• Water Chestnut: Field Observations, Competition, and Seed Germination and Viability in Lake Ontario Coastal Wetlands

      Wilcox, Douglas A.; Des Jardin, Kathryn; The College at Brockport (2015-04-27)
      Water chestnut (Trapa natans L.) has recently invaded an increasing number of sites in New York State, particularly Lake Ontario coastal wetlands. It can severely inhibit ecosystem functioning and can be costly to control. To understand this exotic invasive plant more thoroughly, field observations and experiments were performed. The field observations were made in Lake Ontario coastal wetlands during the 2014 growing season. Percent coverage, time of flowering, time of seed production, and co-occurring species were noted. A competition experiment was performed using water chestnut and white water lily (Nymphaea odorata Aiton). They were planted together and in monocultures of differing densities. A greenhouse germination experiment in aquaria was conducted on water chestnut seeds using light and temperature as treatments, and seed-viability was examined to assess development stage and cold-stratification requirements. Water lily was the better competitor of the two, but water chestnut had very high germination success. Water chestnut germination does not seem to be inhibited by temperature or by exposure to shade. The seeds do, however, need to be mature and cold-stratified (subjected to a period of cold temperatures for dormancy) to germinate. Water chestnut’s tolerance to temperature, shade, and water depth has serious implications for Great Lakes wetlands if not controlled. There are a few control methods that could prove to be useful, but more research is needed before they are used in field settings. Early detection and manually pulling small patches of plants is a viable option at present.
    • Water Circulation in Lake Ontario

      Simons, T. J.; Murthy, C. R.; Campbell, J. E. (1985-01-01)
      Data from a high resolution array of self-recording current meters in a north-south cross section of Lake Ontario are presented. The measurements cover a 140-day period from 4 November 1982 to 23 March 1983. Nearshore current fluctuations are large and generally coherent with wind variations while currents in deep water tend to flow in the opposite direction and are quite uniform in the vertical. Time-averaged currents show a pronounced maximum of eastward flow along the south shore balanced by westward flow in the central part of the cross section, while the net transport near the northern shore tends to vanish. The total transport in the belt of eastward flow is ten times larger than the hydraulic transport associated with the Niagara-St. Lawrence flow, thus suggesting a recirculation of 90% of the river inflow. Corroboration of the south shore current measurements is provided by satellite-tracked drogues.
    • Water Quality Analysis of Black Creek Watershed: Identification of Point and Nonpoint Sources of Pollution and Loading Simulation Using the SWAT Model

      Winslow, Mellissa Jayne; The College at Brockport (2012-02-01)
      Nearshore Lake Ontario suffers from several beneficial use impairments due to water quality issues from the Genesee River and its contributing tributaries. Segments of Black Creek located in the Lower Genesee River basin are listed as impacted on the New York State 303(d) list because of excess sediment, nutrient, and bacteria losses. Sources of these pollutants from the Black Creek watershed include improperly managed cropland and pastures, dairy manure application, and effluent discharges from wastewater treatment plants. An assessment of the Black Creek watershed was undertaken to determine the nutrient and sediment contribution of Black Creek to the Genesee River and to determine sources of nutrients and sediment loss geospatially within the watershed. To accomplish this task, a multifaceted, integrated approach was taken by combining stream monitoring, segment analysis, and hydrologic modeling [Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT)]. The annual losses (June 2010 through May 2011) of total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN), and total coliform bacteria from the Black Creek watershed were 16.5 MT/yr, 349.4 MT/yr, and 7.0E15 CFU/yr, respectively, where most of the losses occurred in the upper portion of the watershed. Impacted tributaries (Bigelow Creek and Spring Creek) had the highest areal loads of nutrients and bacteria and were a focus for remediation. More than 70% of the TP load was found to be due to anthropogenic sources including but not limited to manure applications from Confined Animal Feeding operations, the Bergen wastewater treatment plant, and nonpoint agricultural practices throughout the watershed. Sediment loss, on the other hand, was the highest in the downstream reaches of Black Creek where 73% of the total sediment load (8,360.6 MT/yr) occurs due to excessive flooding and stream bank erosion during events. These findings were used to calibrate a SWAT model for Black Creek that simulated the impact of implementing several Best Management Practices (BMPs) to reduce phosphorus and sediment loads. Individual BMPs reduced TP loads from Black Creek at Lower BC anywhere from 0 to 28% and sediment 0 to 84%. A holistic approach to watershed remediation using a combination of several effective BMPs focusing on major contributors of phosphorus and sediment reduced TP 28% and total suspended solids (TSS) 73%. This remedial action plan, if implemented, can reach a water quality target of 65 ?g P/L proposed by the Department of Environmental Conservation, which would reduce the annual TP concentration from 79.6 ?g P/L to 38.3 ?g P/L. This scenario can be used to determine an appropriate Total Maximum Daily Load for Black Creek that will help attain the ultimate goal of reducing the impairments of nearshore Lake Ontario.
    • Water Quality Assessment of Irondequoit Creek using Benthic Macroinvertebrates

