenges” (2016), ISBN-13: 978-1540375841, first published in LinkedIn.
    • Recognition of Our Civilian Emergency and First Responders for Their Service

      Lumb, Richard C.; The College at Brockport (1/1/2016)
      We honor our military and so should it be. The military services engage with those whose compulsion to kill or control others is stronger than a civilized approach to differences. They work in all weather, all conditions, facing not only human enemies of civilized society, but the threat of harm from technology, weapons, and other violence. They work nights, holidays and in weather others avoid. They are away from loved ones, those feelings never diminishing, because of duty responsibilities. Civilian emergency service workers also have a daily concern for their safety and survival, while enduring action that could lead to injury, disability, and death. Where others fear to tread, they overcome, persist and often rush to danger, as they are the civilian warrior class we cannot do without.
    • Recognizing and Addressing the Symptoms of PTSD in Our Police

      Lumb, Richard C.; The College at Brockport (1/1/2016)
      Excerpt from author's book, “Issues in Policing and Requisite Challenges” (2016), ISBN-13: 978-1540375841, first published in LinkedIn.
    • Replace Rhetoric on Police with Problem-Solving

      Lumb, Richard C.; The College at Brockport (1/1/2016)
      In Response to: Use of Force Article Governing magazine, August 13, 2015 National Data on Police's Use of Force Proves Almost Useless References: http://www.governing.com/topics/public-justice-safety/National-Data-on-Polices-Use-of-Force-Proves-Almost-Useless.html
    • Social Work and Police Partnership: A Summons To The Village Strategies and Effective Practices

      Dean, Charles W.; Lumb, Richard C.; Proctor, Kevin; The College at Brockport; University of North Carolina at Charlotte (10/1/2000)
      This report addresses the social work/law enforcement relationship and the role of police and other human service agencies in dealing with community problems. Traditionally, law enforcement and human service agencies share the most difficult portion of the others’ client caseloads but there has been little interagency communication or cooperation. Effective intervention and prevention requires more than police action and goes beyond the capability of any single agency. Social service has always been a key part of policing while serving victims of crime and offenders has been a major emphasis of social work. Law enforcement and social work have served the same target groups but with varying success. The community now demands that both institutions combine resources and skills to reach those in crisis and victims of crime. Problem oriented community policing is still a work in progress but there is consensus on four elements: prevention, problem solving, partnerships and organizational change. Using these elements as a foundation, this document describes police/social work partnerships that serve as a community response to crisis situations signaled by calls for police service. Heretofore, community policing has focused on developing relationships with individual citizens through foot/bike patrols, dispersed “community policing” sub-stations and neighborhood improvement. Building partnerships with human service agencies has received far less attention. Social work/police partnerships are the next logical step in the development of community policing. They meet the mandate to work together for the benefit of the whole community and to deal with chronic repeat calls for service. These calls signal a serious problem usually involving multiple forms of abuse and indicate the need for summoning the entire village to provide effective intervention and preventive services. The study was conducted to learn about the development, operation and impact of social work/police partnerships on recurring domestic violence and associated deep-rooted police service delivery problems. This document describes effective practices of five successful social work/police partnership models. Chapters I and II give the background of the problem. Chapter III describes five successful partnership models and Chapter IV provides a composite of critical effective practices gleaned from the study sites. Chapter V outlines steps for assessing the problem. Chapter VI and VII are designed to serve as a project development checklist for program planning, implementation and assessment of effectiveness.
    • Solutions to Maine’s Drug Problem: One State's Story

      Lumb, Richard C.; The College at Brockport (1/1/2016)
      Excerpt from author's book, “Issues in Policing and Requisite Challenges” (2016), ISBN-13: 978-1540375841, first published in LinkedIn which talks about the need to coordinate efforts of all drug-related programs, from police to treatment options for the greatest chance of success.
    • Strengthening Resilience of Our Police and First Responders

      Lumb, Richard C.; The College at Brockport (1/1/2016)
      Excerpt from author's book, “Issues in Policing and Requisite Challenges” (2016), ISBN-13: 978-1540375841, first published in LinkedIn.
    • Taking a Smart Approach to Community Problems

      Lumb, Richard C.; The College at Brockport (1/1/2016)
      When negative events persist, sometimes for years, the solution approach utilized is not working. Rather than continue along an unsuccessful path, a new tactic is needed. The model, the sustainable community capacity building, provides the steps for achieving successful and durable change. Public and private partners from within the community (neighborhood, business, volunteers, other geographic configurations and professional services) are critical in the examination of needs and the development of sustainable programs. Progress is required in adopting a course of action that includes problem identification and drill down exploration, community building, prevention strategies and sustainable solutions.
    • The Factor of Combat Stress Reaction: Comparing Military Combat to Law Enforcement and Current Social Violence

      Lumb, Richard C.; The College at Brockport (1/1/2016)
      Excerpt from author's book, “Issues in Policing and Requisite Challenges” (2016), ISBN-13: 978-1540375841, first published in LinkedIn. This chapter looks at combat stress reaction and compares the effects on military and police.
    • The Feudal Origins of the Western Legal Tradition

      Harwick, Cameron; Root, Hilton; George Mason University; State University of New York College at Brockport (1/1/2020)
      This paper draws a distinction between ‘communitarian’ and ‘rationalist’ legal orders on the basis of the implied political strategy. We argue that the West’s solution to the paradox of governance – that a government strong enough to protect rights cannot itself be restrained from violating those rights – originates in certain aspects of the feudal contract, a confluence of aspects of communitarian Germanic law, which enshrined a contractual notion of political authority, and rationalistic Roman law, which supported large-scale political organization. We trace the tradition of strong but limited government to the conflict between factions with an interest in these legal traditions – nobles and the crown, respectively – and draw limited conclusions for legal development in non-Western contexts.
    • The Historical Value of Time as a Concept of Change

      Lumb, Richard C.; The College at Brockport (1/1/2016)
      With the merger of two police departments into a single agency and the hiring of a visionary police chief, the winds witnessed many re-engineered changes. These changes included adopting community problem-oriented policing as the core philosophy of services, the addition of Geographic Information System software to enhance the analysis and mapping of crime, disorder, and violence and combining the planning and crime analysis units into a single Research, Planning and Analysis Bureau. Central was the integration of the community and police into a working partnership that would address threats to the quality of life in the City of Charlotte.