Now showing items 41-60 of 673

    • Testing restoration methods for Lake Ontario wetlands at a wetland scale

      Polzer, Eli L.; Wilcox, Douglas A. (Elsevier, 2022)
      Sedges and grasses have a competitive advantage over cattails at higher elevations in Great Lakes wetlands where periodic low lake levels result in soils too dry to support cattails. Regulation of Lake Ontario water levels eliminated low lake-level years, resulting in cattail invasion. At a wetland scale at two Lake Ontario sites, we tested restoration methods by dredging channels through cattails, using spoil materials to create mounds suitable for sedge/grass growth, seeding mounds, and controlling cattails (T. glauca) using methods adapted from experimental studies. Soil moisture and subsidence of mound soils were monitored. Vegetation was sampled pre-restoration and in shoreline sedge/grass meadow, emergent, and mound zones for two years following implementation. Although spoil mounds decreased in elevation at both sites, soil moisture increased more at the site with greater subsidence. Mean percent cover and ramet counts of cattails were reduced in sedge/grass and emergent zones at both sites. Mounds with greater soil moisture held more cattails post-construction. Across years at both sites, Carex lacustris and Calamagrostis canadensis increased in the sedge/grass meadow zone with reduction in Typha; Calamagrostis increased on the mounds. Key factors affecting results were cattail litter and, on the mounds, a second year of seeding with in situ cold, moist stratification, as well as soil moisture related to subsidence. Recommendations for future restorations include conducting more detailed soil surveys to assess potential subsidence, dredging wider and deeper channels to provide spoil for higher mounds, actively controlling invasive species, and conducting additional years of post-restoration data collection. 2022 International Association for Great Lakes Research. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved
    • Wetland Restoration in Typha -Dominated Braddock Bay of Lake Ontario

      Silva, Alexander O.; Wilcox, Douglas A.; Polzer, Eli L. (University of Wisconsin Press, 2021-12)
      The barrier beach at the Braddock Bay wetland on Lake Ontario was lost to erosion. Without the protective barrier, the area of vegetated wetland was reduced by wave attack. Lake-level regulation implemented in 1960 resulted in cattail (primarily hybrid Typha × glauca), invasion and loss of sedge-grass meadow habitat. As part of the Rochester Embayment Great Lakes Area of Concern, Braddock Bay was targeted for restoration by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The plan included reducing coverage by cattails, construction of channels and potholes to improve wildlife access to the wetland, creation of spoil mounds along the channels to discourage growth of cattail while supporting the growth of sedge-grass meadow species, re-creation of the barrier beach, and construction of new emergent marsh. We collected vegetation data for three years following the 2016 construction activities. Post-restoration results showed that cattail cover decreased greatly across years in the cattail treatment areas, decreased in lower elevation constructed habitats, and gradually increased in higher elevation habitats. Opening of the canopy resulted in increased floating and submersed species, and constructed mounds hosted wet meadow species. Site-level weighted mean C is recommended for future data analyses, rather than FQAI or mean C, because it has no observed influence from species richness. Restoration results were affected by high lake levels in 2017, identified problems in seeding and planting, and meeting construction plans for some channel and pothole depths and mound elevations. Pre-restoration soil surveys are recommended to reduce construction problems, and adaptive management should include invasive species control.
    • Evaluating the use of hyperspectral imagery to calculate raster-based wetland vegetation condition indicator

      Suir, Glen M.; Wilcox, Douglas A. (Michigan State University Press, 2021)
      Field observations and measurements of wetland plants have traditionally been used to monitor and evaluate wetland condition; however, there has been increasing use of remote sensing applications for rapid evaluations of wetland productivity and change. Combining key aspects of field- and remote sensing-based wetland evaluation methods can provide more efficient or improved biological indices. This exploratory study set out to develop a raster-based Wetland Vegetation Condition Indicator system that used airborne hyperspectral imagery-derived data to estimate plant-community quality (via wetland classification and Coefficient of Conservatism) and vegetation biomass (estimated using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index). The Wetland Vegetation Condition Indicator system was developed for three Lake Ontario wetland areas and compared to a field-based floristic quality index and a dominant-plant based Floristic quality indexdom. The indicator system serves as a proof-of-concept that capitalized on the spatial and spectral attributes of high-resolution imagery to quantify and characterize the quality and quantity of wetland vegetation. A Pearson correlation analysis showed moderate r values of 0.59 and 0.62 for floristic quality index and floristic quality indexdom, respectively, compared to the indicator method. The differences are potentially due to the spatial resolution of the imagery and the indicator method only accounting for the dominant plants within each assessment unit (pixel), therefore disregarding understory plants or those with low abundance. However, the multi-metric Wetland Vegetation Condition Indicator approach shows promise as an indicator of wetland condition by using remotely sensed data, which could be useful for more efficient landscape-scale assessments of wetland health, resilience, and recovery
    • TEAMing up with Students and Faculty: Using Microsoft Teams to Increase Student-Librarian Interaction in Asynchronous Learning