      Bailey-Billhardt, Nichelle; The College at Brockport (2002-01-01)
      The Rochester Embayment of Lake Ontario is one the 43 Great Lakes' Areas of Concern designated by the Environmental Protection Agency (Monroe County 1993). As part of a Remedial Action Plan (RAP), degradation ofbenthos was one of the 14 use impairments identified for the Rochester Embayment (Monroe County 1993). Stage II of the RAP identified stream health monitoring as a method of identifying existing and future conditions of the Embayment and its tributaries, including Irondequoit Creek. There is much debate in the "world" of stream health biomonitoring using aquatic macro invertebrates regarding methods of collection, sample size and taxonomic resolution required to obtain accurate stream health assessments. My study compared stream health at three locations in Irondequoit Creek (upstream, midstream and downstream) and in three habitats (gravel, mud and vegetation) and evaluated methods of sampling macro invertebrates and analyzing stream health used by the Stream Biomonitoring Unit ofthe New York State Department ofEnvironmental Conservation (Bode et al. 1996). There were few differences between upstream (primarily agricultural or rural land use) and midstream (primarily agricultural and suburban l~d use) communities, but stream health decreased from upstream to downstream (primarily .urban/suburban land use). As expected, community differences were found across habitats (gravel, vegetation, mud) at the same sampling locations. Fixed 100 count · methods were compared with entire macro invertebrate samples in the gravel habitat at the midstream location (Powder Mill Park, Rochester, NY). Although metric values for random and haphazard samples of 100 organisms differed from values for whole samples, stream health assessments did not differ.
    • Water Quality at the Inlet to the St. Lawrence River, 1977 to 1983

      Sylvestre, A.; Kuntz, K. W.; Warry, N. D. (1987-01-01)
      Daily nutrients analyses and weekly major ions and trace metals analyses have been performed since 1977 on water samples collected in the south channel of the St. Lawrence River at Wolfe Island. This report presents the results of the first seven years of this program. Data analyses showed that pH and total phosphorus were underestimated. Calcium carbonate precipitation is suspected to occur almost every year in August or September. Most of the major ions have decreased, especially chloride and sodium. All trace metal data were below the objectives of the International Joint Commission in 90% of the cases or more. The Wolfe Island station was found to be a good tool for following the general trend of the main water quality parameters. More attention, however, should be focused on the problems of shipping delays and containers.
    • Water Quality Criteria And Standards

      1985-01-01
      Bacterial Water Quality and Shellfish Harvesting (p. 447) Evaluation of Nonoint Source Impacts on Water Quality of Forest Practices in Idaho: Relation to Water Quality (p. 455) Illinois Agricultural Soil Erosion Control Standards: A Useful Tool for Nonpoint Source Pollution Control (p. 459) Ground Water Quality Standards (p. 464)
    • Water Quality Monitoring on Cratsley Gully and Honeoye Inlet, Part of the Honeoye Lake Watershed

