• 3’ Terminal Processing of Precursor tRNA Transcribed From a Drosophila Melanogaster Histidine Gene in a Cell-Free System

      Kline, Larry K.; Fulginiti, James P.; The College at Brockport (1/1/1987)
      Transfer RNA biosynthesis is a complex process which includes trimmings at the 5' and 3' termini and nucleotide modification of the initial tRNA precursor. This research involves the detention and isolation of a 3' endonucleolytic activity from Schizosaccharomyces pombe. tRNA precursors are obtained from a cell-free transcription system using (i) a Drosophila tRNA-histidine gene which contains a 35 base pair trailer sequence at its 3' terminus and (ii) a crude yeast enzyme extract which can faithfully transcribe the gene and process the precursor transcripts. Transcription products are separated by means of polyacryfamide gel electrophoresis visualized by autoradiography, and eluted from the gel. The tRNA precursors are then incubated with a Sc. pombe extract, electrophoresed and autoradiographed. The intact 35 base pair trailer sequence will serve as an indicator of the presence of the 3' endonuclease.
    • A Basal Program Does Not Stand Alone: The Roles Professional Choice, Principled Practice, and Finessing Play in Elementary Teachers’ Negotiation of a Basal Program

      Roberts, Ashley; The College at Brockport (8/1/2011)
      Basal programs can be useful guides for teachers. They provide structure and useful material for a lesson plan. However, in school districts where the program plan is required to be taught with little to no flexibility the programs become restrictive and cumbersome. Most teachers find it necessary to alter the programs in specific ways. In this master thesis, the author considered how elementary school teachers actually use basal programs within the classroom. The thesis begins with a thorough history of basal programs, including the evolving approaches of teaching. Nine elementary teachers were interviewed, teaching grades one through four. All of them were women aged between twenty-five to fifty-five years old, with teacher experience ranging from four to thirty-four years. The teachers interviewed had many things in common. The teachers all agreed on what aspects of the program were essential. These aspects were kept, while the features judged to be less important were replaced by each teacher’s unique alternatives. Alterations to the program were driven by time constraints and the students’ comprehension levels. Time was found to be a large factor in negotiating the program. The program was often too dense, and there wasn’t sufficient time to teach the entire curriculum. Many aspects of the program were either too easy or too difficult, and in some cases unnecessary for the majority of students, and alternatives were used.
    • A Book Club's Impact on Parent Support of Adolescent Reading

      Nichols, Rachel; The College at Brockport (5/1/2011)
      Purpose The purpose of this study, then, is to investigate, both before and after intervention, parents' perceptions of their abilities to impact their children's literacy attitudes and activities. The intervention will take the form of a book club conducted by the researcher with parents. This book club will include discussions on current authors and books for adolescents, as well as demonstrations of literacy activities parents can incorporate into their daily lives. The following research questions will be addressed. First, how do parents perceive their abilities to support their sixth grade students in the area of reading? Second, what happens to these perceptions when parents participate in a parent book club and how does this effect home literacy activities? Procedures I will design each meeting's discussions and demonstrations based on parent reports of student interest, and current literature and research regarding appropriate literacy activities for adolescent students. Parents and I will meet once per week for five weeks. Each meeting will be approximately one hour long. During this time parents will participate in direct instruction, open discussion, role playing opportunities, and exploration of book recommendations. In order to assess my research questions, I will administer a qualitative survey at two points during the book club; one at the beginning, and one at the midpoint. I will also administer a phone interview one week after the end of the book club. Throughout this process, I plan to keep a teacher journal in which I will record any observations during book club meetings. Through this study, I hope to arm parents with information about activities, authors, and books that will help them support their adolescent readers. I hope to share my findings with my school colleagues, administrators, and other parents.
    • A Breath of Fresh History: A Reformation of History Education and What Students Should Learn in the Modern American Classroom

      Daly, John P.; Cottman, Spencer T.; The College at Brockport (4/25/2017)
      This Senior Honors Thesis examines some of the issues and problems surrounding the way History and Social Studies are taught within the American education system and suggests alternatives.
    • A Case Study Integrating the Relationship Enhancement Model in Conflict Resolution

      Mullen, Jill A.; The College at Brockport (1/1/2005)
      A literature review of empathic communication in conflict resolution was presented including the problem definition, the nature of conflict, current conflict resolution models, and an alternative solution using empathic communication in conflict resolution were discussed. Results of the literature concluded that resolving conflict was more successful when integrating empathic communication, implying that empathic communication is an effective component to conflict resolution.
    • A Case Study of the Challenger Learning Center of Greater Rochester

