• Creativity in Children’s Writing

      Sisson, Harry R.; The College at Brockport (1961-06-01)
      In this master thesis the author tests three different story writing approaches to determine which best prompts students’ creativity. The three approaches include: tall tales, actual experiences, and suggested topics. Twenty 6th grade students wrote creative stories in one of the three approaches. The researcher made it clear that students’ stories not be graded, and would not impact their grade report in any way. Three different teachers independently scored each story for its creativity. The researcher found that writing about actual experiences seemed to stimulate the most creativity from students. Tall tales yielded the same level of creativity as suggested topics, however both yielded less than actual experiences. The study also suggests that lower-performing students tended to write the most creative stories, while high-performing students tended to write the least creative stories.
    • A Comparison of the Philosophy and of Teaching of Third Grade Reading According to Houghton Mifflin Company (McKee) the John C. Winston Company (Stauffer) and Ginn & Company (Russell) Basal Readers

      Thomas, Joy Morris; The College at Brockport (1961-07-28)
      Presenting students with a variety of learning materials helps to engage their interest. In this study, the researcher evaluates three reading systems to determine which best meets class needs. The researcher begins by comparing the aims/philosophies of the different titles. The researcher then compares the content, focusing on program, illustration format, and organization. Finally, the researcher examines the series’ approaches to introducing new words, teaching word-attack and study skills, and compares the teacher’s editions. The author concludes that she will use the Houghton Mifflin texts with the above-average readers in her class, and the Ginn texts with the below-average readers. Average readers will continue to use the standard texts issued by the School (Scott Foresman).
    • Handbook for student-teachers : Abraham Lincoln School : East Irondequoit Central School District #1

      Gefell, Robert H.; The College at Brockport (1962-01-01)
      This booklet is directed to you who are about to embark on a career of teaching children. It is intended to help you in your work as a student teacher at Abraham Lincoln School, East Irondequoit Central School District #1. The task of any teacher is to provide situations in which pupils can acquire maximum growth. It is the author's hope that this guide will help you to arrange such conditions early in your student teaching assignment.
    • Evolution, The Story of Life

      Incardona, Frank Stephen; The College at Brockport (1962-01-01)
      The prime objective of this paper is to present some of the theories concerning human development beginning with some of the earliest theories and progressing to some of a more recent nature. A general definition of the word evolution means change. There is no doubt that there are many changes occurring about us every day. The evolution with which this paper is concerned is a special kind of change called organic evolution. This subdivision of evolution deals with changes undergone by living things.
    • An Annotated Bibliography on Music and Painting

      McCormick, Addie S.; The College at Brockport (1962-01-01)
      The purpose of the study is to determine how many publications, in the Rochester area libraries, consider the common characteristics of art and music, and to analyze their content for relationships of music to visual art.
    • A Study of the Audio-Visual Program in the Greece Central School District Number 1

      Liberto, S. William F.; The College at Brockport (1962-01-01)
      School programs must be evaluated to gauge their effectiveness and provide insight for future direction. This study seeks to evaluate the Audio-Visual program in a public school in Western New York and includes a brief history of the community. The researcher uses a modified Schwartz questionnaire to survey teachers, grade K-11, where employed by the school district during the 1960-61 school year. Results showed that the schools either met or exceeded standards for sufficient equipment, and that over 70% of teachers believed that schools’ audio-visual program was adequate. The researcher suggests further analysis of the schools’ audio-visual philosophy and the development of in-service training programs to improve teacher participation in/perception of the program.
    • A Study of the Public School Problem: “Where Does Policy Making End and Administration Begin?”

      Lindberg, John G.; The College at Brockport (1962-05-01)
      Local school board members and administrators are the people who have the greatest impact on their local school programs, yet few citizens understand the responsibilities and boundaries of these positions. In this paper, the author asserts that a school’s future is not determined by state/federal educational policy as much as it is by the attitudes its board members have toward one another, as well as toward their administrators. The author attempts to understand the divide between Brockport Central School board members and school administrators during the formulation and execution of existing school policy. The researcher obtained initial data by creating and distributing surveys to eight past/present Monroe County school administrators and seven past/present Brockport school board members. Six administrators and five board members replied, however their individual replies were kept separate from their identifying information, rendering their replies anonymous. Results showed that administrators felt that policy making was the responsibility of the board, not the administrators, and that policies should be in a constant state of review. Board members, however, perceived that while the board is the primary policy-making group, administrative input is essential. Respondents reported encountering restrictive thinking, biases about “pet” ideas, and a general lack of understanding about the difference between policy making and administration among board members and administrators. The author concludes the paper by reaffirming that education success relies on the strength of the relationship between a schools’ board and administrators, and asserts that a strong public relation program is likely to solve almost any school issue.
    • Instructional Units for the Teaching of Composition in the Eighth Grade