      Rath, Logan, PhD (SUNY Brockport, Drake Memorial Library, 2022-06)
      PowerPoint Presentation on ways to enhance student-librarian interactions through creative use of MS Teams.
    • The potential applications of a virtual moving environment for assessing falls in elderly adults

      Haibach, Pamela S.; Slobounov, Semyon M.; Newell, Karl M. (Science Direct, 2008)
      The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the moving room paradigm could be used to assess fall risk in older people. A group of young adults (18–29 years) and two groups of elderly adults (60–79 years) with and without a history of falls were placed into a simulated moving room. Participants stood still facing an oscillating three dimensional virtual room moving in the antero-posterior plane with three types of room movement conditions, continuous oscillatory, discrete anterior and discrete posterior. The young adults performed with less postural motion and coherence with the virtual motion than the older age groups. The group of elderly fallers exhibited more postural motion [center of pressure (COP) length, p < 0.05], a trend towards higher coherence with the object motion ( p = 0.07), and the greatest amount of time-to-stability ( p < 0.05). A virtual moving room incorporating measures of time-to-stability and egomotion appears useful in predicting risk for falls.
    • Dysfunctional career thoughts and attitudes as predictors of vocational identity among young adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

      Dipeolu, Abiola; Sniatecki, Jessica L.; Storlie, Cassandra A.; Hargrave, tephanie (Elsevier, 2013)
      This study examined dysfunctional career thoughts and attitudes as predictors of vocational identity among high school students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Regression analysis results indicated that dysfunctional career thoughts and attitudes were significant predictors of vocational identity, accounting for 42% of the explained variance. Dysfunctional career thinking, measured by the Career Thoughts Inventory (Sampson, Peterson, Lenz, Reardon, & Saunders, 1996) and the CareerMaturity Inventory—Revised (Crites & Savickas, 1996), displayed important predictive relationships with vocational identity as measured by the Vocational Identity Scale (Holland, Daiger, & Power, 1980). Implications for interventions and further research in vocational psychology and career counseling with ADHD students are discussed.
    • Sedge/Grass Meadow Restoration on Former Agricultural Lands along a Lake Ontario Drowned-River-Mouth Tributary

      Wilcox, Douglas A.; Healy, Alexander J. (Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System, 2016)
      Restoration of sedge/grass meadow habitat was implemented on former agricultural lands adjacent to a Lake Ontario drowned-river-mouth tributary at an elevation that historically supports this community type. Four hectares of land were disked in spring and seeded with diverse wetland mixes containing sedges, grasses, and forbs, with additional Calamagrostis canadensis (bluejoint) and Carex stricta (upright sedge) seeds added. Seedling plugs of C. canadensis and C. stricta were also planted. Mowing at a height of 45 cm to control tall, invasive annual weeds prior to seed-set was conducted as an adaptive management practice. Three years after implementation, C. canadensis and C. stricta were not found, but seeded Carex vulpinoidea (fox sedge) was dominant, and seeded Carex lupulina (hop sedge) and Carex lurida (shallow sedge) were also present. Most invasive annuals were rare, but canopies created by larger perennials may pose future problems. Although a greenhouse seed-bank emergence study was conducted, field sampling suggested that plants growing on adjacent lands were a better predictor of future plant communities, with select seeded species serving as a secondary predictor. Failure of some sedges to survive after seeding likely was not related to stratification or diurnal temperature range. However, inadequate soil moisture related to soil type and a second-year drought likely played a role, as might loss of viability of seeds during storage. Future efforts on similar lands might use fresh Carex seeds broadcast in autumn for over-winter stratification, and specially developed seed mixes could focus on species that established at the site and native species found nearby, while avoiding some potential problem species.

