Recent Submissions

  • 'It’s Not a Gift When It Comes with Price’: A Qualitative Study of Transactional Sex between UN Peacekeepers and Haitian Citizens

    Kolbe, Athena R.; The College at Brockport (1/1/2015)
    Sexual exploitation of civilians by peacekeepers undermines the fragile stability established in post-conflict settings. Despite this, it continues to be an ongoing problem for peacekeeping missions worldwide. Efforts to respond to sexual exploitation and abuse (SEA) have focused on the establishment of rules prohibiting this behavior, condom distribution, and the training of peacekeepers before and during deployment. In an effort to further our understanding of the dynamics that surround SEA by peacekeepers, 231 Haitian citizens who have engaged in transactional sex with peacekeepers were interviewed about their opinions and experiences. Themes which emerged from these interviews included the triggering events or situations which facilitated engagement in transactional sex, the individual’s understandings of their own experiences in relationship to cultural and social factors, sex as a strategy for filling unmet economic needs, and the differences between the relationships with peacekeepers and normal romantic relationships. Experiences with condom use, pregnancy, abuse, and barriers to reporting assault and harassment were also discussed.
  • A Vacation Within a Vacation: Children's Day Programs and Parental Satisfaction

    Agate, Joel; Agate, Sarah; Birchler, Kathrin; Southern Illinois University Carbondale; The College at Brockport (1/1/2015)
    Family vacations are an important part of life for many families and may lead to beneficial outcomes for family members. Potential negative aspects of family vacations have also been identified, including the stress of increased time together. Many accommodation providers have developed children't day programs to help people negotiate these constraints. The purpose of this study was to explore how children's participation in day programs influenced the parents' experience on vacation. An open-ended questionnaire was e-mailed to parents whose children attended a children's program while on family vacations and a qualitative analysis was performed. The overall theme that emerged during this study is that parents' stressful experience during family vacations can be moderated by participation in children's programs. Findings indicated that parents were very satisfied with the programs, children's participation in such programs provided opportunity for parental time alone, parents experience positive emotions while their children were at the program, and the children's program served as an affordance that helped parents negotiate constraints they experienced during the family vacation. Future research needs to further explore these findings to better understand how to help commercial accommodation providers better serve families.
  • The Meaning of Health in the Era of Valuebased Care

    Balog, Joseph Eugene; The College at Brockport (2/21/2017)
    In an era of value-based care, the practice of medicine and other health professions have been drawn to subjective, comprehensive and multidimensional views of health such as the World Health Organization (WHO) concept that defines health as a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. This paper, through a philosophical analysis, demonstrates that health is not multidimensional and is a natural phenomenon. A philosophical discussion contends that health must realistically and logically reside in the person and this requires it to be a physical state. This paper also illustrates that, in the popular language of health, many times, health professionals: (1) inappropriately view health as a subjective human construct as opposed to viewing health as an objective phenomena, (2) confuse what is desired and valued as a good life with what is good health, and (3) fail to recognize the vital distinction between what affects health and what is health. A meaning of health is offered through several examples and arguments that demonstrate why health is a state of physical well-being or physical fitness that is defined by how well the body is functioning in accordance with its natural design and how well this natural design affords individuals the ability to achieve essential functional objectives of humans on the biological and person level.
  • 05. Uncovering the Issues

    Logel, Tracy; The College at Brockport (4/1/1980)
    The goal in this chapter is to uncover the issues as viewed by the three student teams. First is a synopsis of the papers in the order they were presented at the competition in Brockport. Each is outlined in terms of stated values, problems and causes, and recommended solutions. A few of the questions and answers asked after the presentation are included at the end of each synopsis. An analysis of the similarities and differences among the team approaches to the problem is presented. The chapter concluded with some unanswered questions and paradoxes that arise in the long term phase of health care. The complete team answers may be found in the Appendix to this monograph .
  • 04. Introduction