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Lewis, Theodore W.; White, Daniel J.; The College at Brockport (2003-06-01)
      The presence of soluble, sedimentary rocks in the watershed of the Finger Lakes determines the chemical regimes comprising the lakes (Schaffner and Oglesby 1978). As the rest of the Finger Lakes, Honeoye Lake has an abundance of calcium and bicarbonate ions (Schaffner and Oglesby 1978). Nitrate + nitrite values for Honeoye Lake in 1993 (mean = 0.02 mg/L) were significantly lower (P< 0.02) than levels from 1973 (mean = 0.07 mg/L) (Crego 1994). In 1973, Honeoye Lake had the highest total phosphorus (TP) concentration of the eight Finger Lakes examined (21.7 ?g/L, August) (Schaffner and Oglesby 1978). However, there were no significant differences in total phosphorus and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentrations from 1973 to 1993 (Crego 1984). During the summer, Honeoye Lake’s deepest waters are not completely oxygenated and 5 experience algal blooms that impair water quality (NYSDEC Region 8). Eelgrass, pondweed, Eurasian milfoil, and water stargrass are the predominant rooted aquatic plant species that are found in near shore areas out to a depth of approximately 15 feet (~5m) (NYSDEC Region 8). The large macrophyte community (weeds) and the reoccurring blooms of algae on the lake are in part the driving force of this study. Excess nutrients, especially phosphorus, can be a major cause of an over abundance of macrophytes and algae. One source of nutrients to a lake is losses from watershed. The goal of this study was to document the level of nutrient and soil loss from the watershed into Honeoye Lake.
    • Water Quality of Cayuga Lake 1991-1998

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Ward, Roger W.; Lewis, Theodore W.; The College at Brockport (1999-08-01)
      Cayuga and Seneca Lakes represent a major water resource of central New York State of considerable economic, recreational and aesthetic value. Maintenance of water quality, prevention of further deterioration of water quality and restoration of a lake’s health are major concerns of the public. Monitoring the water quality of Cayuga Lake has continued periodically from the early 1900's to the present. This report reviews data collected by the Seneca County Soil and Water Conservation District during the 1991- 1998 period from the north end of Cayuga Lake. The water quality data presented are the result of a new strategy to continually monitor Cayuga Lake. Monitoring, as performed, provides the important function of documenting gradual improvements that may result from restoration efforts and remedial action plans. Similarly, monitoring provides evidence of deterioration of water quality and thus the opportunity for a management response and notification of the public of such changes. By considering nutrient and chlorophyll a concentrations and water clarity measurements, we review the current data from Cayuga Lake using the previous historical measurements of the lake.
    • Water Quality Of Conesus Lake, 1985-1986

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Forest, Herman; SUNY Geneseo; The College at Brockport (1986-04-01)
      An intensive study of Conesus Lake and its tributaries was undertaken between April 1985 and December 1986 with the following general objectives: (1) To evaluate the water quality of Conesus Lake, the source of drinking water for the Town of Livonia and the Villages of Geneseo and Avon; (2) To identify, if possible, water of lower turbidity within the lake; (3) To identify, if possible, causes of higher turbidity in raw water intakes of the Livonia and Geneseo water treatment plants; (4) To evaluate what effect, if any, the construction of a perimeter sewer has had on nutrient levels within the lake; i.e. eutrophication; (5) To identify any sources of pollution within the watershed; and (6) To provide a functional assessment of the ecological components studied and to evaluate their significance in relation to the drinking water supply. This is the final report. A Summary of Results and Recommendations and Alternatives follow directly. Detailed discussion of results may be found in the Results and Discussion section. Quarterly data reports were presented to the Health Departments (State and County) and to the municipalities (Livonia, Avon, Geneseo) on three previous occasions.
    • Water Quality of Seneca Lake 1991-1998

