• Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Evidence of Disorder and Motion in Yttrium Trideuteride

      Balbach, John L.; Conradi, Mark S.; Hoffmann, Markus M.; Udovic, Terrence J.; Adolphi, Natalie L.; Knox College; National Institutes of Health; NIST Center for Neutron Research; The College at Brockport; Washington University in St Louis (1998-12-01)
      Three samples of YDx, with x ranging from 2.9 to nearly 3.0, were studied with deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance to gain insight into the locations of the D atoms in the lattice and their motions. Line shapes at low temperatures (200–330 K) show substantial disorder at some of the deuterium sites. Near 355 K, the spectrum sharpens to yield three uniaxial Pake patterns, reflecting a motional averaging process. However, the three measured intensities do not match the ratios expected from the neutron-determined, HoD3-like structure. This is strong evidence that the structure and space group of YD3 are different than reported, or that the current model needs adjustment. At still higher temperatures near 400 K, the Pake doublet features broaden, and a single sharp resonance develops, signalling a diffusive motion that carries all D atoms over all sites. The temperature at which line shape changes occur depends on the number of deuterium vacancies, 3-x. The changes occur at lower temperatures in the most defective sample, indicating the role of D-atom vacancies in the motional processes. The longitudinal relaxation rate T1-1 displays two regimes, being nearly temperature independent below 300 K and strongly thermally activated above. The relaxation rate depends on the number of deuterium vacancies, 3-x, varying an order of magnitude over the range of stoichiometries studied and suggesting that D-atom diffusion is involved. Also, the activation energy describing T1-1?(kB×5500?K) approximately matches that for diffusion. An unusual ?0-0.7 frequency dependence of T1-1 is observed. A relaxation mechanism is proposed in which diffusion is the rate-determining step and in which frequency dependence arises from a field-dependent radius of the relaxation zones.
    • Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Probe for Supercritical Water and Aqueous Solutions

      Hoffmann, Markus M.; Conradi, Mark S.; The College at Brockport; Washington University in St Louis (1997-01-01)
      A nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) probe for high pressure, high temperature studies is presented. While applicable to many physical systems, the device is optimized for the study of the physics and chemistry of supercritical water and its solutions. The design is modular and is particularly simple, using readily available parts and materials. A new approach is presented for elimination of the magnetic field from the heater currents. The probe has been used to 600?°C and 400 bar. The rf performance is quite good; the NMR linewidth is about 0.1 ppm full width at half-height at any pressure and temperature.