    Downey, Edward H.; Guhde, Robert; The College at Brockport (4/1/1980)
    The Public Management Simulation (PMS) was conceived as a unique way to combine teaching and research in, public administration. The ideal of combining teaching and research all too often finds its expression as a classroom lecture on somebody's pet study or as the lonely process of grinding out a dissertation or thesis. While both of these methods have undeniable merit, they tend to lack the vitality and challenge that comes from working with a group of intelligent and informed people to understand complex social phenomenon. PMS provides an alternative that utilizes the students as policy researchers with the added stimulus of an adversary setting. In this instance the PMS was used to develop alternatives for government funding of Long Term Care.
  • 06. Standards For Long Term Care Facilities: The Need For Reform

    Boetcher, Glenn; Price, Sharon; The College at Brockport (4/1/1980)
    Standards of care are the foundation of the long-term care industry. Without a national effort to improve the quality of life of those confined to LTC facilities, our elderly can be guaranteed of poor or inappropriate care. Expenditures for Medicaid dollars must become accountable to that level of government responsible for allocating those dollars. Our nation can no longer tolerate the inflationary spiral of an open ended system, that is not accountable for its deeds or actions.
  • 02. Front Matter - Who Will Care For Me in 2020?

    Downey, Edward H.; Guhde, Robert; The College at Brockport (4/10/1980)
    In the Summer of 1979 Profs. Robert Guhde and Ed Downey of the Department of Public Administration at the College at Brockport offered a special seminar to consider ways to deal with rising health care costs with a focus on long term care. The seminar called Public Management Simulation included a competition among MPA students from Brockport, Syracuse University, and SUNY Albany to see who could come up with the best solutions. The seminar and competition were funded by a grant to the Department of Public Administration from the 1979 Title IX Higher Education Act. Papers from the students were edited and published as a book entitled: Who Will Take Care of Me in 2020? A Speculative Look at Government-Funded Long Term Care. Prof. Guhde submitted the paper written by the Brockport students (Laura Volk, Jeanne B. Hutchins, and Jean S. Doremus) to the Public Administration Review, where it won the prestigious Garvey Award and was published in the Sep. – Oct. 1980 edition of the journal. This work is of interest today because it chronicles earlier attempts to deal with rising health care costs and provides insight into some of the policy and administrative remedies under current discussion.
  • 03. Table of Contents - Who Will Care For Me in 2020?

    Downey, Edward H.; The College at Brockport (4/1/1980)
  • 09. Federalizing the Administration of Medicaid

    Caccamise, Sandra; The College at Brockport (4/1/1980)
    This chapter presents an argument for the federal domination of Medicaid Administration. Unlike the other chapters, this one includes no counterpoint, no position paper exploring state control of Medicaid Administration due to one participant's inability to sufficiently research the area. While we consider the omission a serious one, there are a few mitigating circumstances. First, the state control perspective is essentially an argument for the status quo which suggests that little which is fresh or innovative would be included. Second, the system of state control for large federally-funded programs that provide local services has been extant in this country for the past decade. Two notable examples, the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) and Community Development Block Grants, have long provided us with state control management models.
  • 07. Appropriate Levels of Care

    Vogel, Robert R.; Simpson, Judith; The College at Brockport (4/1/1980)
    Consumers of long-term care are primarily the elderly, whose numbers are approaching 25 million; they comprise almost eleven percent of this nation's population.1 They experience higher incidents of chronic disease and long term illness, with the most serious health care problems occurring in those over 75.2 These health care problems are usually costly because of the need for hospital and nursing home care, as well as other forms of intervention, and the unavailability of suitable, less costly alternatives, particularly in rural areas. In addition, these problems are compounded by lack of mobility, poor nutrition, lack of primary care and other elements often related to limited financial resources.
  • 08. The Financing of Long Term Care