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Ward, Roger W.; Lewis, Theodore W.; The College at Brockport (1999-08-01)
      The water quality of Seneca Lake has been studied since the early 1900's when secchi disk readings were first taken. At that time, the trophic state of Seneca Lake was classified as oligotrophic; that is, nutrient concentrations and primary production were low and transparency high. Water clarity remained approximately the same up through the early 1930s. In general, by the late 1970s water clarity had decreased, indicating the lake’s trophic status was mesotrophic. Total phosphorus concentrations from the 1970s were into the mesotrophic range. Chlolophyll-a concentrations also illustrate the trend toward more productive waters in Seneca Lake in the early to mid 1970s. Similarly in the early 1970s, the transparency of Seneca Lake had decreased to within the eutrophic range. These low transparency values were observed into the early 1990s. Based on the sampling done by the Seneca County Soil and Water Conservation District in the 1990s, an improvement in water quality of Seneca Lake is suggested – at least at the north end where the samples were taken. Summer total phosphorus levels have decreased and perhaps as a result, phytoplankton levels have decreased slightly as indicated by the decrease in chlorophyll levels. However, it should be noted that the increase in transparency and the decrease in phytoplankton levels may well be the result of the high filtering capacity of the invading zebra mussels into Seneca Lake. The monitoring data do not provide an answer to this question. The trophic status of Seneca Lake is currently best described as oligotrophic. In conclusion, water quality of Seneca Lake appears to have improved since the early 1970s and within the 1991-1998 period of monitoring by the Seneca County Soil and Water Conservation District.
    • Water Quality of the North End of Cayuga Lake: 1991-2006

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Lewis, Theodore W.; White, Daniel J.; Makarewicz, Joseph C.; White, Daniel J.; Lewis, Theodore W.; The College at Brockport (2007-08-01)
      The Seneca County Soil and Water Conservation District (SCSWCD) has collected limnological data on the waters of the northern end of Cayuga Lake since 1991. This report updates the 1999 report (Makarewicz et al. 1999) with data taken by the SCSWCD from 1999 to 2006. The purpose of monitoring the northern portion of Cayuga Lake was to determine the health of the Cayuga Lake ecosystem and to determine if any temporal trends existed in Cayuga Lake water quality. The water quality of Cayuga Lake has been studied since the early 1900s when secchi disk readings were first taken. At that time, the trophic state of Cayuga Lake was classified as oligotrophic; that is, nutrient concentrations and primary production were low and transparency high. Water clarity remained approximately the same up through the early 1930s. By the late 1950s, water clarity had decreased enough to classify Cayuga Lake as mesotrophic. Total phosphorus concentrations from the 1960s were well within the mesotrophic range and remained so until the late 1960s. Chl-a concentration also illustrated the trend toward more productive waters in Cayuga Lake in the mid 1960s through the 1970s. By the late 1970s, the transparency of Cayuga Lake had decreased to a nearly eutrophic value. In fact, in the early 1970s, some ranked Cayuga Lake as being the most eutrophic of the Finger Lakes of upstate New York. In a 2001 report, Callinan (2001) suggested an improvement in trophic state of Cayuga Lake by characterizing the main portion of Cayuga Lake borderline between oligotrophic and mesotrophic. Based on the sampling done by the Seneca County Soil and Water Conservation District from 1991 to 2006, an improvement in water quality of Cayuga Lake is suggested – at least at the north end where the samples were taken. Summer total phosphorus levels have significantly decreased and transparency of the northern end of the lake has significantly increased. Ambient chlorophyll levels were directly related to total phosphorus; that is chlorophyll, a measure of phytoplankton in the lake, was a function of phosphorus concentrations. As in the 1991-1998 period, the current (1999- 2006) trophic status of Cayuga Lake is currently best described as mesotrophic. In conclusion, water quality of Cayuga Lake appears to have improved since the early 1970s and also within the 1991-2006 period of monitoring by the Seneca County Soil and Water Conservation District.
    • Water Quality of the North End of Seneca Lake: 1991-2006

