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Gilgamesh and the Great Goddess of UrukAs early as five thousand years ago the Sumerians who were developing a complex city-state based on plow agriculture and animal husbandry in what is now southern Iraq illustrated their culture in great vases, one band of which can be interpreted as a “Sacred Marriage” between the highest power in the universe, the Great Goddess “Inanna” (in Semitic Babylonia and Assyria “Ishtar”). In the very complicated scene at the topmost band of the Uruk Vase the goddess raises the status of her human lover to semi-divine status. The position he held the Sumerians called en, and on the vase he is seen receiving from the goddess a symbolic wrap and a cap that indicate his new status. The most famous of the Sumerian ens was an Urukean known a “Bilgamis” later “Gilgamesh,” and his exploits are recounted in a variety of poems, epics as important to his people as Odysseus and Achilles were to the ancient Greeks. From the 4th millennium BCE Uruk Vase to the 1st millennium BCE versions of Gilgamesh poems the peoples of Mesopotamia celebrated the often combative relationship between the en and the Great Goddess.
Substance Abuse Interventions: Catalysts for Change: Criminal Justice and Community CollaborationThe premise of this book is to address the substantial number of people who enter the criminal justice system, accompanied by alcohol or substance abuse issues. Offering alternative and supplemental help impart value as it seeks to improve intervention, treatment, and prevention to the return to violence and personal harm. Interceding with individuals at this step in the process allows them to consider continued professional assistance to their addiction, and to refrain from criminality and seek out a more productive and fulfilling life. The added interjection by police and others in the criminal justice system substantially increases the potential for drug elimination to an addicted person. It takes place at an opportune time and serves a legitimate purpose. The intent of this book is to examine entry points for intervention and assistance to people entering or within the criminal justice system. This early intervention step begins with controlled implementation and seeks to engage the individual in a pathway forward that does not include drugs. The authors explore the opportunity, strategy, and models of intervention that bring promise to reducing substance abuse.