• An Examination of Social Consciousness Through the Lens of Photography

      Lane, Michael; SUNY Brockport (6/1/2018)
      This paper will argue that photography was a key factor in determining the outcome of the American Civil War. Without it, the North would not have been able to conduct a total war as efficiently as it did. At the beginning of the war, battlefield photographs supported the public’s view of war as glorious, but by the Battle of Antietam in 1862, some photographers had begun capturing the brutal realities of war. This shift reflected and shaped the public’s consciousness with regard to the ever-changing realities of warfare. The Confederacy lacked the photographic materials to create similar depictions, and new technologies enhanced the power of Union photographs and extended their dissemination, furthering their impact on the public’s consciousness. Similarly, as the war continued, photographers began depicting escaped slaves and African Americans differently, transitioning from views of former slaves as destitute escapees to potential soldiers, fighting for the Union. This shift, alongside the Emancipation Proclamation, helped justify brutal campaigns that sought to end the war as quickly as possible. In sum, photography was integral in shaping public opinion, and the North benefited from it more than the South did, making it a key factor in the Union’s victory.
    • Avoiding Death Like the Plague: Wound Care in the Roman Army

      Dougherty, Gwendolyn E.; Nazareth College of Rochester (6/1/2018)
      At its peak, Roman Empire controlled over two million square miles of territory. To conquer and control that much land, Rome produced a highly skilled army. Casualties and deaths were to be expected, but ancient medical sources about caring for the wounded in the Roman army point to treatments considered advanced for the time period. Galen of Pergamum was an important contributor to this field. The use of food products and natural resources helped combat infections, healing the wounded soldiers and returning them to their military units. This paper identifies and analyzes what those specific products for wound care were and how they worked as effective medical treatments.
    • Church, State and the Lemon Test: The Shortcomings of the Supreme Court When Deciding Establishment Clause Cases

      Broida, Jonathan; The College at Brockport (6/1/2018)
      This paper argues that the Lemon test is a clear and pragmatic method for ensuring that Justices of the U.S. Supreme Court remain objective when interpreting the Constitution’s Establishment Clause. Critics of the Lemon test have mistakenly suggested that it provides an overly broad interpretation of the Establishment Clause that surpasses its original intent. Analysis of the Supreme Court’s decisions in Lemon v. Kurtzman (1971), Marsh v. Chambers (1983) and Lee v. Weisman (1992) will reveal that blame for the test’s supposed flaws rests on the Justices themselves. Analysis of relevant studies will shed light on the Justices as human decision makers and reinforce the strength of the Lemon test. The test is an important tool to prevent Justices from relying on subjective reasoning and shield their decisions from their limitations as human decisions makers when interpreting the Establishment Clause.
    • George Grenville

      Follmer, Caleb; The College at Brockport (12/1/2016)
      British Prime Minister George Grenville is frequently misunderstood. Unlike his predecessors, he sought compromise with the British colonies in North America, did not abuse the power and influence granted to him by him appointment, and did not award himself lavish gifts and a high salary under the guise of financial responsibility. Grenville actively sought to consolidate Britain's debt through his unwavering work ethic and honest business ideas. He also worked to find a new way to govern and control the British North American colonies. Left in debt by the costly Seven Years War, Britain expected her colonies to pay for the war waged for their benefit. At the same time that Britain passed new taxes, the colonies suffered a severe economic depression. Thus British attempts at debt reconciliation left the colonists hostile towards Grenville and Great Britain, who they perceived as ignoring their financial plight. Grenville heard their complaints and concerns, understood they felt threatened by British lawmakers enacting a direct tax in their country, and offered them the chance to tax themselves. When the colonists failed to provide a new system, he fell back on his original taxation plan created through Parliament.
    • James Gustavus Whiteley: The Lost Agent of King Leopold II

      Broida, Jonathan; The College at Brockport (12/1/2016)
    • Neoslavery: The Perpetuation of Slavery After the American Civil War

      Falter, Benjamin; The College at Brockport (12/1/2016)
      Many Americans are under the impression that slavery ended following the Civil War. However, this is a vast oversimplification of the reality that Black men and women faced in the South after the war’s end. Freedmen’s bureau reports, “Black Codes,” and the research of historians demonstrate the ways in which Black men and women were treated following the end of the Civil War. Comparing the conditions revealed in the aforementioned sources to the conditions Black men and women faced during legal slavery reveals startling similarities. Violence against Blacks continued to be widespread in the post-war period, and many Black men and women were even bought and sold through convict leasing. In short, slavery continued in all but name.
    • Southern Slavery and Antebellum Law: Modifications Suited to the State and Master Class

      Casement, Steven J.; Le Moyne College (6/1/2018)
      This paper deals with the complexity of the legal system in the American South during the Antebellum period. The laws put in place by the various Southern states during this era were constructed locally, and were a delicate balance of planters’ property rights, the need for slave regulation, and evangelical desire to defend their own way of life. But, the resulting outcome was the same in each case. The Southern states continuously pushed laws that reinforced the authority of the master with the help of political economists, judges, lawmakers, and of course the master class itself. Therefore, this paper emphasizes the laws that the South began altering or reaffirming in response to northern criticism during the same time. These laws took form in a variety of ways not simply state by state but also case by case. By examining many of the cases in these states, this essay deals with some of the larger impacts on slaves and the system of slavery as a whole due to these legal modifications. This paper contends that the intention of the South in these cases was the strengthening of the position of the master class, which in and of itself led to resulting legal decisions that were stamped out with the collapse of diplomacy and civil war.
    • The American Revolution and the Black Loyalist Exodus