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Lewis, Theodore W.; White, Daniel J.; The College at Brockport (2007-08-01)
      The Seneca County Soil and Water Conservation District (SCSWCD) has collected limnological data on the waters of the northern end of Seneca Lake since 1991. This report updates the 1999 report (Makarewicz et al. 1999) with data taken by the SCSWCD from 1999 to 2006. The purpose of monitoring the northern portion of Seneca Lake was to determine the health of the Seneca Lake ecosystem and to determine if any temporal trends existed in Seneca Lake water quality. The water quality of Seneca Lake has been studied since the early 1900s when secchi disk readings were first taken. At that time, the trophic state of Seneca Lake was classified as oligotrophic; that is, nutrient concentrations and primary production were low and transparency high. Water clarity remained approximately the same up through the early 1930s. By the late 1970s, water clarity generally decreased, indicating that the lake’s trophic status was mesotrophic. Total phosphorus concentrations from the 1970s were into the mesotrophic range. Chlorophyll-a concentration also illustrated the trend toward more productive waters in Seneca Lake in the early to mid 1970s. Similarly, in the early 1970s, the transparency of Seneca Lake had decreased to within the eutrophic range. These low transparency values were observed into the early 1990s. Based on the sampling done by the Seneca County Soil and Water Conservation District from 1991 through 2006, an improvement in water quality of Seneca Lake is suggested – at least at the north end where the samples were taken. The trophic status of Seneca Lake is currently best described as oligotrophic. In conclusion, water quality of Seneca Lake appears to have improved since the early 1970s. However, the increase in total phosphorus levels from 2003 to 2005 represents an increase of some concern as they represent the highest values in the last 14 years.
    • Water Quality Study of the Finger Lakes: Part A: Synoptic Water Quality Investigation

      Callinan, Clifford W.; New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (2001-07-01)
      The purpose of the current study is to conduct such comparative investigations and to assess water quality conditions and trends within the Finger Lakes. The study is composed of two distinct components, Synoptic Water Quality Investigation and Sediment Core Investigation. The Synoptic Water Quality Investigation is designed to assess current limnological conditions, and to evaluate water quality trends within this important set of lakes. This portion of the Study was initiated in 1996 and is continuing at present. The Sediment Core Investigation is designed to assess chemical trends within the Finger Lakes over time. This portion of the Study is designed as a one-time effort, and sample collection occurred between 1997 and 1998.
    • Water Quality Study of the Finger Lakes: Part B: Sediment Core Investigation

      Callinan, Clifford W.; New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (2001-07-01)
      The purpose of the Sediment Core Investigation is to systematically assess chemical patterns within the Finger Lakes over time. Specific goals of the Study are as follows: 1. Assess spatial variations in chemical patterns between the Finger Lakes, 2. Assess temporal patterns of chemical inputs within each lake, 3. Evaluate chemical levels with respect to sediment quality assessment values, 4. Determine sediment accumulation rates. A second, related study, termed the Synoptic Water Quality Investigation, involves long term synoptic water quality monitoring on each of the lakes and is discussed above (see Part A)
    • Water Quality/Use Findings Document

      1995-12-01
      The purpose of this document is to present as much useful information as is available on the water quality and usage of the four ponds to assist in· community decision-making and action. The document also summarizes the concerns and suggestions made at the July 1993 and January 1994 public forums and suggests ways in which people can achieve results. Appendix F offers a list of resource persons and how to contact them. It is hoped that this document will be used by YOU and shared with others so that the communities who use these precious resources will be able to work together for solutions and improvements.
    • Water Resources of Monroe County, New York, Water Years 1994-96, with Emphasis on Water Quality in the Irondequoit Creek Basin