      Balzano, Betsy Ann; Ribble, Robert B.; Baker, Patricia E.; O'Leary, Carol T. (7/1/1994)
      The Challenger Learning Center of Greater Rochester (CLCGR) is a privately funded hands-on math, science, and technology educational facility for the Greater Rochester area which serves groups from all over Western New York. It is a computer-driven simulation of a space mission that motivates students to apply teamwork, communication, and problem-solving skills to the task of “flying a mission” in the mock-up Space Station and Mission Control. The author surveyed the private donors who funded the CLCGR to analyze the process of building and operating the center and to determine whether there existed generalized principles or characteristics of charitable donations to educational initiatives by the private sector. These characteristics could then be emphasized when approaching potential funders for corporate, foundation, or private donations. The author found that donors sought out programs which addressed real-world needs for a large sector of the target population in a reasonable, sustainable, and innovative way. The reputation of the operating organization and the recognition gained from the community were also important for swaying prospective donors. Donation sizes were decided by the donor’s budget, amount asked for, and relative size of other donations. Most donors expected some kind of feedback, reporting, or accounting of the use and effectiveness of their gift, as well as some form of publicity. The method of donor solicitation was only of importance to large donors, who desired credible or well-known solicitors to lead the approach. These findings could thus be used for future privately-funded educational initiatives.
    • A Case Study On The Effects a TBI Has On Learning

      Wade, Carol H.; Ellis, Jessica H.; The College at Brockport (2/13/2014)
      Young adults are one of the highest risk groups for sustaining a Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) (Hux, et al., 2009). Hence, some of the most frequent survivors are of school age. Upon reentry into education, survivors of TBI often display a gamut of challenges that interfere with academic performance with deficits in cognitive processes, such as executive functioning, memory, attention and concentration. Survivors may also experience social, emotional, or physical limitations that interfere with academic performance. Thus, "the magnitude and persistence of challenges faced by survivors of severe TBI necessitates establishing supportive environments and appropriate accommodations to support academic endeavors" (Hux et al., 2009, pg. 13). However, because of the variability and complexity of deficits survivors of severe TBI present, it is challenging to investigate the appropriate supports and accommodations for those reentering school (Hux et al., 2009). In fact, research on supports and accommodations used in the classroom for students with TBIs has been minimal, and mostly quantitative. Experts in the field, such as Ylvisaker, Todis and Glang have expressed the need for qualitative research "to explore the interaction of multiple factors affecting recovery and school integration experiences of students with TBI" (Hux, et al., 2009, pg. 14). This thesis provides such research in the form of a case study about a survivor of a TBI, Victoria, which is a pseudonym to protect the identity of the participant. This case study investigates the effects of a TBI on Victoria’s ability to learn and describes her experiences upon reentering education.
    • A Case Study: An Investigation on Influences Affecting the Reading Levels of Bilingual Students

      Ribble, Robert B.; Avila, Enildo D.; The College at Brockport (5/12/1994)
      This study examines the reading of native Spanish-speaking Hispanic students, focusing on any influences or factors that might impede their ability to gain competence in their target language—English. It focuses on eight students from a middle school in Rochester, NY. Four students scoring in the lower half of the Pupil Evaluation Program (PEP) test and four students scoring in the upper half were selected for examination. Each student participated in a personal interview to determine whether there are any influences that impact them in the affective domain. The study reveals four primary concerns that may impact student success, including parent/school miscommunication about the bilingual program, code-mixing in the home, parental modeling and reading instruction, and the lack of adequate Spanish reading material available to the bilingual students. In addition, the author notes that using bilingual programs to transition multi-lingual students into an exclusively English environment seems counterproductive, given the emphasis on foreign language acquisition in secondary school.
    • A Case Study: How Do Students with Severe Lead Poisoning Develop and Perform as Readers, and What, as Educators, Can We Do to Help?

