Computer Science Faculty Publications
Framework for waveband switching in multigranular optical networks: part I-multigranular cross-connect architecturesOptical networks using wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) are the foremost solution to the ever-increasing traffic in the Internet backbone. Rapid advances in WDM technology will enable each fiber to carry hundreds or even a thousand wavelengths (using dense-WDM, or DWDM, and ultra-DWDM) of traffic. This, coupled with worldwide fiber deployment, will bring about a tremendous increase in the size of the optical cross-connects, i.e., the number of ports of the wavelength switching elements. Waveband switching (WBS), wherein wavelengths are grouped into bands and switched as a single entity, can reduce the cost and control complexity of switching nodes by minimizing the port count. This paper presents a detailed study on recent advances and open research issues in WBS networks. In this study, we investigate in detail the architecture for various WBS cross-connects and compare them in terms of the number of ports and complexity and also in terms of how flexible they are in adjusting to dynamic traffic. We outline various techniques for grouping wavelengths into bands for the purpose of WBS and show how traditional wavelength routing is different from waveband routing and why techniques developed for wavelength-routed networks (WRNs) cannot be simply applied to WBS networks. We also outline how traffic grooming of subwavelength traffic can be done in WBS networks. In part II of this study [Cao , submitted to J. Opt. Netw.], we study the effect of wavelength conversion on the performance of WBS networks with reconfigurable MG-OXCs. We present an algorithm for waveband grouping in wavelength-convertible networks and evaluate its performance. We also investigate issues related to survivability in WBS networks and show how waveband and wavelength conversion can be used to recover from failures in WBS networks.
Framework for waveband switching in multigranular optical networks: part II - wavelength/waveband conversion and survivabilityWe consider multigranular optical networks using waveband switching (WBS) technology. The use of advanced WDM has significantly increased the available bandwidth in backbone networks by increasing the number of wavelengths. As the number of wavelengths in a fiber is increased, the number of ports or the size of the optical cross connects increases rapidly. Using WBS, wavelengths are grouped into bands and switched as a single entity thus reducing the cost and control complexity of switching nodes by minimizing the port count. Part I of our study [J. Opt. Netw.5, 1043-1055 (2006)] compared the various cross-connect architectures for WBS including the three-layer and single-layer multigranular cross connects. It also discussed various issues relating to waveband switching networks that are different from traditional wavelength routing networks (WRNs), for example, traffic grooming, and it showed why techniques developed for WRNs cannot be simply applied to WBS networks. We study the effect of wavelength and waveband conversion on the performance of WBS networks with reconfigurable multigranular optical cross connects. We present an algorithm for waveband grouping in wavelength convertible networks and evaluate its performance with full, limited, and intraband wavelength conversion. We then focus on survivability in WBS networks and show how waveband and wavelength conversion can be used effectively to recover from failures in WBS networks.