• Re-visioning Medea

      Caronia, Nancy A.; The College at Brockport (2008-05-01)
      The Euripidean Medea has been canonized as the de facto standard of all characterizations found within the Medea tradition. The image of Euripides's infanticidal murderess has persisted for nearly two millennia due to interpretations that have furthered the impression that the infanticide is her most salient character trait. However, Pindar, Apollonios, and even Euripides did not make infanticide the central concern of their texts. Pindar privileges Medea's divinity and skills as a prophetess, while Apollonios focuses on the ways in which she was manipulated by gods and mortals. Euripides, who may have originated the infanticidal twist, uses the children's deaths to indict Jason and Creon's willful disregard of the hereditary blood curse on the House of Aeolus, to which both were connected. Roman texts such as Ovid's Heroides 12 and Metamorphoses 7, Gaius Valerius Flaccus's Argonautica, and Seneca's Medea reveal the complexity of the Medea tradition by explicitly and implicitly indicting the brutality and arrogance of patriarchal authority. Ovid creates an abandoned wife in Heroides 12 and a wife who would do anything for her husband, including transforming herself into an amoral supernatural being, in Metamorphoses 12. Valerius chooses to subvert Medea's purpose in the quest for the Golden Fleece by portraying the Argonauts as a band of pirates bent on destruction. Seneca's Medea displays the attributes of imperial rulers, which suggests that Seneca was crafting a veiled critique of the depravity and corruption found in the first century C. E. of Rome. Contemporary texts including Ludmila Ulitskaya's Medea and Her Children and Toni Morrison's Beloved privilege a post-modem self-consciousness, which further displaces reductive interpretations of Medea as a static figure of murder and mayhem. Ulitskaya chooses to create a Medea who more closely resembles the earliest strands of the Medea myth where she was privileged as an herbalist and a priestess; Medea Sinoply has never left her homeland and is portrayed as the nurturer and stability of her large extended family, which directly contradicts any interpretations of Medea that choose to see her as the bringer of chaos and destruction. Morrison's Sethe has the most explicit characteristics of Euripides's Medea, but Morrison uses these traits to challenge any simple notions of Sethe's killing of her daughter in a severe indictment of the institution of slavery. Morrison offers no easy answers since her Medea-like creation not only loses her daughter and her connection to her community, but also her sanity. Close examinations of these texts will reveal the complexity and sophisticated nature not only of the myth, but also of these authors’ creations.
    • Reaction Rates

      Rinere, Frank; The College at Brockport (2004-10-29)
      Students will gather information on reaction rates through measurement, organize the data and determine the relationship that exists. They will support their findings using graphing and a linear regression.
    • Reaction Rates in Chemistry: A Learning Segment Using the 5E/GRC Instructional Model

      Veronesi, Peter; Hollister, Corey (2019-12-01)
      The following project utilizes the 5E Instructional Sequence and the Gather, Reason, Communicate Instructional Sequence to promote a single-cohesive learning segment. The content covered is that of chemical reactions specifically discussed in the Next Generation Science Standards as HS-PS1-5. Included are a literature review, the learning segment, materials, student prompts, and the rationale behind the various parts of the segment.
    • Reaction Rates with Stella

      Vitale, Vince; The College at Brockport (2003-08-09)
      The purpose of this lesson will be to reinforce the concept of using appropriate mathematical functions to model a realistic situation.
    • Read Alouds and Their Impact on Students' Literacy Development

      Olmstead, Kathleen; Walch, Rebecca L.; The College at Brockport (2016-05-08)
      This qualitative study explores the impact of reading aloud to upper or intermediate elementary students. The purpose of this study is to research how fourth grade students respond to a variety of read aloud texts, and how these rich literacy experiences impact students’ literacy development. This study gives background information about read alouds in the classroom and explores one fourth grade class's responses to read aloud text including the impact of these read alouds on students' literacy development.
    • Readability: A Study of Three Selected Stories from a Third Grade Whole Language Basal