      Sherwood, Donald A.; U.S. Geological Survey (2001-01-01)
      Irondequoit Creek drains 169 square miles in the eastern part of Monroe County. Nutrients transported by Irondequoit Creek to Irondequoit Bay on Lake Ontario have contributed to the eutrophication of the Bay. Sewage-treatmentplant effluent, a major source of nutrients to the creek and its tributaries, was eliminated from the basin in 1979 by diversion to a regional wastewater-treatment facility, but sediment and contaminants from nonpoint sources continue to enter the creek and Irondequoit Bay. This report analyzes data from five surfacewater- monitoring sites in the Irondequoit Creek basin—Irondequoit Creek at Railroad Mills, East Branch Allen Creek at Pittsford, Allen Creek near Rochester, Irondequoit Creek at Blossom Road, and Irondequoit Creek at Empire Boulevard. It is the third in a series of reports that present interpretive analyses of the hydrologic data collected in Monroe County since 1984. Also included are data from a site on Northrup Creek, which drains a 23.5-square-mile basin west of the Genesee River in western Monroe County, to provide information on surface-water quality in a stream west of the Genesee River and on loads of nutrients delivered to Long Pond, a small eutrophic embayment of Lake Ontario, and data from the Genesee River for comparison of historical water-quality conditions with 1994-96 conditions. Water-level and water-quality data from nine observation wells in Ellison Park, and atmospheric-deposition data from Mendon Ponds, also are included. Average annual yields of chemical constituents from atmospheric deposition for 1994-96 were generally similar to those for the previous 10 years (1984-93), except for dissolved sodium, dissolved potassium, total phosphorus, and orthophosphate, which ranged from 42 percent (dissolved sodium) to 275 percent (dissolved potassium) greater than during 1984- 93, and dissolved sulfate and ammonia, which were about 30 percent less than in 1984-93. Loads of all nutrients deposited in the Irondequoit Creek basin from atmospheric sources during water years 1994-96 exceeded those removed by Irondequoit Creek at Blossom Road—ammonia by 5,600 percent, orthophosphate by 2,500 percent, ammonia + organic nitrogen by 350 percent, total phosphorus by 300 percent and nitrite + nitrate by 140 percent. Average yields of dissolved chloride and dissolved sulfate from atmospheric deposition were much less than those transported in streamflow—yields of dissolved chloride from atmospheric sources were only 1.9 percent, and yields of sulfate were only 9.2 percent, of those transported in streamflow at Blossom Road. Concentrations of several chemical constituents in streams of the Irondequoit Creek basin showed statistically significant trends from 2 Water Resources of Monroe County, New York Water Years 1994-96, with Emphasis on Water Quality in the Irondequoit Basin the beginning of their period of record through 1996. The constituents that showed the greatest number of statistically significant trends were dissolved chloride, ammonia, and ammonia + organic nitrogen. Dissolved chloride showed an upward trend at Blossom Road, Allen Creek, and Empire Boulevard and a downward trend at Railroad Mills. Ammonia showed downward trends at Allen Creek, Blossom Road and Railroad Mills. Ammonia + organic nitrogen showed a downward trend at Allen Creek, Blossom Road, and Empire Boulevard. Nitrite + nitrate showed a downward trend at Allen Creek, and orthophosphate showed an upward trend at that site. Turbidity and total suspended solids showed a downward trend at Empire Boulevard. Neither total phosphorus nor volatile suspended solids showed statistically significant trends in concentration at any of the Irondequoit basin sites. Northrup Creek showed a downward trend in total suspended solids and ammonia + organic nitrogen, and an upward trend in dissolved chloride. The Genesee River showed a downward trend in ammonia + organic nitrogen and chloride, and an upward trend in orthophosphate. Most constituents for the 1994-96 water years showed lower average yields at Blossom Road than for the 1989-93 water years, but dissolved chloride showed higher yields for the 1994-96 water years at all sites except Blossom Road. Ammonia + organic nitrogen and total phosphorus showed a decrease in yield at all sites after 1993, and nitrite + nitrate showed slightly higher yields for 1994-96 at the upstream, predominantly rural sites, and lower yields at the downstream, more urban sites, than during 1989-93. The trends and changes in surface-water quality after 1993 can be attributed to several factors within the basin, including land-use changes, annual and seasonal variations in streamflow, and year-to-year variations in the application of deicing salts on area roads. Statistical analyses of long-term (9 years or more) streamflow records of three unregulated streams in Monroe County indicate that annual mean flows for water years 1994-96 were in the normal range (75th to 25th percentile), although Allen Creek showed a statistically significant downward trend in monthly mean streamflow over the 1984- 96 water years.
    • Water Resources of Monroe County, New York, Water Years 2000-02 Atmospheric Deposition, Ground Water, Streamflow, Trends in Water Quality, and Chemical Loads in Streams