      Heirigs, Sean D.; The College at Brockport (7/1/2008)
      Lead poisoning is a serious problem in the United States found primarily in lower socioeconomic regions. This often overlooked, national topic is the catalyst for problems concerning not only developmental and health problems but academic learning issues as well. This thesis project focuses on the area of reading performance for students suffering from lead poisoning toxicity. Assigning this content area foundational status for academic success, questions explored function and performance as readers, specific reading strategies, and approaches for student progress. Additionally, the study discusses student self-assessment and perspective as readers. Extensive research provides historical background information on specific economic, social, and health problems caused by lead poisoning. This three-year longitudinal study examined two primary questions: how do students suffering from lead poisoning and its effects function as readers and how do they view themselves as readers. The four student participants that comprise this case study attend a school district where there is a high degree of public assistance among the families and every student qualifies for the free/reduced breakfast and lunch programs. The academic scores on fourth grade English and Language Arts exams reveal only a 56% passing level. There is also a high percentage of the student population who suffer from varying degrees of lead poisoning toxicity. Methods for the study included in-class observation, one-on-one reading conferences, and parent questionnaires to assess home learning environment and support. A month-long intensive Reading Skills Program was developed to assist in understanding common challenges for students suffering from lead poisoning. Over the course of the study, students’ cumulative academic records were also accessed. Conclusions drawn support the hypothesis that reading ability and academic success are compromised for students suffering from lead poisoning. Even with intensive one-on-one tutoring, development, retention, and recall are weak as students perform well below grade level, especially in reading.
    • A Case Study: Recall of Mathematical Facts Comparing Students Labeled Educable Mentally Retarded (EMR) with their Average Peers

      Balzano, Betsy Ann; Schlosser, Linda; Robinson, Scott D.; McConnell, Kerri S. (7/1/1999)
      As the number of inclusion classrooms continue sto grow across the country, educators are quickly noticing the enormous span in ability level among students in one classroom. Given the large number of learning disabilities, the well-known ones often overshadow the less commonly known disabilities. Programs designed to best suit the needs of a majority of students in an inclusion classroom can thus miss the needs of students with these uncommon disabilities. Educable Mental Retardation (EMR) is interpreted as a student who cannot function in society or a classroom without additional help. This case study is designed to understand the abilities of students who are identified as EMR so that programs can be designed to meet their needs in the classroom. The author examined a blended third/fourth grade classroom which included students with special needs and two students with EMR. The author asked: Are Educable Mentally Retarded (EMR) students able to recall the same amount of mathematical information as average students? Which activities do the students who are EMR believe are most beneficial to them when learning multiplication? Students were taught multiplication facts using several different strategies designed to assist recall. Several tests were given to assess recall ability. Following the study, two random students and the two students with EMR with interviewed. The author found that the students with EMR were unable to recall the same amount of information as average students. Daily repetition of facts and strategies, as well as one-on-one support is found to be beneficial.
    • A Case Study: The Effect of Repeated Read-Alouds of Complex Texts on the Comprehension of a Preschool Student

      Joseph-McEwen, Debra A.; Cottrell, Stephanie J.; The College at Brockport (5/11/2015)
      Abstract The purpose of my research is to explore how the comprehension of a preschool student is impacted through being engaged in a total of twelve read alouds and discussions using complex texts in the form of a chapter book. During the conducting of this research, a preschooler participates in read alouds conducted by the researcher and engages in a post-reading discussion about the reading. Each read aloud is then repeated a second time followed by second post-reading discussion. My research seeks to answer to what extent can a preschool student retell and discuss content from a complex text? How does the use of repeated readings of complex texts impact the comprehension and vocabulary knowledge of a preschool student? The data is collected through the use of observations and comprehension rubrics.
    • A Choreographic Exploration of Judeo-Christian Themes

      Davis, Jacqueline; Duane, Beverly Cordova (5/1/1987)
      This thesis investigates the potential of using the art form of dance, in a secular setting, to educate religious thought, and elicit an uncommon way of worship. Three Judeo-Christian themes, Grace, Prayer, and Body, form the creative inspiration for this choreographic thesis project. Within this thesis, grace is defined as the freedom from the need to strive or work with effort; prayer is the physical, emotional, mental or spiritual communication with God; and body represents both the “Body of Christ,” and the Christian Church, as well as the human body as an image of God. Bach’s “Magnificat in D Major” was chosen as the musical score for its central importance in portraying Judeo-Christian spirituality. The score was performed in the original German and Latin languages, to allow the music itself to inform the choreography. The resulting septet suite of ecclesiastical dance was performed in the secular theatre setting of Hartwell Hall, and its examination and evaluation form the basis for the text of this thesis.
    • A Chronometric Analysis of the Effect of Sex and Sensory Modality on the Running Performance of Visually Handicapped Individuals