      Begy, Gerald; O'Keefe, Susan T.; The College at Brockport (1991-08-01)
      The purpose of this study was to determine whether the readability levels of three third grade stories, that are found within a reading text, fall below or above the publisher's indicated readability level. The sample group consisted of 78 third grade children. They were assessed through the means of cloze tests. There were three different tests, each one containing a passage from the story in the text. Over the Mountain from the Impressions series was analyzed. Two readability formulas, the Spache and the Lorge, were utilized in determining the readability levels of the stories independently of the publisher. The data indicated a significantly higher readability level than the one assigned by the publisher. This study suggests that teachers should be cautious when choosing reading materials for their students. They should not assume that the readability level that is assigned by the publisher is accurate throughout the textbook. Some "collections of literature" that are found in basals may contain material that is at the students' frustration level more often than not.
    • Reading Achievement Comparison of Special Education Students Instructed Through Pull-Out Programs and In-Class Programs

      Smith, Arthur E.; Baker, Patricia E.; Short, Lynnette (1993-04-01)
      Substantial research has shown the positive effect that in-class programs have on the social development and acceptance of students with handicapping conditions. Pull-out programs, which separate students with disabilities from the main classroom, have been found to stigmatize students who are participate in them. However, little research so far has determined which approach is more effective academically. This study examines whether there is a significant difference in the reading achievement between students with handicapping conditions who receive instruction in pull-out programs and students with handicapping conditions who receive instruction in in-class programs. The pretest and posttest reading scores from the California Achievement Test (CAT) were compared between students who had participated in in-class programs and students who were part of pull-out programs. The author found that the mean pretest scores of students in in-class programs were noticeably greater than the mean pretest scores of students in pull-out programs, meaning the samples were not comparable. Further analysis determined that the students in the pull-out programs did not make significantly different reading growth than the students in the in-class programs.
    • Reading Achievement Comparison of Special Education Students Instructed Through the SRA Corrective Reading Program

      Novak, Nancy L.; The College at Brockport (1997-08-01)
      The objective of this study was to evaluate the reading progress of middle school special education students after being administered the SRA Corrective Reading Program for the school year 1997. The students were placed in homogeneous reading groups within the program after being given a placement test. In April of 1996, these students were given the Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests (Form H) which were used as a baseline. These same students were again tested in April of 1997 using the Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests (Form G) to determine if any significant growth in reading scores occurred. The testing in 1996 and in 1997 consisted of two subtests: Word Identification and Passage Comprehension. Upon analysis of the data, it was found that 2 of the 13 students showed a statistically significant improvement in their reading scores, 9 of the 13 students in the study showed a marginal positive change, and 2 students out of 13 showed a decline. Based on the decision criteria set forth in this study that if 7 or more of the 13 students showed no increase or a decline, this investigator would recommend dropping the program. A concern this researcher has with this recommendation is that 2 of the 13 students did make a statistically significant improvement and 9 of the 13 made a marginal positive change.
    • Reading Achievement of General Education Children in Blended Classes

      Smith, Arthur; Squicciarini, Dawn J.; The College at Brockport (1993-08-01)
      Using 64, sixth grade students from a rural Western New York school district, the examiner attempted to determine if the current practice of integrating special needs students into the regular classroom has any effect on the reading achievement of the general education student. To accomplish this, the examiner found two comparable groups from the current sixth grade class. Group A was the integrated students and Group B was the traditional students. The total reading scores from annual standardized reading tests were compared. Using a calculated t test, the data showed no statistically significant difference in achievement between the two test groups. It was concluded that the practice of integrating special needs students into the regular classroom has no effect on the general education student.
    • Reading Aloud by the Elementary School Teacher

      Templeman, Andrew H.; The College at Brockport (1993-08-01)
      This study was designed to investigate the read aloud practices of elementary school teachers. It also examined those practices in regards to the differences exhibited among the different grade levels. Seventy-six teachers responded to the questionnaire developed by the researcher. The responses of the returned questionnaires were tallied and recorded according to the frequency and similarity of responses. A descriptive analysis was then made of the responses according to the two questions posed by the researcher. The findings of this study revealed that many teachers are reading aloud to their students on a regular basis. Many purposes were mentioned, but the majority of teachers read aloud for enjoyment. Most of the teachers selected a wide variety of literature to read to their students. Many activities accompanied the read aloud sessions. The most popular were to hold book discussions and assign art and writing projects. Almost all of the teachers reported that their students enjoyed listening to stories and many of the children would select books that the teacher had previously read to the class. Implications for future research included examining the read aloud practices of middle and high school teachers and addressing the role of the parents in reading aloud in the home environment.
    • Reading and the Perception of Gender Roles

