• Thinking like a Historian: How do Sixth Grade Students Analyze Documents?

      Olmstead, Kathleen; Eisenmenger, Sarah (2017-05-16)
      Abstract This qualitative study investigated the ways in which sixth grade students analyze documents in a social studies classroom. This research aimed to provide teachers with insight into how students are analyzing documents and what strategies are being used. Through observations, semi-structured discussions, survey questions and a benchmark, a plethora of data were collected. An intensive data analysis was conducted resulting in four major findings. The use of background knowledge, and captions made analyzing a document easier, whereas academic vocabulary made analyzing a document more difficult. The data collected also showed a number of strategies students are currently using to analyze documents. The insights provided by the students in this study are valuable for teachers and staff involved in teaching students how to analyze documents.
    • Thinking Outside the Box : Using Stella for Reading

      Rees, Jennifer; The College at Brockport (2006-01-17)
      Students will enter the number of books they read into STELLA to keep a running log of their yearly reading activity.
    • Thinking Small: The Volkswagen Beetle in History and Educational Pedagogy

      Armstrong, James D.; The College at Brockport (2011-01-01)
      This thesis has three parts, a historiography and original research into the Volkswagen Beetle’s place in history, and the reason for its success, and ending with publishable teaching materials modeled after those style guides and suggestions made by the Organization of American Historians (OAH) that encompass best practices for teaching social studies content. The overall implications of my research led me to create lessons that focus on two aspects of Volkswagen's history that have program parallels to the New York State Core Curriculum. Each lesson can be used in historical curriculums to teach societal needs and wants, political leadership, and economic motivations of a given people within a nation.
    • "Thirty Thousand Half-breeds" and "Negroes With Guns": The Violent Formulation of Race in 1950s North Carolina

      Cook, Andrew M.; The College at Brockport (2006-04-01)
      In January of 1958, over a thousand Lumbee Indians of Robeson County, North Carolina dispersed a gathering of one hundred and fifty Ku Klux Klansmen under the leadership of James "Catfish" Cole. In the aftermath, national newspapers and magazines published feature articles applauding the Indian confrontation with the Klan. Only two weeks earlier, Robert F. Williams, president of the Monroe, North Carolina chapter of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) had organized an armed confrontation with the Ku Klux Klan that received no national media coverage. The disparity of media attention given to the two events was due to the ideologies and motivations of two very different groups. The Lumbees resisted the imposition of a Klan doctrine that was foreign to the majority of Indian and White residents of Robeson County and to the actual racial infrastructure at the time. Williams, on the other hand, used violence to attack the racial fo undations of Southern society-the political, social and economic stratification of society along racial lines. In both cases, non-White groups used violence in an attempt to redefine what it meant to be Indian or Black. This study explores the ways that North Carolinians used violence to create and define race. Chapter One examines the ways in which race is constructed through violence and the memory of violence. Chapter Two provides background on the Ku Klux Klan and the way that it used violence to enforce racial restrictions. Chapter Three presents the case of Robert Williams and the NAACP's most militant local chapter. Chapter Four explores the evolution of the tripartite racial system of Robeson County and the ways that the Lumbees interacted with their White and Black neighbors. Throughout, this history focuses on the use of violence to create, enforce and redefine racial conventions. It also examines the distribution of stories, pictures and souvenirs as ~method of spreading the impact of racial violence.
    • Thirty years of change in a benthic macroinvertebrate community of southwestern Lake Ontario after invasion by four Ponto-Caspian species