      Sherwood, Donald A. (2005-01-01)
      This report, the fifth in a series that presents analyses of the hydrologic data collected in Monroe County since 1984, interprets data from four surface-water-monitoring sites in the Irondequoit Creek basin (Irondequoit Creek at Railroad Mills, East Branch Allen Creek at Pittsford, Allen Creek near Rochester, and Irondequoit Creek above Blossom Road); and from three sites on tributaries to the Genesee River (Oatka Creek at Garbutt, Honeoye Creek at Honeoye Falls, and Black Creek at Churchville) and from the Genesee River at Charlotte Docks. It also interprets data from a site on Northrup Creek, which provides information on nutrient loads delivered to Long Pond, a small eutrophic embayment of Lake Ontario. The report also includes water-level and water-quality data from nine observation wells in Ellison Park, and atmospheric-deposition data from a collection site at Mendon Ponds. Atmospheric Deposition: Average annual precipitation for 2000-02 was 33.11 in., 0.94 in. below normal. Average annual loads of some chemical constituents in atmospheric deposition for 2000-02 differed considerably from those for the previous period of record. Loads of all nutrients except ammonia decreased by amounts ranging from 28 percent (ammonia + organic nitrogen and phosphorus) to 2 percent (nitrite + nitrate), whereas ammonia loads an increased by 8 percent. Loads of dissolved sodium and total zinc in atmospheric deposition increased by 56 percent, and 54, percent respectively, over the previous period of record. Average annual loads of other constituents showed decreases ranging from 41 percent (dissolved magnesium) to 17 percent (dissolved chloride). Loads of all nutrients deposited in the Irondequoit Creek basin from atmospheric sources during 2000-02 greatly exceeded those transported by Irondequoit Creek. The ammonia load deposited in the basin was 165 times the load transported at Blossom Road (the most downstream site); the ammonia + organic nitrogen load was 2.8 times greater, orthophosphate 9.7 times greater, total phosphorus 1.2 times greater, and the nitrite + nitrate load was 1.6 times greater. Average yields of dissolved chloride and dissolved sulfate from atmosphoric sources were much less than those transported by streamflow at Blossom Road—chloride was about 1.5 percent and sulfate about 9.1 percent of the amount transported by Irondequoit Creek. Ground water: Ground-water-levels and water quality data were collected from 9 observation wells in Ellison Park in Monroe County. All wells except Mo 2 and Mo 659 are in the flood plain of Irondequoit Creek. Water levels indicate frequent reversals in direction of lateral flow toward or away from Irondequoit Creek, and all wells except Mo2 and Mo 659 respond to water level fluctuations in the Creek. Trend tests on water levels for the period of record indicate a slight upward trend in water levels at all nine wells, two of which (Mo 3 and Mo 667) were statistically significant. Concentrations of ammonia and ammonia + organic nitrogen showed a general decrease for the current period of record. Total phosphorus concentrations showed an increase at four wells and a decrease at four wells. Water quality data showed that the highest median concentrations of nutrients continues to occur in Mo 667 and the highest median concentrations of common ions was at Mo 664. Streamflow: Statistical analysis of long-term (greater than 15 years) streamflow records for unregulated streams in Monroe County indicated that annual mean flows for water years (A water year is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30 of the following year.) 2000-02 generally were in the normal range (75th to 25th percentile), although Allen Creek continued to show a significant downward trend in mean monthly streamflow during the 1984-2002 water years. Chemical Concentration in Streams: Concentrations of several constituents in streams of the Irondequoit Creek basin showed statistically significant (a = 0.05) trends from the beginning of their period of record through 2002. Three of the four Irondequoit Creek sites (Allen Creek, Blossom Road, and Railroad Mills) showed downward trends in ammonia (4.6 to 12.0 percent per year) and ammonia + organic nitrogen (2.8 to 5.3 percent per year). Allen Creek showed downward trends in nitrite + nitrate and total phosphorus (both 1.2 percent per year), and Irondequoit Creek above Blossom Road showed an upward trend in orthophosphate (1.8 percent per year). Three Irondequoit Creek sites showed upward trends in dissolved chloride: Railroad Mills (4.8 percent per year), Allen Creek, and Blossom Road (both 1.9 percent per year). Allen Creek showed a downward trend in sulfate of 0.98 percent per year, whereas Blossom Road showed a downward trend in suspended solids of 4.0 percent per year. Volatile suspended solids showed an upward trend of 3.2 percent per year at Allen Creek and a downward trend of 2.2 percent per year at Blossom Road. Northrup Creek in western Monroe County, showed significant downward trends in concentrations of volatile suspended solids (2.5 percent per year), total phosphorus (5.3 percent per year), and orthophosphate (9.9 percent per year). The Genesee River at Charlotte Docks showed downward trends in volatile suspended solids (2.1 percent per year) and ammonia + organic nitrogen (4.5 percent per year). Oatka Creek at Garbutt showed an upward trend of 21.4 percent per year in turbidity. Chemical Loads in Streams: Mean annual yields (pounds or tons per square mile) of many constituents at the Irondequoit Creek sites were lower than those in previous reporting periods. Suspended solids and nitrite + nitrate yields were lower at three of the sites, and yields of volatile suspended solids, ammonia, and total phosphorus were lower at two of the sites. East Branch Allen Creek showed lower yields for five of the nine constituents for 2000-02, than for previous reporting periods. The decreased yields at East Branch Allen Creek are likely due to the Jefferson Road stormflow-detention basin and the much lower than normal runoff for the 2000-02 period.
    • Watershed Assessment of the Canaseraga Creek Watershed, Including Water Quality Analysis, SWAT Model, and Investigation of the Applicability of a Nutrient Biotic Index