      Bibko, Julia; The College at Brockport (12/1/2016)
      This paper provides an account of the experiences of Black Loyalists in Nova Scotia, London, and Sierra Leone after the American Revolution. Tens of thousands of North American slaves fled to the ranks of the British army when they were promised freedom in return for service. When the British lost the war, they began the evacuation of both White and Black Loyalists out of the colonies. Black Loyalists were sent primarily to Nova Scotia and England and, to a lesser extent, the Bahamas and West Indies. Yet the Black Loyalists were not content with freedom alone; they actively fought for equality and against discrimination in their new countries. Black Loyalists thus took charge of their own emancipation by fighting for the British and continuing to fight for equality even after their exodus from the colonies. The results of the Black Loyalist exodus were mixed, as shown by letters from the Sierra Leone colonists themselves. Yet the experience of the Black Loyalists is significant because this massive migration of free Blacks had international implications, the founding of the Sierra Leone colony being one example. This narrative also brings into question the concept of the Revolution as a national struggle for independence, in addition to revealing the complexity of Loyalist ideology.
    • The Great White Dawn of the Pueblo: Revolt and Puebloan Worldview in Seventeenth-Century New Mexico

      Norment, Martin; The College at Brockport (12/1/2016)
      Previous historical scholarship on the origins of the 1680 Pueblo Revolt argues that the rebellion resulted from either poor environmental conditions, harsh Spanish treatment of the Pueblo Indians, or a combination of the two. Using Puebloan myths, Spanish documents from colonial New Mexico, and anthropological studies of various Puebloan groups and religions, this paper contends that the Pueblo identified the disease, worsening environmental conditions, and harsh Spanish treatment as an indicator that they had failed to meet their ceremonial obligations to their ancestors. Therefore, Spanish occupation and prohibition of customary Pueblo religion acted as a barrier to their restoration of harmony. Thus given a tangible cause for their suffering, the Pueblo people rebelled to rid themselves of the Spanish in order to practice rituals and secure their prosperity.
    • The Last Contingency: The Final Chance for Southern Victory in the American Civil War

      Parysek, Alexander; The College at Brockport (6/1/2018)
      This article argues that the Confederacy in the American Civil War had one final chance to achieve a negotiated peace. This chance was in the summer of 1864. The North had an overwhelming logistical and strategic advantage over the Confederacy. However, this great advantage only mattered if the Northern populace realized that they were effectively winning the war. The North was growing tired of the war, and it was possible that the Confederacy might hold out long enough to negotiate peace. Ultimately this chance was undone by political infighting and Jefferson Davis replacing General Joseph E. Johnston with a less suitable commander. The result was that the Confederacy was forced into a series of battles that resulted in decisive victories for the North. These victories, in turn, secured Lincoln’s re-election and guaranteed that the war would continue with a Union victory.
    • "The Path to Ruin: Inflexibility, Delusion, and Discord Between the Kaiser, Chancellor, and German High Command in the Great War"

      Vecchio, Nicholas; The College at Brockport (12/1/2016)
      This paper focuses on the political and military decisions of the German High Command during the First World War. After first examining the unresolved historiographic discourse over Germany’s fifth Imperial Chancellor, Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg, it explores the backgrounds of Kaiser Wilhelm II, Chancellor von Bethmann-Hollweg, General Erich von Falkenhayn, and General Erich Ludendorff, and studies the argument within the High Command over whether Germany should focus her war efforts on the western or eastern fronts. Two central theses are argued: (1) Germany had numerous opportunities to end the war diplomatically with favorable terms once it was clear they would not be able to win militarily, but these were all thwarted due to the inability of the war leaders to cooperate and agree in any capacity. (2) Falkenhayn, Ludendorff and Bethmann-Hollweg all vied for the support of the Kaiser in key military and political decisions, but by 1917 the Kaiser was largely supplanted by Ludendorff because the Kaiser failed in his constitutional role as Supreme Warlord and mediator between civilian and military branches.
    • The Sexual Revolution of the "Roaring Twenties": Practice or Perception?

      Clark, Shellie; The College at Brockport (12/1/2016)
      Even after the passage of over 80 years, the perceived radical shift in morality in the 1920’s defies concrete definition. Many popular images seem to offer evidence that indicate a change in sexual propriety, with portrayals of scantily dressed flappers swigging illicit liquor from flasks, and racy advertisements for silk stockings showing off women’s legs, so soon after a time when women were covered from the neck to the ankle even at the beach. Religious and conservative leaders alluded to a total collapse of morality and blamed popular entertainment for degrading America’s youth. This paper analyzes primary sources from the 1920s in an effort to determine the attitudes of the people who experienced, and often shaped, the era. These sources suggest a wide variety of opinion among Americans and the existence of a fully developed sexual awareness lurking beneath the veneer of polite society long before the “roaring twenties.” Although it is not possible to prove or disprove a true “revolution” in sexual morality, this paper contributes to the ongoing discussion of the values which changed and those which were simply exposed by the light of a more tolerant time.