• Truth and Convention in Morality

      Taylor, Richard; University of Rochester (1977-01-01)
      The author considers the question of whether there is one true or valid set of moral principles, or whether all ethics are the distillation of our inherited codes and prohibitions.
    • Truth in Fiction

      Baker, Timothy R.; The College at Brockport (2011-04-16)
      According to literary tradition and genre classification, fiction has often been regarded as writing that lacks a foundation of truth. However, this does not necessarily mean that fiction contains no elements of truth. In this thesis, Timothy Baker argues that fiction contains traces of truth - truths that may not be fundamentally based on facts, yet can still be recognized as embodying the deep-seated essence of truth. These “essential truths”, though largely shunned from the nonfiction genre, can be utilized to establish the groundwork of fiction - making the genre a reflection of reality itself - instead of a captured moment of reality. Fiction that contains essential truths, though not based on actual events, can still be recognized as realistic and existentially valuable. This thesis includes three short works of creative writing by Timothy Baker: “Letters from Llea" a creative essay, "Perfection," a short story, and "Desperate Desires," also a short story all of which, he argues in the introduction, contain essential truths.
    • Twelvemile Creek Niagara County, New York

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Nowak, Matthew J.; The College at Brockport (2010-01-01)
      The east branch of Twelvemile Creek (69 mi2) flows through northern Niagara County to its mouth at Lake Ontario 12 miles east of the Niagara River, near the village of Wilson, New York. From fall through spring, good runs of steelhead and brown trout with the occasional Chinook and Coho salmon occur into the creek. Agriculture, especially row crop farming, is predominant within the watershed, though natural protected land is also plentiful. The Wilson-Tuscarora State Park provides a buffer between the creek and agriculture immediately around the mouth of the creek, while upstream farms directly line the creek. Nuisance algae, bacterial abundance, and algal mat development along the southern shoreline of Lake Ontario are major causes of beach closings, fouling the nearshore waters and limiting water recreation. This short report provides a synopsis of data collected monthly from May through September (2003 to 2009) on the water quality of Twelvemile Creek and the lakeside (swimmable depth) of Lake Ontario near the mouth of the creek.
    • Twentieth-Century Transformations: Sexualities Defined and Sexual Expression Expanded

      Parker, Alison M.; The College at Brockport (2014-06-01)
      Alison Parker reviews the following books: Margot Canaday. The Straight State: Sexuality and Citizenship in TwentiethCentury America. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2009. xiv + 277 pp. Illustrations, notes, and index. $19.95 (paper). Leigh Ann Wheeler. How Sex. Became a Civil Liberty. New York: Oxford University Press, 2013. xiv + 327 pp. Notes, bibliography, and index. $34.95.
    • Twice is Nice: An Exploration of Ambiguity in Playwriting and Performance in Theatre

      Kuhn, Frank; Kaminska, Cody; The College at Brockport (2016-05-04)
      The author shares her experiences directing and producing two short plays using two different sets of actors, and varying character development, lighting, set designs and costumes. She examines what worked well, and what did not and the effect the actors had on the individual productions.
    • Twin Koi

      Franek, Sabrina; The College at Brockport (2015-05-01)
    • Twins’ Literacy Development in a Home Child Care

      Robb, Susan; Tytler, Elisabeth (2017-05-15)
      This research focuses on a set of five year old twin girls in a home child care environment, where play and oral language are essential components to their literacy development.The purpose of this study was to understand how each twin is developing her emergent literacy skills situated in her play and the environmental factors that are impacting her language development. Data were collected for this study over a period of 4 weeks using a parent’s survey, interviews, artifacts, observation notes, and transcribed audio-recordings.
    • Two Common Issues In Sports Officiaitng: Recruitment and Retention

      Houston-Wilson, Cathy; Hill, Dylan; The College at Brockport (2019-05-14)
      The purpose of this synthesis was to identify on two common issues in Sports Officiating: Recruitment and Retention. An extensive examination of literature was conducted in order to review and research the problem in sports officiating of recruitment and retention. The purpose of this article is to identify researched recruitment and retention issues of sports officials, ways to retain current officials, and strategies to help recruit new officials. (Titlebaum, Haberlin, & Titlebaum 2009). This synthesis will review the literature on two common issues in Sports Officiating: Recruitment and Retention. Keywords: Recruitment, retention, mentorship, official, association, referee.
    • Two Constraints on Interpreting

      Stern, Laurent; Rutgers University (1987-01-01)
    • Two Family Names: Faulkner and Sartoris