      Rodger, Harvey; The College at Brockport (1962-05-01)
      Teachers enhance their students’ learning when they relate classroom activities to students’ interests and lives. In this paper, the author presents a series of instructional units to teach composition to eighth graders in a rural New York public school. Units focus on student engagement and cover the following diverse topics: “Families and Friends”, “Patriotism for Our Country”, “The Civil War”, “Observing Animal Life”, and “The Westward Movement”. Each unit includes a suggested reading list, as well as accompanying lessons that focus on various aspects of context, syntax/construction/grammar, narration, and editing techniques.
    • A Device and Method for Measuring and Classifying Activity Interests of Pupils and Teachers for the Purpose of Formulating and Administering a Club Program for Fifth and Sixth Grades

      Lagona, Rocco Albert; The College at Brockport (1962-05-01)
      Historically, school administrators did not consider students’ expressed interests when creating school club programs. This research explores the challenges in developing extracurricular club activities, as well as their sociological and educational implications. The author focuses his studies on fifth and sixth grade club members. First, the author outlines the current teacher-dominated method for defining and establishing extracurricular clubs. Then the author used a formal Interest Inventory survey with students and teachers to establish their interest level in a number of activities, including music, arts and crafts, government and service activities, and physical activities/sports. Ultimately, the author found that differences in age did not affect interest level in various activities, though gender differences were noted. The researcher points out that clubs are most successful when the interests of adult leaders and child participants converge, and suggests that students and teachers be surveyed for these interests in the initial stages of club planning.
    • A Study of Parents’ Reactions and Expectations from their Schools’ Program Conducted at Iroquois School in West Irondequoit Rochester, New York

      Mastin, William A.; The College at Brockport (1962-06-01)
      Parents, as an active voting community, have a profound impact on the facilities and operations of their local public schools. This paper seeks to better understand parents’ reactions to and expectations of the educational programs at Iroquois School in West Irondequoit, NY. Following a pilot study of the author’s sixth grade, the researcher sent surveys to the parents of all 5th-8th grade students. The researcher categorized parent responses by parent education levels, grouping those with two or fewer years of college/technical training together (Group A), and those with college and/or post-graduate degrees together (Group B). Of the 409 surveys distributed to the community, 294 were returned, with 41.8% of group A responding versus 58.2% of group B. The survey found strong correlation between the opinions of parents from both groups, however, the two groups tended to diverge over questions of school-taught obedience and job preparation. Parents expressed positive opinions about school programs and about the role of the school in student development. However, parents express dissatisfaction with teacher attrition, as well as school programs/policies regarding remedial students and those who are not heading for college. The author suggests a number of topics for future research, including sex instruction in school, guidance policies, and adult education.
    • Classroom Interruptions in the Elementary Schools

      Sage, John L.; The College at Brockport (1962-06-01)
      This paper examines the nature and effect of classroom interruptions. The researcher created and distributed an exploratory survey to teachers at a Rochester city school regarding the nature of classroom interruptions and methods used in dealing with them. The author then used this data to create a more extensive survey examining types, frequency, and number of classroom interruptions. This latter survey was distributed to a cross-section of elementary school teachers from seven graduate Education classes at the College at Brockport during the 1962 Spring semester. The researcher found that the most common reason for classroom interruption was individual music lessons, followed by banking, teachers interrupting other teachers, and bulletins and professional magazines, etc. The author suggests administrative changes to ease interruptions, including balancing class sizes, giving teachers adequate preparation and relaxation time, using teachers’ aides, and setting aside a separate time during the day for announcements/banking/communications, etc.
    • Procedures Used in Planning and Construction of New Elementary School #2, City School District of Rochester