      Bailey Barrett, Katherine; Haynes, James M.; Warton, David I.; The College at Brockport (2017-03-01)
      Beginning in the mid-1980s, the Laurentian Great Lakes underwent successive invasions by PontoCaspian species. We quantified major changes in the diversity and relative abundance of pre-invasion benthic macroinvertebrates at the same study site in southwestern Lake Ontario from 1983–2014. The zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha Pallas arrived at the study site before 1991, the quagga mussel Dreissena rostriformis bugensis Andrusov and the amphipod Echinogammarus ischnus Stebbing arrived before 1999, and the Round Goby Neogobius melanostomus Pallas arrived about 2004. The macroinvertebrate community in 2014 was very different from 3 earlier communities in 1983, 1991, and 1999. In 2014, pulmonate and prosobranch snails and sphaeriid bivalves were absent, D. r. bugensis replaced D. polymorpha, E. ischnus replaced Gammarus fasciatus Say as the dominant amphipod, and a previously diverse community of benthic fish was replaced by abundant N. melanostomus. From 1983 to 1999, the relative abundance of prosobranchs and pulmonates declined 10-fold and rose 2-fold, respectively. From 1991 to 2014, the relative abundance of oligochaetes and chironomids increased 32- and 78-fold, respectively. The shifts we report probably are attributable to nutrient enrichment of the nearshore of Lake Ontario during the 1990s leading to a thick carpet of macroalgae, a change in the base of the benthic food web from dressenid feces and pseudofeces to macroalgal detritus, and predation by N. melanostomus on snails.
    • This Fearful Slaughter: The Impact of Civil War Deaths on Rochester, New York

      Martin, Morag; Daly, John P.; Leslie, W. Bruce; Bradford, Adam T.; State University of New York College at Brockport (2016-09-09)
      The American Civil War brought about death on an unmatched scale. While scholarly estimates vary and range from 620,000-850,000 wartime male deaths, the understanding of the significance of these deaths and how they impacted society varies as well. Civil War deaths destroyed the antebellum concept of the “good death” and created new societal norms and practices. This thesis studies these changes by examining periodicals from the city of Rochester and noting how the newspapers report about the death, carnage, and sickness during the war. How frequently graphic accounts of the battlefield deaths occur and how prevalent calls for aid for sick, wounded, and dying soldiers appear in these papers suggest the immense importance and significance the increased number of deaths had on the city. The antebellum version of the “good death” had to change as the Civil War made it impossible for most soldiers to depart in that manner. As Rochesterians sought to understand this new form of death and dying, they created aid societies, periodicals dedicated to helping the sick and wounded, and published elaborate accounts of how the fallen died so as to help the bereaved better cope with not only the loss of their loved ones but also the loss of their conceptions of a good death. They struggled to build a new idea of what a good death was as the casualty reports poured in. Finally, by the conclusion of the war and with time for the nation to heal, monuments and memorialization of the fallen could try to make up for the aspects of the antebellum “good death” that had proved impossible to adhere by during the conflict.
    • Thomas Hardy: The Ache of Modernism

      Roberts, Kelly Tucker; The College at Brockport (2001-01-01)
      Thomas Hardy wrote during a time of great social, moral, and technological change. Often his novels reflect these changes, and the people struggling to cope with them. This master thesis looks at three of Hardy’s novels including The Mayor of Casterbridge, Tess of the d’Ubervilles, and Jude the Obscure, and evaluates the struggle the characters make to adapt socially and morally. The Mayor of Casterbridge shows how machines altered the way agriculture was done and a man’s struggle to manage a successful farm without the proper knowledge of the new technology. While he fails, a younger man much more knowledgeable in business and machinery becomes successful. In Tess of the d’Ubervilles the characters are presented with the challenge to evolve away from a traditional religious morality, and into a more intuitive and natural one. Unable to evolve, the story ends in tragedy. Jude the Obscure shows the struggle with Christianity and naturalism, as well as the change of roles women held in society. In this story, the characters try to cope with the Christian sanctity in marriage, and their own wills to marry for love.
    • Thomas Jefferson and The Establishment Clause

      Chadsey, Mark J.; The College at Brockport (2007-01-01)
      Perhaps no other founder has influenced our understanding of the meaning of the Establishment Clause more than Thomas Jefferson. His name is frequently invoked when scholars or the Supreme Court attempt to discover the original intent of that crucially important provision of the Bill of Rights.
    • Thomas Paine: Author of American Independence