      Richards, Paul L.; lin, Brenda B.; Noll, Mark (Northeastern University College of Science, 2013)
      Field measurements of overland runoff and aerial photographs were analyzed in Black Creek watershed (western New York State), to determine if a topographically based loading model could be used to identify overland flow paths in order to rank stream segments for prioritization for nutrient remediation. Discharge and phosphorous concentration were measured at twelve sites to compute the frequency of overland flow, approximate volume of overland flow and flux of phosphorous at each site. Using these metrics, sites were ranked according to their phosphorous contribution to the stream network. Although a nonparametric correlation of observed and modeled rankings suggests that flow accumulation did an inadequate job of ranking the sites, valuable management information on hydrologic connectivity was acquired by identifying where the model did not perform well. An analysis of the model showed that the performance of the weighted flow accumulation model was due primarily to its inaccuracy in estimating contributing area. The field and aerial assessments suggest that subtle anthropogenic changes to topography and hydrography, which altered surface flow paths, were the primary cause of this inaccuracy. These changes were not represented at the resolution of the USGS 10-meter DEM used in the model, either because the landscape modification took place after the source material for the DEM was created or the resolution was too low. In descending order of importance, topographic alterations include road and driveway berms, drainage ditches, stream straightening and stream squaring. One other modification type, tile drains, was important for changing the catchment area of overland flows. These features have an enormous impact on surface flow paths in the study area and were found to be important in controlling hydrologic 'connectivity' to the stream network. Identifying where these features impact surface flow paths is critical information in Best Management Practice (BMP) prioritization. Although the flow accumulation model did not accurately assess overland flow paths well enough to rank stream segments sufficiently for buffer prioritization, useful information was gleaned by overlaying the results of the model on aerial photographs and conducting field assessments. The ease with which this model approach can be carried out, requiring no calibration and needing spatial data that are available in practically all areas, make it a very effective tool for watershed planning. The study underscores the importance that anthropogenic alterations of the landscape have on hydrology and the need for better digital elevation products that represent these features.

      Wilkins, Christian; Wade, Carol A.; Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M. (North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education,, 2020)
      Cognitive Load Theory’s Four Component Instructional Design (4C/ID) Model has been used in mathematics education but not confirmed as an instructional theory. Using the Factors Influencing College Success in Mathematics (FICSMath) project and confirmatory factor equation modeling, we empirically validated the model and created the 4C/IDMath Model. Instructional experiences of respondents completing the FICSMath survey were mapped to the theoretical components of the 4C/ID Model. The Mathematical Learning Task, Conceptual Understanding, Procedural Fluency, and Practice for Recall Components correspond to the Learning Task, Support, Procedure, and Part Task Components, respectively, from the original 4C/ID Model. The 4C/IDMath Model can be used to guide instruction in secondary precalculus and calculus courses to support transfer of learning to single variable college calculus.
    • Influences of Seasonality and Habitat Quality on Great Lakes Coastal Wetland Fish Community Composition and Diets

      Diller, Sara N.; Harrison, Anna M.; Kowalski, Kurt P.; Brady, Valerie P.; Wilcox, Douglas A.; et al., See below for complete list of authors (Spring Nature, 2022)
      Great Lakes coastal wetlands (GLCW) have been severely degraded by anthropogenic activity over the last several decades despite their critical role in fish production. Many Great Lakes fish species use coastal wetland habitats for spawning, feeding, shelter, and nurseries throughout the year. The goal of our study was to compare GLCW fish community composition in the spring, summer, and fall months and investigate how water quality relates to fish diversity, the presence of functional groups, and juvenile fish diets. We summarized fish data collected from GLCW across the basin and used the coastal wetland monitoring program’s water quality-land use indicator to quantify water quality. Basin-wide, we found taxonomic and functional group differences in community composition among three sampling seasons, as well as across the range of water quality. Water quality was positively associated with the abundance of small cyprinids and the relative abundance of some habitat and reproductive specialists. Seasonal differences were also observed for many of these functional groups, with more temperature- and pollution- sensitive fishes captured in the spring and more nest-spawning fishes captured in the summer and fall. In our diet study, we found that age-0 fish primarily consumed zooplankton in the fall, whereas age-1 fish primarily consumed macroinvertebrates in the spring. Moreover, wetland quality was positively associated with trichopteran prey abundance. We concluded that taxonomic and functional composition of fish communities in GLCW vary markedly with respect to water quality and season. Thus, a full understanding of communities across a gradient of quality requires multi-season sampling.
    • Response of Typha to Phosphorus, Hydrology, and Land Use in Lake Ontario Coastal Wetlands and a Companion Greenhouse Study