      Humphrey, Robert F.; The College at Brockport (1962-06-10)
      This paper investigates the planning and construction of Clara Barton School #2, in the Rochester City school district. First, the author examines the factors contributing to the need for a new school facility, as well as its specific design requirements. The author then recounts the multi-step process the city engaged in to acquire the property and begin construction, as well as their hiring of new personnel. Appendices include, student population statistics, planning sheets and chronological record of planning and construction, as well as relevant communications and newspaper articles.
    • A Study of Stern Structural Materials in Arithmetic in the First and Second Grades

      Arnold, Hilda N.; The College at Brockport (1962-07-01)
      This research deals specifically with an experiment in exploring the possibilities of using the Stern Structural Arithmetic Materials as basic instructional equipment in all first and second grades in the Rochester City School District. Number 41 School is one of the experimental schools in this project and the recordings in this paper deal specifically with the findings at this focal point. The time limit has been set tentatively for three years. The first year, 1960- 61, the materials were introduced in one first and one second grade. The same procedure was used this current year, 1961-62. Next year, 1962-63, all first grades and all second grades will use these materials. The present first grade will continue to utilize Stern Structural Materials in- second grade. This sequential order of teaching will tend to give more validity to the experiment since the children will have been exposed to the Stern Structural Materials for two successive years. This research tends to indicate that Stern Structural Materials are fully in accord with modern trends and possibilities as a new approach to primary arithmetic learnings.
    • Grouping in Elementary Education

      Incardona, Frank Stephen; The College at Brockport (1962-08-01)
      The prime objective of this paper is to explore the question; Can a classroom teacher through investigation of relevant professional literature, receive adequate guidance in the use of grouping as a means of organization for instruction? Literature on this topic suggests that grouping is not only of value, but probably essential in many learning situations. Furthermore, grouping is one of the few feasible methods for individualized instruction that may be incorporated into our present educational framework of one teacher classrooms. The above hypothesis has led the researcher to: Examine relevant professional literature in an attempt to bring to light many of the ramifications involved in the organization and evaluation of instructional groups. Engage in a field project, basing the grouping procedures on currently accepted practices as identified in the above mentioned literature. Evaluate the quality of guidance received from the literature. Recommendations for further research are included as a result of the experience described above.
    • A Study of the Curriculum Design Process in the Field of Science for Intermediate Grades of Hilton Central School: 1959-1962

      Scoppa, Carmen; The College at Brockport (1962-11-01)
      This thesis investigated the intermediate science program of the Hilton Central School District, in 1959. A check list was used to verify the appropriateness of the current program with regards to pupils’ objectives, desired pupil outcomes, and personal goals and objectives of the science teachers. A newly formed Science Curriculum Committee used the results to create a more uniform curriculum for the fourth, fifth and sixth grades that used a common framework for instruction, and was built upon previous years learning. Over a period of two years, the committee met, developed an outline that was approved by teachers and the Board of Education, spelling out what is to be covered at each level, and helping teachers to build on the concepts from year to year. A rise in student interest in science was evidenced by increased participation in voluntary programs such as science fairs and science clubs, requests for more supplemental reading material from school libraries, and increased standardized test scores. As a result of the success in this area, study groups for additional subjects are being formed. Recommendations for further study include more frequent comprehensive testing (September, January, and June) to help students retain the concepts they learn throughout the year, continual revision of the curriculum on a regular basis, and a comprehensive research plan set in place to oversee the curriculum development process.
    • A Study to Determine How Much Correlation Exists between I.Q. and Academic Success in Mathematics, Science, English, and Social Studies

      Isgro, Angelo J.; The College at Brockport (1963-06-18)
      This study explores the usefulness of I.Q. designations by examining correlations between I.Q. and academic success. The researcher examines the academic grades/scores of 100 seventh grade students, grouped by I.Q. (as determined by the SRA Verbal Form) to determine correlation. Correlation between I.Q. and grades was both positive and low, indicating that while I.Q. may predict success, it does not determine it. The researcher found a stronger correlation between humanities grades and I.Q. than mathematics grades and I.Q., though there was insufficient data to determine a trend. However, the researcher notes that a person of average I.Q. has an almost equal chance of achieving a high grade as a person of high I.Q. The researcher notes that teacher attitudes towards student conduct had a significant impact on their grading practices, which may affect grade/I.Q. correlations. The author suggests future research on the correlation between student engagement and academic success, and its effect on promoting academic success among lower I.Q. students.
    • A Study to Determine the Value and Need of a Vocational Group Guidance Unit at the Eighth Grade Level of Brighton Junior High School Brighton School District One Rochester 18, New York