      Lewandowski, Anthony (2013-04-08)
      The presentation will illustrate how the writings of Thomas Paine helped push America towards the Revolution. The presentation will first illustrate how even after fighting broke out in the colonies, the country did not want independence. Sometimes the belief is that America's war for independence was inevitable, and the presentation will seek to prove this to be not the case, as without Paine, the revolution may not have occurred. Also, it will illustrate the influence Paine had on the Declaration of Independence. It will explore the option that Thomas Paine might have written some parts of the Declaration, and even if not, had influence on its content. Finally, the presentation will explore the impact the Crisis Paper had on both the soldiers and the citizens during the war. The presentation will use examples from both primary and secondary sources.
    • Thomas Paine: Author of American Independence

      Torre, Jose R.; Lewandowski, Anthony; The College at Brockport (2012-05-02)
      My paper will argue that for his efforts and writings in 1776, Thomas Paine should be considered one of the primary author of American Independence. It will illustrate how the writings of Thomas Paine helped propel America towards Revolution and independence. In an age where monarchs held power, Paine believed that the authority should lie in the hands of the people. Looking at the opinions of politicians in the Continental Congress, common colonial-Americans, as well as colonial representatives, it will illustrate that there was a deep connection with the King up until January 1776. Colonial-Americans would not have dared to defy the King, and instead, wanted reconciliation instead of revolution, even after the fighting broke out. After illustrating colonial-America?s desire for resolution, it will look at Thomas Paine?s Common Sense, and examine the ideals in his pamphlet, and how they pushed the country toward independence. Further, the paper will explore the notion that Thomas Paine influenced the writing the Declaration of Independence, looking primarily at the slavery clause that Thomas Jefferson omitted from the final copy. Finally, the paper will explore the impact Paine's American Crisis had on soldiers and citizens during the war, and how his pamphlet reignited the desire for American Independence
    • Three Gastrointestinal Assays

      Rich, Adam; Majtyka, Bailey; State University of New York College at Brockport (2020-09-16)
      Gastrointestinal (GI) functionality relies on the spontaneous, rhythmic and coordinated propagation of muscular contractions in the GI tract, or GI motility. Without these coordinated motor patterns, digestion falters, and results in problems with digestion. Disrupted or un-coordinated motor patterns are associated with altered GI transit times. GI transit is the amount of time necessary for intestinal contents to move through the GI tract. GI transit is measured in patients complaining about abdominal discomfort to determine if discomfort results from a true dysmotility or from idiopathic symptoms. GI transit assays help to determine appropriate treatments but idiopathic symptoms, or pain from an unknown cause, is very common. The zebrafish is an attractive model system for human GI motility because the entire GI tract can be observed in intact zebrafish larva. In current methods, larvae are fed food with a marker substance and movement through the intestine is viewed using a microscope and recorded using a digital camera. However, GI transit time is highly variable. It is possible that this variability is completely normal and results from variable GI physiology. Alternatively, it is possible that the variability is due to the assay. Three distinct GI transit assays have been published. The overall objective for this work is to determine the reliability for each assay and to better understand which assay is most appropriate for future work. The assays will be described and compared, and results comparing the assays will be presented.
    • Through Grace and Grit: Northern Women's Contributions to the American Civil War

      Morgan, Amelia Luel; The College at Brockport (2012-05-12)
      Women’s accomplishments have often been an undervalued if not forgotten part of the American Civil War. This research project discusses the role of Northern women in the war; not only the expected but also the unexpected roles they performed, some as diverse as nurse, spy, musician, and soldier. Women served on and near the battlefield, at home, in the city and countryside, dedicated to the war effort. This paper gives testament to their commitment and sacrifice. The first section of the project offers a historiography of several women as they crossed traditional gender boundaries and served alongside their male counterparts in the war effort. The second section is centered on a discussion of the personal correspondence of Cora Beach Benton as a primary source that chronicles her life and activities during the war in the domestic arena and her struggle to maintain family and home as her husband served with the Union Army. The concluding section presents a website, developed by the researcher, which aligns with the New York State curriculum on this topic and serves as a source for enhancing the prescribed lessons. Various class activities, lesson plans, and other instructor resources are included.
    • TI Lesson Plan: Volume Area and Mass