      Hemingway, Aaron W.; Wilcox, Douglas A. (Springer Nature, 2022)
      Loss of Great Lakes wetlands due to changes in land use, hydrology, nutrient inputs, and invasive species led to the need for studies involving physical factors that influence growth of invasive cattails (Typha). Thus, in 18 Lake Ontario coastal wetlands, we sampled vegetation along stratified random transects and collected water samples for total phosphorus (TP) analyses. We used GIS to determine watershed area, percent land use as croplands, and length of lotic surface waters entering wetlands. A greenhouse growth experiment with a full factorial random block design was used to investigate the effects of variable hydroperiod and phosphorus concentrations on T. × glauca biomass changes. Correlation analyses of wetland data revealed that TP in field studies was related to percent croplands but not lotic length; mean percent Typha was not related to TP. In the growth experiment, above- and below-ground biomass increased significantly for simple main effects of hydroperiod and phosphorus concentrations. Multiple pairwise interaction comparisons between hydrology and nutrient treatments showed that effects of phosphorus concentration were present only at longer hydroperiods. Lack of correlation between Typha and phosphorus concentrations in the field was likely due to the overwhelming effect of water-level regulation on Lake Ontario. The greenhouse study demonstrated that increasing concentrations of phosphorus positively influenced cattail growth in a controlled setting. Although phosphorus positively influenced growth, hydrologic regime had the greatest influence on cattail growth, with increased biomass as hydroperiod increased. More natural hydrology and management of phosphorus inputs may help limit spread of Typha.
    • The impacts of Marcellus Shale Gas Drilling Accidents on Amphibians in a Pennsylvania Fen

      Graham, Andie; Wilcox, Douglas A. (Springer Nature, 2021-02)
      Gas drilling into the Marcellus Shale play has been linked to environmental issues, including potential impacts on wildlife. In 2009, three separate accidents occurred at two gas well sites in central Pennsylvania, USA that resulted in high levels of contaminants in Wallace Mine Fen and a headwater stream that flows through the fen. We collected water chemistry, vegetation, and amphibian data at the impacted fen and at a control fen in 2012 and 2013 to determine similarity of sites and the impacts of the contaminants. We also reviewed water chemistry reports generated by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection for data collected shortly after the accidents occurred to provide insight on the nature of the accidents. Ordinations of vegetation data, as well as water chemistry, showed that the two wetlands are similar and dominated by the same plant species and water chemistry. Historically, both wetlands provided habitat for amphibians. However, unlike in pre-accident amphibian data, we detected virtually no amphibians in the impacted Wallace Mine Fen, suggesting that amphibians were possibly negatively affected by gas-drilling accidents.
    • Extent of Sedge‑Grass Meadow in a Lake Michigan Drowned River Mouth Wetland Dictated by Topography and Lake Level

      Wilcox, Douglas A.; Bateman, John A.; Kowalski, Kurt P.; Meeker, James E.; Dunn, Nicole (Society of Wetland Scientists, 2022)
      Water-level fluctuations are critical in maintaining diversity of plant communities in Great Lakes wetlands. Sedge-grass meadows are especially sensitive to such fluctuations. We conducted vegetation sampling in a sedge-grass dominated Lake Michigan drowned river mouth wetland in 1995, 2002, and 2010 following high lake levels in 1986 and 1997. We also conducted photointerpretation studies in 16 years dating back to 1965 to include responses to high lake levels in 1952 and 1974. Topographic data were collected to assess their influence on areal extent of sedge-grass meadow. Dominant species in short emergent and submersed/floating plant communities changed with water availability from 1995 to extreme low lake levels in 2002 and 2010. Sedge-grass meadow was dominated by Calamagrostis canadensis and Carex stricta in all years sampled, but Importance Values differed among years partly due to sampling in newly exposed areas. Photointerpretation studies showed a significant relation between percent of wetland in sedge-grass meadow and summer lake level, as well as the number of years since an extreme high lake level. From the topographic map created, we calculated the cumulative area above each 0.2-m contour to determine the percent of wetland dewatered in select years following extreme high lake levels. When compared with percent sedge-grass meadow in those years, relative changes in both predicted land surface and sedge-grass meadow demonstrated that accuracy of lake level as a predictor of area of sedge-grass meadow is dependent on topography. Our results regarding relations of plant-community response to hydrology are applicable to other Great Lakes wetlands.
    • Groundwater Controls on Wetland Vegetation of a Ridge-and-Swale Chronosequence in a Lake Michigan Embayment