      Silva, John M., III; Chalmers, Bonnie Lynn; The College at Brockport (8/1/1979)
      The purpose of this study was to experimentally compare the effect of two sensory aids on the running performance of 40 female and 40 male visually handicapped subjects participating in a 40 yard dash. The subjects ranged in age from 6-21 and attended various schools and institutions in Massachusetts, New Jersey, and New York. The subjects were blocked according to sex and randomly assigned to one of two treatment conditions. Those assigned to treatment one utilized an audible goal locator. Those assigned to treatment two utilized a tactual guide wire. The subjects were tested individually. A timed performance score was recorded for each subject. A 2 x 2 factorial design for the variables of sex and sensory aid was used. The analysis of variance indicated that there was no significant difference in the scores of subjects utilizing an audible goal locator as compared to a tactual guide wire. A significant (p ? .001) main effect for sex was found. Visually handicapped males performed significantly faster than females. This finding supported research concerning visually impaired males and females on various physical performance tests. No significant interactive effect was noted for the variables of sex and sensory aid. Mean examination indicated that females performed slightly faster utilizing the audible goal locator while males performed slightly faster using the tactual guide wire. Suggestions were offered in an attempt to further research concerning performances of visually handicapped individuals, in various physical settings and for evaluating the effectiveness of sensory aids.
    • A Clinical Assessment on the Role of the High School Athletic Director

      Stoldt, Kenneth Michael; The College at Brockport (8/1/1994)
      The purpose of this study is to examine the qualifications and methodologies of high school athletic directors working in New York State public schools which operate within the Section Five district. The study intends to identify tendencies which could prove to be the basis of strengths or weaknesses which are needed for the development of a successful athletic program. The study also intends to determine if there is a need for athletic directors to gain a higher level of professional preparation. This study hopes to offer many benefits. One major benefit will be to aid some practical solutions to the day to day athletic problems which arise. The second is to demonstrate the need for having a qualified person assume the role of athletic director. The intent of this study will be to survey the high school athletic directors in New York State Section Five District. The data will allow for closer examination of problem solving methodology, time management skills, organizational patterns, personnel qualifications, and many other characteristics of administration. It is believed that the data will provide evidence of similarities which exist between districts. After evaluating the data, one may be able to differentiate between characteristics as to their value to an athletic program or an administrator. Such data could prove to be valuable for an individual interested in pursuing a career in athletic administration. This investigation will examine the relationship between the position of athletic director and the personal credentials and/or job characteristics of the individual participants. Finally, several recommendations will be made for further research.
    • A Closer Look Into Advisor/Advisee Programs

      Beers, Morris J.; Schlosser, Linda; Baker, Patricia E.; Hofmann, Heide; The College at Brockport (7/1/1995)
      To address the unique needs of middle school students, many middle schools have developed advisor/advisee type programs to help ease transition into the school. Odyssey at Hoover Drive has developed a program called Connectime whose objectives include building communities, strengthening relationships and increasing student autonomy. This study investigates sixth graders’ transition into the middle school setting and assesses whether the Connectime program assists students with this transition. Five sixth grade teachers and ninety-two sixth grade students completed questionnaires to determine whether Connectime was properly meeting the students’ needs. Percentages were calculated for each of the questions asked in both the student and teacher questionnaires and a chart was compiled to identify favorable and unfavorable results for each objective. Analysis of the teacher questionnaire shows that all sixth grade teachers agreed that Connectime’s objectives were important for incoming sixth graders, but they disagreed on whether the program was actually meeting those goals. The teachers were particularly skeptical of the use of small groups to assist in educational endeavors and end result of increasing student autonomy. Students generally had a favorable response to Connectime’s attempts to develop small communities and personal connections to Odyssey’s faculty. Importantly, the majority of students had favorable responses to attempts to build student autonomy, with more than three-fourths of students feeling their Connectime teacher respected them. The author argues that Connectime fulfills its objectives in helping sixth grade students transition into middle school. However, while Connectime teachers seem to have a strong influence on their students, peer groups remain the most influential group for dealing with personal problems. The author recommends further study to see how needs develop over time, as well as the perception of parents on advisor/advisee programs.
    • A Closer Look into Discipline Specific Literacy Strategies for Mathematics