      Hakes, Roger; The College at Brockport (2004-10-28)
      To give the students visual models to understand the concept of area, volume, and the ratio of area to volume.
    • TI- Inequalities Exploration Lesson Plan

      Gambino, Renee; The College at Brockport (2006-07-24)
      The students will use their knowledge of systems of equations and inequalities to explore different ways of seeing and interpreting the solutions to given problems using the graphing calculator.
    • TI-84 in the Classroom

      McGivern, April; The College at Brockport (2006-10-26)
      *Briefly review the material completed about population studies and predator prey relationships. (Example given prior was “Kaibab Deer” scenario.) *Introduce the students to the process of graphing using TI-84 calculator. (Students will complete a graph themselves.) *Provide students with background information and data about population studies of lynx and snowshoe hare. *Students will understand and be able to explain the relationship between the two species.
    • Tightly-Wound Little Bombs of Truth: Biblical References in the Fiction of William Goyen

      Ashley, Leonard R.N.; Brooklyn College, City University of New York (2014-10-21)
    • Time to Step Back and then Move Forward: The Current Frenzy is Asinine

      Lumb, Richard C.; The College at Brockport (2016-01-01)
      Writing of the issues surrounding police engagement with all manner of abnormality, social conflict, deviance, disasters, and disorder, has its slings and arrows. This constant foray into adversity and social dysfunction may result in harmful outcomes for psychological, emotional and physiological systems. Working overtime, dealing with a public that has lost civility in many cases creates stress, adversity, and trauma. Overtime cost may take a toll; we have examples, yet, not all is lost!
    • Timing Performance Error in Rewarded and Non-Rewarded Tasks

      Witnauer, James; Abwender, David A.; Snarr, Jeffery D.; Rhodes, L. Jack; The College at Brockport (2015-05-15)
      The literature on human and nonhuman animal interval timing disagrees about whether perceived time is a linear or power function of real time, and to what extent reward influences timing performance. Two competing computational learning and timing models, Temporal Difference (TD, Schultz, 2013) and Sometimes Competing Retrieval (SOCR, Stout & Miller, 2007) are reviewed. The present experiments investigate human interval timing error in both reward and non-reward conditions. The experiments were simulated by a computational model to identify both the function that describes the effect of interval duration on the distribution of variance (e.g., scalar or linear) and the relative predictive power of the SOCR and TD models, and the effects of reward on interval timing. Specifically, it was hypothesized that 1) timing variability is scalar, not linear, 2) that a modified SOCR model explains the data, and 3) that interval timing performance is less variable in rewarding situations than in non-rewarding situations. Timing trials involved the presentation of a reference duration; participants then produced their estimate of that duration while under cognitive load (random number generation and serial math tasks) through key presses on a computer. The results failed to support these hypotheses. However, reward produced a nonsignificant tendency towards early responding. Finally, suggestions for further research, including further computational modeling and investigation of the neural substrata of reward and timing are discussed.
    • Tips for Evaluating Information

      West, Brandon; SUNY Oswego (2014-01-01)
      This is concept-based video tutorial titled "Tips for Evaluating Information." It covers the basic ideas associated with information evaluation including authority, accuracy, and timeliness. It is designed to introduce first-year students ideas about what to consider when using a resource for their research.
    • Tired of Capitalism? How about Something Better?

      Schweickart, David; Loyola University of Chicago (2013-05-01)
      Capitalism causes staggering inequality, rising unemployment, growing poverty, and the degradation of democracy. But is there any viable alternative? Is there a form of socialism that would preserve the strengths of competitive capitalism, yet mitigate its worst evils? This paper argues that there is such an alternative -- economic democracy. An economic democracy keeps competitive markets for goods and services, but dispenses with labor markets and capital markets. It replaces labor markets with worker ownership, and capital markets with democratic control of investment. These mechanisms will preserve the principal advantages of capitalism, while mitigating its worst evils.