    O'Connor, Kevin; Volpe, Fred J.; The College at Brockport (4/1/1980)
    Two arguments, one for full Federal funding and one for a continuance of state - Federal funding of long term care, are made in this chapter. Both arguments have one important area of agreement; they both set forth cost containment as a primary objective of any funding scheme. Furthermore, both suggest that this can best be achieved through some form of prospective reimbursement. Under the present system of retrospective reimbursement Medicaid pays, without limit, for all eligible services provided. This, many believe, encourages the provision of unnecessary services which results in an unnatural escalation of costs. Prospective reimbursement simply means forecasting service needs for some future period (usually one year) and then determining how much will be paid for those services. This would establish a limit or "cap" on Medicaid expenditures which would presumably have the effect of containing run-away costs.
  • 10. Ethics: The Quality of Life

    Gonzalez, Litz; Palokoff, Kathy; The College at Brockport (4/1/1980)
    The quality of life for the elderly is something we all wish to improve; yet, there is wide disagreement on how this is to be done. In this chapter, the contributing authors address themselves to this question, and although they differ as to the means, there is an implied consensus on the end sought. Broadly speaking, the authors indicate that a quality life is one in which the individual considers himself and is considered by others to have not only a past but a meaningful future over which he has control. Furthermore, it is a life in which the individual is able to retain, wherever applicable and whenever possible, his connection to the activities of the family, the community and the work force. However agreement on goals does not extend to agreement on strategy. This chapter presents two views, two possibilities for an improved system of long term care for the elderly. First, there is an examination of long term care delivery under federal control and then a consideration of delivery under a state controlled system.
  • 01. Who Will Take Care of Me in 2020? (Full text)

    Downey, Edward H.; Guhde, Robert; The College at Brockport (4/10/1980)
    In the Summer of 1979 Profs. Robert Guhde and Ed Downey of the Department of Public Administration at the College at Brockport offered a special seminar to consider ways to deal with rising health care costs with a focus on long term care. The seminar called Public Management Simulation included a competition among MPA students from Brockport, Syracuse University, and SUNY Albany to see who could come up with the best solutions. The seminar and competition were funded by a grant to the Department of Public Administration from the 1979 Title IX Higher Education Act. Papers from the students were edited and published as a book entitled: Who Will Take Care of Me in 2020? A Speculative Look at Government-Funded Long Term Care. Prof. Guhde submitted the paper written by the Brockport students (Laura Volk, Jeanne B. Hutchins, and Jean S. Doremus) to the Public Administration Review, where it won the prestigious Garvey Award and was published in the Sep. – Oct. 1980 edition of the journal. This work is of interest today because it chronicles earlier attempts to deal with rising health care costs and provides insight into some of the policy and administrative remedies under current discussion.
  • 12. Medicaid Reimbursement for Long Term Care: Problems and Options

    Bozeman, Barry; Hug, Rick; Schryba, Paul; Syracuse University (4/1/1980)
    We shall attempt in this paper to present some of the more important problems associated with Medicaid reimbursement for long term care (LTC) and pose some strategies for attacking those problems. Since political values are important determinants of the way public policy problems are viewed, we shall begin our analysis by describing the values that have shaped the problem for us .
  • 11. Concluding Comments

    Downey, Edward H.; Guhde, Robert; The College at Brockport (4/1/1980)
    The time to consider our futures, who will care for us when we are the sick and the aged, is now! Today, the answer to that question is often the skilled nursing facility, the most expensive way for society to bundle off the chronic health problems associated with aging. As the elderly increase as a portion of the population, the increase in payments for LTC will cause a massive redistribution of wealth, far outstripping inheritance taxes and other mechanisms for transferring wealth from one generation to another. It will eat away at our national savings and the domino effect it generates may affect the housing industry, industrial investments and other forms of industry reliant upon a ready supply of capital.
  • 13. Long Term Care: Medicaid Reimbursement Does High Cost Yield High Quality?