      Townsend, Lee Ann; Anzalone, Kelley L.; The College at Brockport (2015-05-15)
      Gender stereotypes continue to influence the way students learn in the classroom, specifically while they are reading educational resources. Although many texts in the classroom display modern gender roles, there are several resources that contain gender stereotypes that may alter a student’s perception on gender. Using a qualitative study, the current study examined how students alter their perception on gender roles from various readings. Participants completed an interview and several questionnaires based on the readings they were given. Results suggest that reading does in fact change student’s perceptions on gender stereotypes. The students are also able to determine the difference between traditional and modern gender roles. Implications of results are discussed.
    • Reading as Prewriting: The Effect of the use of Literature on Writing

      Armani, Audrey; The College at Brockport (1994-05-01)
      The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the use of literature on the quality of students' writing.
    • Reading Attitudes - Are They Affected by the Methods of Instruction?

      Mather, Terri Lee; The College at Brockport (1989-06-01)
      The purpose of this study is to determine whether a whole language approach to beginning reading instruction makes a significant difference in kindergarten children's attitudes toward reading. The sample consists of 39 kindergarten children. Two groups were assessed. One group received reading instruction through a traditional basal series. The other group received instruction through a whole language approach. The Heathington Primary Sca1e was used at the end of the school year. The scale contained six subscales. The hypotheses failed to be rejected in all areas except one. The first hypothesis was rejected for subscale 3, reading in the library. The whole language children had a significantly higher attitude toward reading at the library than the basal children. This study suggests that if a whole language approach to beginning reading grasps the interests and fosters positive attitudes towards reading in young children then it must be looked at as a viable alternative to the basal reader.
    • Reading Attitudes, Achievement and Motivation of Adult Male Prison Inmates

      Gould, Kathleen M.; The College at Brockport (1993-05-01)
      The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a strong relationship between reading attitudes and achievement of adult male inmates and what motivates them to want to learn to read. Eighty (80) inmates enrolled in the Pre-GED classes at a medium security prison in western New York were given a reading attitude inventory designed by the researcher based on the Estes Reading Attitude Scale. Reading scores for each student were also gathered from the TABE test. The relationship of the attitude inventory and achievement was then analyzed. It was found that in this study, reading attitude was a poor predictor for achievement. Five inmates were then randomly selected from those who scored high on the TABE tests and five from those who scored lowest. These inmates were asked a series of motivation questions which were recorded by the researcher. It was found that in the inmates' view, learning to read was important in everyday living, especially in getting a job and obtaining· a high school diploma.
    • Reading Autobiographies: An Exploration of Avid Readers' Coming to Reading

      Bonacci, Jane Costello; The College at Brockport (1989-12-01)
      This study was designed to investigate avid readers' perceptions of themselves as readers, the reading act, the world of books and other printed media, the reason for their continuous desire and/or impulse to read, and the pedagogical implications of these perceptions. Sixty avid readers responded to a questionnaire designed to explore their reading autobiographies. The collected responses were categorized and descriptively analyzed according to each question. The findings from this investigation revealed that although there are myriad ways in which people come to reading, some general, common characteristics existed, to varying degrees, in the readers' experiences. Among these characteristics, described as 'conditions,' were: being read to as children, observing reading behavior in the home environment, having positive reading experiences with particular materials, active library use, exposure to and availability of books in the home environment, and the impact of receiving direct encouragement to read from parents, family, teachers, librarians, and/or friends. In addition, this study demonstrated that avid reading can develop at any point in a person's lifetime. The data yield support for the current direction of literature-based reading instruction and provide insight into the way in which parents, educators-society-- attempt to ensure our students an opportunity to cultivate and sustain a genuine reading interest. The data suggest that instructional reading programs reconstruct the conditions common to avid readers' experiences within the school environment. Implications for future research include individual literacy development, as well as ethnographic and longitudinal studies of readers' coming to reading.
    • Reading Comprehension Achievement and Peer vs. Teacher-Directed Tutoring