      Rea, Evan; The College at Brockport (2013-04-12)
      Nearshore areas of Lake Ontario are suffering from persistent water quality impairments that were generally not resolved through programs such as the phosphorus abatement program and the Great Lakes water quality agreement. A major nearshore area of concern is the Rochester Embayment, which receives the discharge of the Genesee River. Due to the predominance of agriculture in the Genesee River basin and its largest tributary, Canaseraga Creek, agricultural areas were investigated using the segment analysis sampling technique and Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) modeling. Individual nonpoint areas were identified as nutrient sources as well as seven wastewater treatment plants. In general, loadings increased moving downstream as more source areas such as concentrated animal feeding operations, wastewater treatment plants, and small agricultural operations contributed to the nutrient load. Two tributaries, Twomile and Buck Run creeks, generally had the highest average annual concentrations and areal loadings of nutrients due to concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) and dominance of agriculture in those areas. Observed loading data was used to calibrate a SWAT model for Canaseraga Creek. The most effective agricultural management practice was grassed waterways, while upgrading wastewater treatment plants to better (tertiary) treatment was also effective. By targeting just the areas that contribute the most P (Buck Run Creek, Twomile Creek, Groveland Flats) with grassed waterways, upgrading WWTPs, and stabilizing erodible main-stem streambanks, total phosphorus (TP) concentration was reduced by 31.4% from 104.3 ?g P/L to 71.6 ?g P/L. Of the three considered potential TP water quality targets (20, 45, 65 ?g P/L), the 65 ?g P/L target was attainable, while the 45 ?g P/L standard was not achieved but is believed to be possible with more intensive management practices. A nutrient biotic index (NBI) using TP and nitrate concentrations with observed macroinvertebrate communities was also used to evaluate appropriate water quality criteria. When comparing trophic state from the NBI with an external classification scheme based on chemistry, the NBI-P trophic state designations were observed to agree more often than the NBI-N. Several reasons for the discrepancies were determined, namely the use of nitrate instead of TN for the NBI-N, number of chemistry samples used, period of time which chemistry averages were taken, tolerance values that may not completely represent nutrient 'optima', and lack of scores for many taxa.
    • Wave Introduction Guided Inquiry with Simulations

      Gauldin, Phillip; The College at Brockport (2006-07-17)
      Objectives: Students Create pulses and waves along a spring Map the shape of a pulse and wave Describe two or three basic vocabulary terms for waves (Wavelength, Crest, Trough, wave height) Compare a wave simulation to a recreational wave pool
    • Waves

      Pelkey, Madison (2015-01-01)