    Balk, Walter; Muscarella, Maria; Rosenthal, Jean; Sanders, Garrett; Albany State University (4/1/1980)
    This paper suggests a new focus for government policy in the providing of Medicaid services. To put it simply, the government needs to provide incentives (and sanctions) that make the business of caring for the elderly profitable to proprietary nursing home. Although "profit" and "quality care" are strange bedfellows, the government must adapt the Medicaid system to keeping them close (i.e., maintaining a positive relationship between profit and quality care) .
  • 14. The Long Term Care Medicaid Reimbursement Problem

    Ekstrom, Carl; Doremus, Jean S.; Hutchins, Jeanne B.; Volk, Laura B.; The College at Brockport (4/1/1980)
    A growing public concern about the high cost of Medicaid reimbursement for Long Term Care (LTC) has created the need for careful analysis of the causes & consequences of past public policies and to develop strategies that provide solutions to identified problems. Guiding the team through the assigned simulation, that reflects a serious public concern, were our stated political values serving to shape our policy proposals. Using a systems approach, we analyzed current public policy and explored alternatives. We considered the forces that operate in the environment producing demands on the political system, pressing for allocation of resources toward desired objectives. An integral part of the medical inflation picture, Medicaid reimbursement costs reflect the system's failure to create a cost-effective balance between supply and demand, government and the private sector, quality and price, provider and consumer, flexibility and control.
  • Case Difficulty of Simulation Software

    Desrochers, Marcie N.; Crone-Todd, Darlene E.; Conheady, Tim J.; Salem State College; The College at Brockport (1/1/2006)
    Preliminary results concerning difficulty levels of client cases in "Simulations in Developmental Disabilities: SIDD" are presented. Participants conducted assessments to identify causes of problem behavior and propose treatments for 10 clients. Although SIDD may teach clinical decision-making skills, providing numerous cases did not guarantee learning for all participants. Exposure to a difficult case early in instruction was associated with better overall performance by participants. Additionally, treatment performance best indicated perceived difficulty level. Further experimental research comparing order of difficulty is recommended.
  • An Evaluation of Simulations in Developmental Disabilities (SIDD) Instructional Software that Provides Practice in Behavioral Assessment and Treatment Decisions

    Desrochers, Marcie N.; Clemmons, Tiffany; Grady, Mary; Justice, Brandi; The College at Brockport (1/1/2000)
    Simulations in Developmental Disabilities (SIDD) is a multimedia computer program designed to provide undergraduate psychology students with practice in making assessment and treatment decisions. Eighteen undergraduate psychology students participated in an experiment to test the instructional effectiveness of SIDD. Post-test scores were significantly higher in the experimental group who received training with SIDD than in a control group who did not receive training. The students also rated the software positively. Future strategies to further evaluate the software are discussed.
  • Performance Factors in Associative Learning: Assessment of the Sometimes Competing Retrieval Model

    Witnauer, James E.; Wojick, Brittany M.; Polack, Cody W.; Miller, Ralph R.; State University of New York at Binghamton; The College at Brockport (1/1/2012)
    Previous simulations revealed that the sometimes competing retrieval model (SOCR; Stout & Miller, 2007), which assumes local error reduction, can explain many cue interaction phenomena that elude traditional associative theories based on total error reduction. Here we applied SOCR to a new set of Pavlovian phenomena. Simulations used a single set of fixed parameters to simulate each basic effect (e.g., blocking) and, for specific experiments using different procedures, used fitted parameters discovered through hillclimbing. In Simulation 1, SOCR was successfully applied to basic acquisition, including the ‘overtraining effect,’ which is context dependent. In Simulation 2, we applied SOCR to basic extinction and renewal. SOCR anticipated these effects with both fixed parameters and best fitting parameters, although the renewal effects were weaker than those observed in some experiments. In Simulation 3a, feature negative training was simulated, including the often observed transition from second-order conditioning to conditioned inhibition. In Simulation 3b, SOCR predicted the observation that conditioned inhibition after feature-negative and differential conditioning depends on intertrial interval. In Simulation 3c, SOCR successfully predicted failure of conditioned inhibition to extinguish with presentations of the inhibitor alone under most circumstances. In Simulation 4, cue competition, including blocking (4a), recovery from relative validity (4b), and unblocking (4c), were simulated. In Simulation 5, SOCR correctly predicted that inhibitors gain more behavioral control than excitors when they are trained in compound. Simulation 6 demonstrated that SOCR explains the slower acquisition observed following CS-weak shock pairings.

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