      Pastore, Patrick James; The College at Brockport (2008-08-01)
      Literacy is an important life skill which must be mastered in order to actively participate in today’s society. The ability to read is arguably the most important aspect of literacy skills and as such it transcends subject areas. In consequence of this, literacy has become a major focal point of today's educational system. In classrooms throughout America, tutoring is implemented as a form of supplemental instruction. This is done under the assumption that tutoring truly is an effective means of increasing student achievement in the core curricular areas. As current research suggests that tutoring is an effective means of increasing students' skills in the area of literacy, particularly reading comprehension, this research study explores that truth. Specific focus is given to identifying which format, direct tutoring or peer tutoring, is more effective for increasing student achievement within the realm of reading comprehension of middle school-aged students. This study was conducted in an urban school district where less than half of the student population tests at the proficiency level on the 6th grade New York State English Language Arts (ELA) Exam. The heterogeneous sample group of twenty sixth grade students was randomly assigned to one of two experimental groups; a peer tutoring group and a direct tutoring group. The students for the two groups were pulled from all three of the ability-grouped sixth grade homerooms with a representative number of male and female students to eliminate gender as a possible construct. Peer tutors were selected and trained on the procedures and routines of tutoring. The study was conducted over eight, one-hour tutoring sessions. Research data includes pre and post-test assessments, student journals, and observational notes regarding student levels of engagement, on-task behavior, and their active participation in the tutoring session. Research data reports that while students in both groups increased in reading comprehension literacy, students in the peer tutoring group had a greater change overall. This suggests that peer tutoring may be more effective in increasing the reading comprehension achievement of middle school students in urban populations.
    • Reading Comprehension: The Effects of a Language Experience Organizer and a Teacher Structured Vocabulary Organizer as Prereading Activities

      Whited, Frances Moroney; Harkness, Cindy; The College at Brockport (1985-07-01)
      Below level tenth grade language arts students were given both a posttest and a delayed posttest to measure their comprehension of five selected reading passages. The students were divided into two groups. One group received a language experience advance organizer prior to reading the passages. The other group received a teacher structured vocabulary organizer prior to reading the passages. No significant difference was found between the language experience advance organizer group and the teacher structured vocabulary group in comprehension as measured by a posttest and a delayed posttest. Although the language experience advance organizer group achieved a higher mean on both the posttest and the delayed posttest, the difference was due to chance. The results of this study are consistent with the findings of Anderson and Freebody (1983). According to Anderson and Freebody (1983), the understanding of a particular text depends only partially on an accurate identification of words. A replication of the study using a different population was suggested.
    • Reading habits of adults: What drives the choice to read or not read?

      Robb, Susan; Annable, Jessica; The College at Brockport (2017-05-01)
      Reading is an important skill that benefits every aspect of life. It is important for teachers to help children learn to read and learn to love reading forever. Using an interview, participants’ perspectives were examined in order to collect qualitative data on adult reading habits
    • Reading Process Comparison between Graphic Novel and Traditional Novels

      Pelttari, Carole; Maniace, Emily M.; The College at Brockport (2014-10-01)
      Through this study, I examined how readers use different reading process when reading a graphic novel and traditional novel. The guiding question for the study was how does the process differ when reading a graphic novel when compared to a traditional novel? This research is a qualitative study of one student’s processing while reading a graphic novel compared to a traditional novel through the use of verbal protocols of reading. While reading both the graphic novel and traditional novel the subject used a variety of strategies such as visual cues, inferring, predicting, connecting, questioning, author’s style and rereading. Based on the finding, one major conclusion can be drawn: if teachers are going to use graphic novels with their students, students will need specific instruction on how to read a graphic novel.
    • Reading Race through U.S. Women's Biographies

      Parker, Alison M.; The College at Brockport (2012-10-01)
      Alison Parker reviews the following books: Lois Brown. Pauline Elizabeth Hopkins: Black Daughter of the Revolution. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2008. Kimberley Mangun. A Force for Change: Beatrice Morrow Cannady and the Struggle for Civil Rights in Oregon, 1912-1936. Corvallis: Oregon State University Press, 2010. Julia A. Stem. Mary Chesnut's Civil War Epic. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010. Lea VanderVelde. Mrs. Dred Scott: A Life on Slavery's Frontier. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009. Margaret Washington. Sojourner Truth's America. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2009.