      Wilcox, Douglas A.; Mazur, Martha L. Carlson; Thompson, Todd A. (Society of Wetland Scientists, 2020)
      A chronosequence of wetland swales between beach ridges in the Manistique/Thompson embayments of Lake Michigan contains plant communities that differ across the strandplain.We characterized vegetation in 33 swales and compared distribution with previously reported groundwater flow systems. Older swales near a groundwater divide created by the peak Nipissing ridge receive local flows and hold sedge/leatherleaf floating mats that transition to swamp. Farther lakeward, another groundwater divide is created by discharge of calcareous waters released by termination of an underlying clay confining layer, resulting in swales dominated by northern white cedar. Cedar swamp continues lakeward in swales having flow-through calcareous groundwater, but several swales are perched above those flows. Farther lakeward, a large amalgamated beach ridge creates another groundwater divide with discharges that again support cedar swamp. Calcareous discharge from the confined aquifer, with downslope flow-through waters, then supports more cedar swamp. Flow-through waters meet yet another calcareous discharge, resulting in ponding and development of floating mats. Finally, a deep regional aquifer discharges at the Lake Michigan shore and supports marsh/shoreline species. Our results have implications for assessing potential responses to climate change, interpretation of past climate changes in paleoecological studies, and management of wetlands facing future climate changes
    • Hydrogeology and Landform Morphology Affect Plant Communities in a Great Lakes Ridge-and-Swale Wetland Complex

      Mazur, Martha L. Carlson; Wilcox, Douglas A.; Wiley, Michael J. (Wetlands, 2020)
      Trajectories of vegetative change in wetlands can be influenced strongly by shifts in water-table elevation driven by evapotranspiration and spatial-temporal variability in groundwater. The specific dynamics of such interactions are difficult to quantify because of spatial complexities associated with local climate, geomorphology, and underlying geology. Nonetheless, a better understanding of the effects of groundwater and landform pattern on plant communities in wetlands can help with future predictions of change. Over two successive growing seasons, we investigated water-balance dynamics in 15 wetlands in a forested Great Lakes coastal wetland complex consisting of relict beach ridges and intervening swales. Our goal was to explore how variation in hydrogeology and landform morphology affected plant community composition.Water-balance analyses from water-level fluctuation methods, along with interpretation of underlying stratigraphy and slope, were used to explain plantcommunity ordination results. Our findings showed that phreatophytic plant communities developed in locations where hydrogeology or greater slopes allowed for supplemental groundwater flow to the swales. Conversely, shallow water-table slopes maintained standing water in swales, leading to obligate wetland plant communities. This study provides a clearer representation of hydrogeologic and ecohydrologic interactions to help inform our understanding of the relationship between groundwater hydrology and plant communities in wetlands.
    • A Complicated Groundwater Flow System Supporting Ridge-and-Swale Wetlands in a Lake Michigan Strandplain

      Wilcox, Douglas A.; Baedke, Steve J.; Thompson, Todd A. (Wetlands, 2020)
      Beach ridges and wetland swales formed in embayments along Great Lakes shorelines during Holocene lake-level changes. Vegetation differences among swales suggested influence from differing groundwater flow systems. We characterized the hydrology across 79 ridge/swale wetlands in the Manistique/Thompson embayments of Lake Michigan using chemical and physical methods. Cross-sections were built from geologic data, and nested piezometers were installed across three ridges/swales where upwelling was noted. Stainless steel piezometers driven in 30 swales were sampled and water analyzed for specific conductance, alkalinity, and major ions. Surface water from 11 swales was analyzed. Water dominated by Ca-Mg-HCO3 was prevalent across the strandplain, with specific conductance generally less than 100 μS/cm. Conductivity, Ca, Mg, and HCO3 in groundwater were greater at identified groundwater discharges; where an amalgamated beach ridge forms a surficial groundwater divide; and swales nearer Lake Michigan that likely receive greatly mineralized water from a deeper aquifer. Repositioning of the shoreline as the embayments filled over the past 4700 years, coupled with isostatic rebound and changes in lake water levels, altered head differentials and changed the sources of discharge from local, intermediate, and deep flow systems over time. Extant plant communities are consistent with the groundwater dependence of these wetlands.
    • Leveraging a Landscape-Level Monitoring and Assessment Program for Developing Resilient Shorelines throughout the Laurentian Great Lakes