      Burelbach, Frederick M.; The College at Brockport (2014-10-24)
    • Two New Techniques for Evaluating Connectivity of Septic Fields to Great Lake Watersheds and Embayments

      Richards, Paul L.; David, Marine; Georgakakis, Christine; DeRose, Nicole; Rodgers, Michael D.; Walter, M. Todd; Cornell University; The College at Brockport (2016-02-02)
      Pictometry Oblique Imagery was successfully used to map septic fields in Oak Orchard watershed. Analysis of the imagery proved to be efficient for finding leach fields, and between 66 to 81% of the septic fields previously mapped by the Genesee Orleans County Department of Health, were identified. The remainder were not identified because of canopy cover, or were either septic systems without leach fields, the septic field postdated the imagery, or were not visible. Consequently under ideal conditions (septic systems with leach fields and no canopy or shadows) the method should be able to identify over 80% of the systems. Imagery taken during the transition from dormant to growing season proved best for identifying leach fields. One example of a plume from a short circuited system was recorded. A total of 1277 septic fields were mapped in the watershed. Spatial distribution was heterogenous, with dense sites of septic fields concentrated along residential road corridors. Approximately 4.2% of the leach fields were located less than 100 feet of a tributary. This is below the minimum separation distance of a leach field to a waterbody that is required by the NYS Department of Health code. The average distance of a leach field to a tributary is 327 meters with 50% of the leach fields occurring within 240 meters of mapped tributaries. Maps of important septic field “hotspots” were developed for watershed stakeholders and include tributaries along Batavia-Elba Townline Rd., Marsh Creek, and tributaries near the intersections of Alleghany and Lockport Rds, Judge Rd and Knowlesville Rd., and Lockport and Albion Rd. Considerable numbers of septic fields occur along Lake Alice in the main stem of the river, however this stretch is probably diluted by water input from the Erie Canal at the Glendale Dam. In a second set of experiments, a new DNA-based groundwater tracer was introduced to two septic systems to see if it could be used to trace individual septic systems. The tracer was not discovered in one site, however, a breakthrough curve was obtained in the second site 31 days after being introduced into the toilet. This tracer passed through at least 200 meters of groundwater flowpath and 1 km of stream. The results of these experiments suggest that frequent, systematic sampling and careful lab protocols to identify the signal to noise threshold of the procedure are critical to the success of the technique. In summary we suggest that Pictometry Oblique Imagery can be used to map septic fields in a watershed and that the DNA Tracer technique may be successful in some septic systems. Further research needs to be conducted to improve the success of the latter.
    • Tying Shoes: A Collection of Essays

      Scavo, Laura; The College at Brockport (2004-12-14)
      This collection of seven personal essays centers on certain commonalities of human experience as discovered in the life experience of the author. Issues of discussion include the acceptance and/or alienation of self, the way issues of gender are transferred to succeeding generations, the divide between spirituality and physicality or faith and reason, the transformation of the stages of grief, as well as the dichotomy of living in a world filled with beauty and horror, pleasure and pain. Also discussed are issues dependent on human institutions or frameworks such as self in relation to community, family, friendship, as well as marriage, and parenting. In each of the texts, it is the author's intent to demonstrate that hope or faith can be evident through subtle paradigm shifts and simple actions rather than miraculous epiphanies or heroic deeds.
    • Typha (Cattail) Invasion in North American Wetlands: Biology, Regional Problems, Impacts, Ecosystem Services, and Management

      Bansal, Sheel; Wilcox, Douglas A.; Lishawa, Shane C.; Tangen, Brian A.; The College at Brockport (2019-01-01)
      Typha is an iconic wetland plant found worldwide. Hybridization and anthropogenic disturbances have resulted in large increases in Typha abundance in wetland ecosystems throughout North America at a cost to native floral and faunal biodiversity. As demonstrated by three regional case studies, Typha is capable of rapidly colonizing habitats and forming monodominant vegetation stands due to traits such as robust size, rapid growth rate, and rhizomatic expansion. Increased nutrient inputs into wetlands and altered hydrologic regimes are among the principal anthropogenic drivers of Typha invasion. Typha is associated with a wide range of negative ecological impacts to wetland and agricultural systems, but also is linked with a variety of ecosystem services such as bioremediation and provisioning of biomass, as well as an assortment of traditional cultural uses. Numerous physical, chemical, and hydrologic control methods are used to manage invasive Typha, but results are inconsistent and multiple methods and repeated treatments often are required. While this review focuses on invasive Typha in North America, the literature cited comes from research on Typha and other invasive species from around the world. As such, many of the underlying concepts in this review are relevant to invasive species in other wetland ecosystems worldwide.
    • Typha Control and Sedge/Grass Meadow Restoration on a Lake Ontario Wetland