      Renner, Robert B.; The College at Brockport (1964-01-01)
      Educational systems often struggle to meet the needs of students who fall outside of the average and/or college-bound academic path. This research study examines the effectiveness of the vocational group guidance unit taught to eighth graders in the Brighton No. 1 school system. The author used the results of a pre-test given to 25 eighth graders to create a questionnaire investigating students’ and teachers’ perceptions of the unit. Of 254 eighth grade students, 236 responded to the survey. Results were split by gender and tabulated twice. Then responses were combined and tabulated to provide a check-reference for total responses. Seven teachers were surveyed. The researcher found that while the existing Guidance Unit was meeting most needs, it was not sufficient for assisting academically challenged students or introducing students to trade fields, nor did it adequately engage students regarding the “changing world of work”. As a whole, however, the unit was successful. The author recommends addressing the above issues, as well as reevaluating the oral presentations, while continuing the overall guidance unit program.
    • Mechanized Mathematics

      Wood, Britton; The College at Brockport (1964-01-01)
      The widespread availability of information requires people to know a lot more than was necessary in the past to qualify as educated citizens. Population growth, however, has made it difficult for education systems to meet their students’ learning needs. This paper examines changes in education methods, focusing on technology-based learning, or “teaching machines”. The researcher evaluated "programed learning” by juxtaposing two 9th grade algebra classes—a 30 member experimental group and a 32 member control group. The experimental group received “programed learning” instruction while the control group was taught using traditional methods. A post-test was administered at the program’s conclusion to determine each group’s mastery of the material. The researcher created booklets with the question on one side of the page and the answer on the other, allowing students to check their own work and proceed at their own pace. The booklets were then distributed to the experimental group. The researcher noted a marked improvement in the experimental group’s morale and engagement level. The experimental group completed the unit in four days, with fast learners completing the unit more quickly than average or slow learners. The control group completed the same unit in eight days, with the researcher noting lower engagement among control group participants. The post-test revealed no significant difference in student comprehension between the two instructional methods. The researcher remarks that time saved in the classroom is lost in program preparation, and notes that commercially produced programming may be the answer. He suggests further research and experimentation to determine the efficacy of program-based learning.
    • Development of a Handbook for Substitute Teachers in the East Irondequoit School District

      Mason, Robert W.; The College at Brockport (1966-05-01)
      All schools rely on substitute teachers to provide teaching coverage when full-time teachers experience sickness or personal issues. The purpose of this this study is to use the data in the creation of a “Substitute Teacher Handbook” for East Irondequoit School District to act as a reference for substitute teachers when facing the demands of their job. To accomplish this, the author created and administered a survey of 23 East Irondequoit substitute teachers. He found that 95% felt that a handbook of this nature would be helpful, while more than 80% expressed that substitute teachers should be able to keep the handbook as a ready personal reference. Substitutes suggested a number of topics for inclusion, including District Philosophy, salary schedules, drill and attendance policies, information about the student body, lists of administrative personnel, use of AV equipment, and a map of the school district. The researcher found that while the challenges faced by substitute teachers are very different from those faced by regular teachers, substitute teachers are still required to assume regular teachers’ roles for the duration of their stay. He noted the lack of written direction provided to substitutes, as well as substitutes’ perception that such direction is invaluable. Appendices include a draft of the information to be included in the handbook.
    • A Study of School Desegregation with a Specific Look at the Rochester – West Irondequoit Inter – Cultural Program

      Spall, Robert E.; The College at Brockport (1967-06-01)
      This paper looks at the racial disparities within the educational system and negative consequences imposed on African American/minority children by that system. The author proposes full racial integration, with school populations reflecting the demographics of the wider community. He examines a volunteer transfer program, focusing on 25 high-achieving first graders who transferred from Rochester city school #19 to six neighborhood schools in the West Irondequoit Central School district in 1965. A control group of 25 high-achieving first graders remained at school #19. The author describes the cultural and communication difficulties encountered by the children in their new, predominantly white environment. He also recounts the various reactions of teachers, administrators, and parents to the program. This paper provides contemporary insight into the school desegregation methods and attitudes of the 1960s.