      Pelttari, Carole; Johnson, Kaitlyn; The College at Brockport (12/16/2015)
      This study then looks into specific researched based literacy practices to determine which strategies are known to work and help students read. The study then looks into research-based literacy specific practices to determine which strategies are known to work to help students read. Then, I take what I have previously learned regarding why students struggle to read mathematical text, and take the literacy strategies I found to further modify them into discipline specific literacy strategies. The purpose of this study is to provide professionals, including myself, a toolkit of mathematical literacy strategies to use to implement into everyday instruction, ultimately increasing students content knowledge.
    • A Collection of Computer Simulation Enhanced Units for Earth Science

      Younkyeong, Nam; Jankowiak, Erin; The College at Brockport (12/15/2014)
      Inquiry learning has become the big thing in science education. Yet many concepts across the sciences pose challenges that have traditionally made them difficult or even impossible for this kind of learning. This project explored the implementation of computer simulations into the science classroom as a way to overcome many of the traditional challenges. While research has revealed both benefits and issues associated with their use, when implemented properly computer simulations were found to have the potential to help students develop deeper conceptual understandings of scientific concepts. Along with exploring the benefits and issues related to computer simulations, a review of the literature also revealed a collection of research-based strategies for their effective implementation. These strategies include scaffolding and real world connections among others. This research was then used to design a collection of five Earth Science units. Each unit is technologically enhanced through the incorporation of a PhET simulation by the University of Colorado and provides students with an opportunity to engage in simulation-based inquiry.
    • A Collection of Guided Note-packets and PowerPoint Presentations to be Used in the Earth Science Classroom: With a focus on multi-modal representations and writing in science

      Veronesi, Peter; Trifeletti, Leigh W.; The College at Brockport (5/23/2013)
      Abstract The significance of this literature review is to examine the current beliefs and practices that bring scientific literacy into the classroom through writing in science and multi-modal representations. Areas of student intellectual abilities and cognitive processing skills are also examined. Through this review of the educational research, a pattern of significance emerged that supports the implementation of multi-modal guided note-packets in the science classroom. After a thorough review of the research findings, this paper will highlight the beneficial, and sometimes adversarial, effects of using multi-modal representation in enhancing and exploring scientific literacy and practice, while acquiring note-taking skills.
    • A Collection of Scientific Modeling Incorporated Units for Chemistry

      Younkyeong, Nam; Spaman, Laura E.; The College at Brockport (12/11/2015)
      Science education incorporates methodology to make content relatable, relevant and important to students. The problem with science content such as Chemistry, is the ability to make the abstract understandable and clear on a level students are able to grasp. With content that deals with the unseen, modeling practices let students visualize the scientific concept being described in an additional manner. The Units that follow, incorporate modeling practices into the curriculum in order to allow students to access material that involves higher level thinking and reasoning. In addition to navigating the benefits and drawbacks of incorporating different modeling strategies, the review of the literature also explores the numerous methods of including modeling into teaching practice, as well as the range of different types of models that can be utilized. Student-centered modeling, technology-supported modeling, and inquiry-based modeling are all integrated into the lessons with the ultimate goal of student understanding
    • A Comparative Analysis of Cognitive Differences Among Female Elite and Nonelite High School Field Hockey Players and High School Physical Education Class Nonathletes

      Adams, Linda Berner; The College at Brockport (12/1/1991)
      The Empire State Games Western Scholastic Field Hockey Team (n = 14), a high school field hockey team (n = 15), and nonathletes in a high school physical education class (n = 9) were given a battery of tests and inventories to compare mental aspects such as abstract visual reasoning, concentration, sport-confidence, psychological skills relevant to exceptional performance, and competitive anxiety. Analyses included multivariate analysis of variance for each cognitive category, one way univariate analysis of variance for each subtest within a cognitive category, and a stepwise multiple regression technique to determine which tests made the greatest contribution to predicting group membership. Multiple analysis revealed that the elite group displayed significantly higher sport-confidence and selected psychological skills. Results of a stepwise multiple regression technique indicated that motivation, mental preparation, and team motivation accounted for 67% of the behavioral variance. A subsequent multivariate analysis within just the two field hockey groups revealed that the top half of the elite group displayed significantly higher trait sport-confidence and motivation than the bottom half of the nonelite group. A stepwise multiple regression analysis found that motivation, trait sport-confidence, state sport-confidence, and sequencing of information accounted for 99% of the behavioral variance. The results of this investigation indicated that there are cognitive differences already significant at the high school level, and that these factors influence the development of perceived competence.