      Wilcox, Douglas A.; Uzarski, Donald G.; Brady, Valerie J.; Cooper, Matthew J.; Albert, Dennis A.; et. al., see listing below (Wetlands, 2019)
      Traditionally, ecosystem monitoring, conservation, and restoration have been conducted in a piecemeal manner at the local scale without regional landscape context. However, scientifically driven conservation and restoration decisions benefit greatly when they are based on regionally determined benchmarks and goals. Unfortunately, required data sets rarely exist for regionally important ecosystems. Because of early recognition of the extreme ecological importance of Laurentian Great Lakes coastal wetlands, and the extensive degradation that had already occurred, significant investments in coastal wetland research, protection, and restoration have been made in recent decades and continue today. Continued and refined assessment of wetland condition and trends, and the evaluation of restoration practices are all essential to ensuring the success of these investments. To provide wetland managers and decision makers throughout the Laurentian Great Lakes basin with the optimal tools and data needed to make scientifically-based decisions, our regional team of Great Lakes wetland scientists developed standardized methods and indicators used for assessing wetland condition. Froma landscape perspective, at the LaurentianGreat Lakes ecosystemscale, we established a stratified random-site-selection process to monitor birds, anurans, fish, macroinvertebrates, vegetation, and physicochemical conditions of coastal wetlands in the US and Canada. Monitoring of approximately 200 wetlands per year began in 2011 as the Great Lakes CoastalWetlandMonitoring Program. In this paper, we describe the development, delivery, and expected results of this ongoing international, multi-disciplinary, multi-stakeholder, landscape-scale monitoring programas a case example of successful application of landscape conservation design.
    • Selected Ecological Characteristics of Scirpus Cyperinus and Its Role as an Invader of Disturbed Wetlands

      Wilcox, Douglas A.; Pavlovic, Noel B.; Mueggler, Michelle L. (Wetlands, 1985)
      Scirpus Cyperinus (woolgrass) is a common invader of disturbed wetlands where soils have been exposed by water level reductions or vegetative cover has been reduced by various means. Its usual habitats include ditches, wet meadows, marshes and low, muddy grounds in the eastern United States and Canada. This study documents the encroachment of a woolgrass community onto well-decomposed organic soils exposed when long-term, industrial-related flooding of a wetland was terminated. Data were collected on spatial and temporal distribution patterns, species replacement, seed dispersal and growth, and environmental conditions. The ecological characteristics that enable Scirpus Cyperinus to be an effective colonizer were concluded to be: the vast number of seeds produced, effective dispersal of seeds, the clinging ability of seeds with long bristles, viability of the seeds stored in sediments, exclusion of other plants by a dense, perennial tussock growth form, and a fairly wide range of tolerance to environmental conditions.
    • Teaching Groundwater Hydrology in a Wetland Ecology Class

      Wilcox, Douglas A. (Wetland Science and Practice, 2020-01)
      I taught Wetland Ecology 25 times: 15 as an Adjunct Associate Professor at the University of Michigan and UM-Dearborn while I worked at the USGS-Great Lakes Science Center in Ann Arbor and 10 as the Empire Innovation Professor of Wetland Science at SUNY--The College at Brockport in my native western New York State. During the first year in giving the wetland hydrology lectures in Michigan, founded on water budgets, I realized that non-hydrology students had great difficulty understanding groundwater. They can see surface water and precipitation and likely learned about evapotranspiration in a plant ecology course. However, groundwater is an unseen mystery, and typical text material is too complicated to unravel that mystery. Fortunately, about that time, my friend, the late Tom Winter, handed me the new USGS Circular 1139 – Ground Water and Surface Water: a Single Resource (Winter et al. 1998), and I quickly realized that I had a solution.