      Czayka, Alex; The College at Brockport (2012-01-01)
      To identify control techniques for cattails (Typha angustifolia and the hybrid Typha x glauca) in a Lake Ontario drowned-rivermouth wetland, multiple physical and chemical treatment techniques were implemented over two years at Kents Creek, New York. Treatments included cutting (C), spraying (S) glyphosate (Rodeo) onto cut stalks, tilling (T) rhizomes, and wicking (W) cattail re-sprouts later in the growing season (August). Each treatment technique had year options; for example, the cut treatment could be applied in year 1 or in both years 1 and 2 (C1 or C12). All possible treatments yielded 24 treatment combinations, plus two control plots; these were randomly assigned to each of the five treatment replicates established in equivalent stands of cattail. Vegetation sampling occurred in early summer (late June) and again in late summer (August) before treatment in both years. Cattail stem counts and species percent cover data were collected to analyze the effects of the treatments. Environmental variables (soil moisture, sediment depth, water-table elevation, soil organic matter, and bulk density) were measured to assist in the explanation of treatment success and differences observed among replicates. In addition to looking at the direct effects the treatments had on cattails, I assessed how the treatments affected the growth and expansion of sedge/grass meadow community species (Carex lacustris and Calamagrostis canadensis). Treatments combinations C1W1, C1SW1, C1WT, C12SW1, C12W1T, and C12SW1T significantly reduced cattail stem counts from June 2010 to August 2011. The most important treatment technique was the wick (W) treatment, vi which was implemented in August; it was included in every successful treatment for reducing cattails. The C12W1T treatment significantly reduced cattail stem counts the most (mean of 15.9 stems per plot), while treatments C12SW1T (12.9) and C12SW1 (12.2) also caused large reductions in Typha stems. Eight treatments significantly increased the amount of C. lacustris, including C1, C1W1, C1SW1, C1WT, C1SW1T, C12W1, C12SW1, and C12W1T. Five treatments that significantly reduced Typha stems also significantly increased C. lacustris cover. Overall, C. lacustris increased an average of 18% for any plot that had treatments applied. Treatment replicate 3 had some significantly different environmental variables that likely led to more successful treatments. Replicate 3 was positioned at a slightly higher elevation compared to the other replicates, leading to lower soil moisture, which helps control cattails. Although application of the wick treatment in August was the most important treatment method, addition of other treatments earlier in the year increased stress on cattails and led to increased reductions. Reduction of cattails also led to increased growth of Carex lacustris if C. lacustris was present before treatments were implemented. For management implications, I suggest using the cutting (early summer) and wicking treatments (late summer), as these two treatments were the most effective at reducing Typha stems. If funds are available, the tilling treatment combined with cutting and wicking, could be implemented, as it helped increase stress on Typha and led to increased stem reductions.
    • Ultra-Structural Identification of the Interstitial Cells of Cajal in the Zebrafish Danio rerio

      Ball, Evan R.; Matsuda, Miho M.; Dye, Louis; Hoffmann, Victoria; Zerfas, Patricia M.; Szarek, Eva; Rich, Adam; Chitnis, Ajay; Stratakis, Constantine A.; National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; et al. (2012-01-01)
      The interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) are important mediators of gastrointestinal motility due to their role as pacemakers in the GI tract. In addition to their function, ICCs are also structurally distinct cells most easily identified by their ultra-structural features and expression of the tyrosine kinase receptor c-KIT. ICCs have been described in mammals, rodents, birds, reptiles and amphibians ; there are no reports at the ultra-structural level of ICC’s within the GI tract of an organism from the teleost lineage. This report describes the presence of cells in the muscularis of the zebrafish intestine with similar features to ICCs in other vertebrates. ICC-like cells were associated with the muscularis, were more electron dense than surrounding smooth muscle cells, possessed long cytoplasmic processes and mitochondria, and were situated opposing to enteric nervous structures. In addition, immunofluorescent and immunoelectron microscopic studies using antibodies targeting the zebrafish ortholog of a putative ICC marker, c-KIT (kita), demonstrated c-kit immunoreactivity in zebrafish ICCs. Taken together, these data represent the first ultra-structural characterization of cells in the muscularis of the zebrafish Danio rerio and suggest ICC differentiation in vertebrate evolution may date back to the teleost lineage.
    • Ultrastructure of Zebra Fish Dorsal Aortic Cells

