• Philosophy and the Curriculum

      Scheffler, Israel; Harvard University (1971-01-01)
      There are many ways in which philosophy can contribute to the improvement of education. This paper proposes one particular contribution. Those who are studying to be teachers should be taught some of the philosophy that is related to the discipline that they will teach. There are four ways in which this can contribute to their education. First, it will give an analytical description of the forms of thought employed in their discipline. Second, it will provide some evaluation and criticism of those same forms of thought. Third, it will analyze some specific materials in such a way as to systematize them and illustrate these forms of thought. Fourth, it will provide an interpretation of these forms of thought that is accessible to the novice.
    • A Response to Professor Scheffler’s Paper

      Archambault, Reginald D.; Brown University (1971-01-01)
      I find much of value in Professor Scheffler’s remarks. However, there is a problem facing teacher education that very fundamental, and it requires a more radical solution. The problem is a crisis of faith in our current system of education. This crisis compels the prospective teacher to consider the characterization, definition, and justification of any subject matter whatsoever.
    • The Ethics of Belief

      Blanshard, Brand; Yale University (1971-01-01)
      There is an ethics of thought, as well as of practice, and that ethics is the same outside religion as within it. We may not be able to control our beliefs directly, but we can control them indirectly. So we are accountable for the ways in which we form our beliefs. Some say that beliefs are private affairs, but our beliefs affect our actions, and our actions have consequences for others. Thus we are accountable for our beliefs. Religious traditions that promote unquestioning acceptance of belief without evidence are violating the ethics of belief. William James’ defense of belief without evidence is enticing, but ultimately unsuccessful.
    • Religion and Belief

      Keene, J. Calvin; St. Lawrence University (1971-01-01)
      I agree with Dr. Blanshard that religion needs reason, and belief should be made as rational as possible. It is an ethical responsibility to believe the truth. But belief always includes an element of tentativeness. So belief is sometimes appropriate, even in the absence of compelling evidence. Moreover, religion is related to a very different reality than is science. Consequently, the kinds of evidence that are appropriate to the one are not necessarily appropriate to the other. Insofar as God is conceived as a person, rather than an impersonal object, God cannot be approached or studied in the way in which we study impersonal objects.
    • Toward a Reasonable Ethics of Belief

      Ferre, Frederick; Dickenson College (1971-01-01)
      Reason has an important role to play in every area of life, including religion. However, Dr. Blanshard’s definition of what is “reasonable” is too narrow. There are many kinds and degrees of evidence. Even if one should not believe contrary to the evidence, or without any evidence, one might be permitted to believe in the absence of perfect evidence. Moreover, what constitutes relevant evidence is not the same in all areas of life. The kind of evidence that is relevant to a belief in physics is not the same as the kind of evidence that is relevant to a belief about the values of music, for example.
    • Vision and Dream in the Cinema

      Sparshott, F. E.; Victoria College, University of Toronto (1971-01-01)
      There are many ways in which filmgoing is like dreaming. The space and time of the film experience are distorted and illusory. For instance, one has the sense of being spatially present on the filmed scene. However, if we really accepted a change in the camera viewpoint as a change in our own position, rapid intercutting between different viewpoints would be intolerable. This suggests that in film our sense of space is somehow bracketed or held in suspense. Likewise, we take what we see in the film to be happening in the present, yet we tolerate jumps backward and forward in time. On reflection, these peculiarities of the film experience are extremely odd. Our ability to enjoy them testifies to the mind’s tendency to smooth things over, interpreting whatever confronts it in terms of the simplest pattern.
    • Inevitability in History

      Beardsley, Monroe C.; Temple University (1971-01-01)
      Historians sometimes say that one event or set of events made another event inevitable. This paper proposes an analysis of the concept of inevitability that is employed in such claims. To say that one event E made another event F inevitable is to say that: (1) E and F occurred, and in that temporal order, and (2) After E, and because of E, no action within the power of any living person or persons who desired F not to occur would have been followed by the nonoccurrence of F. One of the corollaries of this analysis is that anyone who asserts an inevitability statement is thereby committed to a true generalization to the effect that conditions like E cause conditions like F
    • In Defense of the Hypothetical Imperative

      Foot, Philippa; Oxford University (1971-01-01)
      Kant insisted that moral precepts must be categorical imperatives, telling the agent what he should do, no matter what his desires or interests. Kant contrasted these categorical imperatives with hypothetical imperatives, which operate only on the condition of certain desires or interests. I believe it is a mistake to think that Kant has disposed of the hypothetical imperative in morals. In this paper, I will consider the arguments that he has brought against it, and respond to them.
    • The Conventions of Film: A Response to Professor Sparshott