      Miano, Joseph A.; Georger, Mary A.; Rich, Adam; De Mesy Bentley, Karen L.; The College at Brockport; University of Rochester (2006-01-01)
      Expression of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) markers such as serum response factor (SRF) is complicated in zebrafish because of the ill-defined histology of the dorsal aorta and the presence of perivascular pigment. We report the ultrastructure of aortic cells in 7-day, 1-month, and 3-month-old zebrafish and provide clear evidence for the presence of perivascular melanocytes harboring an abundance of melanin. In 7-day-old larvae, endothelial cells (EC) and synthetic mural cells that display little evidence of VSMC differentiation comprise the dorsal aorta. The latter mural cells appear to fully differentiate into VSMC by 1 month of age. In 3-month-old adult zebrafish, EC exhibit greater differentiation as evidenced by the accumulation of electron-dense bodies having a diameter of approximately 200 nm. Adult zebrafish aortae also exhibit at least one clear layer of VSMC with the characteristic array of membrane-associated dense plaques, myofilament bundles, and a basement membrane. Subjacent to VSMC are collagen-producing adventitial fibroblasts and melanocytes. These studies indicate that fully differentiated VSMC occur only after day 7 in zebrafish and that such cells are arranged in at least one lamellar unit circumscribing the endothelium. These findings provide new data about the timing and accumulation of VSMC around the zebrafish aorta, which will be useful in phenotyping mutant zebrafish that exhibit defects in blood circulation.
    • Una comparación de asuntos sobre la violencia doméstica en los Estados Unidos y España

      Souto Rumbo, Jose Ismael; Bialy, Brendan; The College at Brockport (2018-05-04)
      This paper will focus on gender issues in the U.S. and Spain. Spain has a very low domestic violence rate of about 13% in comparison with the rest of the world and especially the U.S. which has a rate of about 36% (genderindex.org). This text explains why there is such a difference by comparing key statistics that track gender issues. The objective is to show that there are policies used in Spain that would benefit the U.S. in reducing its prevalence of domestic violence. There are certain key factors that explain the prevalence of domestic violence. These factors are history, economics and government. Scholars examine history to find out how it has impacted this issue: are there key events or points in time where treatment of gender issues changed? We examine what the gender norms are and how those norms could contribute to these issues: are women present in the workplace, military, etc. and what are their roles? We look at economics to see how capable a country is to apply an effective policy directed toward gender issues and to see if there is an inherent inequality in the sexes: how dependent are women on men. Is it the other way around? And lastly we observe how the government implements its policies in relation to gender issues: are policies implemented by a central or federal government and does this change the policies? Also, what is public opinion like toward gender issues? One clear example of a comparison to be made between countries is of the quality, quantity and availability of programs and institutions that try to prevent domestic violence. This paper will also evaluate the programs and institutions that seek to help those people who have been victimized. Programs like these are important because, often enough, victims will return to their abusers if they have no alternative place to go; when they have no money, home or accepting family. Governmental programs that are implemented in each country have a varying 3 degree of effectiveness that can be quantified and altered to further reduce the prevalence of domestic violence. By evaluating these programs we can conclude that certain programs are effective in dealing with domestic violence. This paper will demonstrate that Spain’s gender equality programs, which have been effective in reducing the domestic violence rate could serve to do the same if applied in the U.S.
    • Uncertainty in Everyday Situations

      Lombard, Kim; The College at Brockport (2004-10-29)
      Students use ideas of uncertainty to illustrate that mathematics involves more than exactness when dealing with everyday situations.
    • Unconscious Actions Emanating From the Human Cerebral Cortex

      Eccles, John C.; The College at Brockport (1972-01-01)
      This paper presents some recent work of Roger Sperry and his associates on “split-brain cases.” The remarkable finding is that, after surgery, the actions that are programmed from one side of the cerebral cortex are not recognized by the other side of the cerebral cortex as belonging to the subject.
    • Uncovering Models and Visualizations in the Chemistry Classroom, an Assessment of Classroom Activities and Lessons

      Veronesi, Peter; Brooke-Gay, Michael (2016-10-01)
      Chemistry education, although difficult, can be improved through the use of modeling and visualizations in the classroom. Example case studies throughout will show the importance of models and questioning techniques used to assess student understanding. By injecting mental models, physical scientific models, cartoons, analogies and computer simulations into the curriculum, chemistry can become a subject where seeing the unseen is possible.