      Rabkin, Gerald; Rutgers University (1971-01-01)
      The difficulty with judging Professor Sparshott’s analogy between our dream experience and the experience in film lies in the extreme subjectivity of our dream experience. Perhaps an entire film seems dreamlike, but the judgment tends to be intensely subjective.
    • On Sparshott’s ‘Vision and Dream in the Cinema’

      Glickman, Jack; The College at Brockport (1971-01-01)
      I agree with much of Professor Sparshott’s argument. I would add that when film is not taken as a recording of events that occurred, it is taken as a recording of events that were contrived; and that it is taken as a recording entails that no film is taken as present time. When we are caught up in viewing a film, we are primarily concerned with the story. Our fundamental concern is not with the film’s space and time, but with certain characters in human situations. Our main concern is with human experience.
    • The Philosophy of Mind and Some Ethical Implications

      Shaffer, Jerome A.; University of Connecticut (1971-01-01)
      Materialism is the view that the only things in existence are material – matter in motion. Materialists hold that mental events are either identical to bodily events, or that mental events are particular kinds of behavior exhibited by particular material objects. These theories face several serious problems, involving spatial location, privileged access, and other phenomena. Moreover, these theories cannot explain why it is wrong to cause pain in another person. It is not obvious why it is wrong to cause another person to exhibit pain behavior, nor is it obviously wrong to cause physical events to occur in another person’s brain. These ethical implications of behaviorism and the identity theory constitute serious disadvantages for those theories. Consequently, what we have here is an argument for dualism.
    • On Being in the Mind

      Firth, Roderick; Harvard University (1971-01-01)
      There is exactly one good reason to prefer dualism to the identity theory, and it is is this: whereas brain events occur in a particular spatial location inside the head, it is nonsensical to say that mental events occur in any particular location. Professor Shaffer’s other objections to the identity theory are either parasitic on this one, or else unsuccessful.
    • Remarks on ‘Philosophy and the Curriculum’

      Wilson, John D.; Wells College (1971-01-01)
      The ‘philosophy-of’ approach advocated by Professor Scheffler would be enormously helpful to the future teacher. Systematic experience with the philosophical literature in his area will do more to bolster the confidence of the teacher than almost anything else that he or she will learn in the liberal arts.
    • On the Proper Interpretation of Indian Religion and Philosophy

      Riepe, Dan; State University of New York at Buffalo (1972-01-01)
      This paper opposes Professor Potter’s idealistic interpretation of Indian philosophy. By contrast, I defend a Marxist, historical materialist interpretation of Indian philosophy.
    • Indian Philosophy's Alleged Religious Orientation

      Potter, Karl H.; University of Washington (1972-01-01)
      Until recently, it has been assumed that Indian philosophy is essentially religious. That is because it is essentially driven by the religious motivations of the Hindus and Buddhists who practice it. This paper defends this assumption against some recent revisionists who reject it.
    • Response to Weitz

      Alston, William P.; Rutgers University (1972-01-01)
      Professor Weitz contends that there are no necessary conditions of human action. This paper will focus on his objections to the theories of Roderick Chisholm, Donald Davidson, and others. The disagreement turns on the correct interpretation of certain cases. For example, is falling in love an action? What about missing a target?
    • A Response to MacIntyre

      Taylor, Charles; McGill University (1972-01-01)
      I agree with a great deal of Professor Macintyre’s paper. However, his argument can be formulated without any appeal to unpredictability. The unpredictability of many human events is due to the role of self-interpretation in the constitution of those very same events.
    • The Athletic Contest as a "Tragic" Form of Art

      Keenan, Francis; The College at Brockport (1972-01-01)
      Aristotle’s model of tragedy in his Poetics emphasizes process over outcome. This paper will apply that model to athletic contests. It will be argued that the win-lose approach is not the only viable method for judging excellence in athletics. Tragedy affords another kind of meaning for an athletic contest.
    • Ontological Possibilties: Sport as Play

      Kretchmar, Scott; The College at Brockport (1972-01-01)
      It is often thought that sport is highly incompatible with play, since the competitiveness of sport requires a degree of seriousness and commitment that are at odds with the freedom of play. However, this paper will argue that the competitive fullness of sport is compatible with play, even if not perfectly coextensive with it.
    • Locating Consent and Dissent in American Religion

      Marty, Martin E.; University of Chicago (1972-01-01)
      Despite the legal separation of church and state in America, religion continues to play a vital role in American public life. This paper identifies the dual role of religion in American public life as both unifying and reforming. The unifying role has been more significant than the reforming role.