• Eduardo's Mercedes

      Cleveland, Cleveland (2022)
      Eduardo's Mercedes took 3rd place in Prose for the Sokol High School Literary Awards 2022. The author is Audrey Cleveland, a 10th grader who is homeschooled.
    • Educating All Students? Successfully Supporting Students with Emotional Disabilities

      Cimbricz, Sandra; Davis, Emily R.; The College at Brockport (2015-12-18)
      Within the last five years, the Department of Education Archives (n.d.) indicates the number of students classified with emotional disabilities ED enrolled in public schools has increased by ten percent. These increased numbers require that teachers need to be prepared to successfully support students with ED. This analytic review explores ways to meet the students’ needs both academically and emotionally. Discussion of placement, academic and social interventions, and the nature of special education proved focal. My analysis suggests that there needs to be a blend of academic supports and behavior modifications in place for students with ED for them to be successful. The most successful placement is found to be a self-contained classroom within a mainstream building. This placement allows students to move fluidly between mainstream and self-contained classroom. As a result, they are academically challenged while also having the emotional support of an educator who specializes in that work.
    • Educating English Language Learners in the Elementary Classroom

      Rossi, Frank; Wallace, Elizabeth R.; The College at Brockport (2014-05-01)
    • Educating Parents Effectively to Prepare Them for Their Role in the Special Education Process

      Harnischfeger, Dawn; The College at Brockport (2008-08-01)
      Students with a labelled learning disability comprise approximately 5% of the population in American public schools. This research project seeks to identify appropriate ways to both prepare and inform parent/caregivers to enable them to advocate for their children through the Committee on Preschool Special Education/Committee on Special Education (CPSE/CSE) processes. It determines that the children are best served through a collaboration between the educators’ experience and the parents’ intimate knowledge of both student and home environment. Additional questions considered in this research project are: parent/guardian emotional response to their child’s suspected learning disability, identification of effective programs to assist parents as educated advocates of the special education process, parental involvement and engagement in this process, parental awareness of services available to them. Participants in the parent workshop included appropriate school personnel and a parent group comprised of the researcher’s class as well as additional families from an urban Head Start program. The study affirms the usefulness of both parent questionnaires and an informative workshop for parents to strengthen their collaboration with educators and special education consultants.
    • Education and Training of Future Wetland Scientists and Managers

      Wilcox, Douglas A.; The College at Brockport (2008-09-01)
      Wetland science emerged as a distinct discipline in the 1980s. In response, courses addressing various aspects of wetland science and management were developed by universities, government agencies, and private firms. Professional certification of wetland scientists began in the mid-1990s to provide confirmation of the quality of education and experience of persons involved in regulatory, management, restoration/construction, and research involving wetland resources. The education requirements for certification and the need for persons with specific wetland training to fill an increasing number of wetland-related positions identified a critical need to develop curriculum guidelines for an undergraduate wetland science and management major for potential accreditation by the Society of Wetland Scientists. That proposed major contains options directed toward either wetland science or management. Both options include required basic courses to meet the general education requirements of many universities, required upper-level specialized courses that address critical aspects of physical and biological sciences applicable to wetlands, and a minimum of four additional upper-level specialized courses that can be used to tailor a degree to students’ interests. The program would be administered by an independent review board that would develop guidelines and evaluate university applications for accreditation. Students that complete the required coursework will fulfill the education requirements for professional wetland scientist certification and possess qualifications that make them attractive candidates for graduate school or entry level positions in wetland science or management. Universities that offer this degree program could gain an advantage in recruiting highly qualified students with an interest in natural resources. Alternative means of educating established wetland scientists are likewise important, especially to provide specialized knowledge and experience or updates related to new management discoveries, policies, and regulations.
    • Educational Techniques and Strategies Found to be Effective when Teaching Middle School Boys

      Mahmutspahic, Shiela; The College at Brockport (2011-08-01)
      In all fifty states, in urban and suburban schools, from kindergarten to college girls are outperforming boys in all subject areas. The achievement gap between girls and boys is widening and boys are falling further and further behind. This study was conducted to research teaching strategies that can be used to teach boys effectively. A questionnaire was administered to a total of five middle school teachers who currently teach at an all-boys school. The questionnaire included teaching strategies and participants were to rate each one to determine the most effective strategy and least effective strategy (out of the strategies given). The results from the questionnaire indicated that using multiple forms of directions and the use of visuals were the two strategies that the participants found to be most effective when teaching boys. The other strategies were less effective, some more than others. It is important for every child to learn, no matter what gender. It is apparent that boys are not measuring up to girls at all levels and subjects. As a result, teachers need to learn what strategies work best with boys in order to be more effective in the classroom. Overall, more research needs to be conducted in the area of boys' education. A larger participant group would enhance this study greatly and also administering it in different settings and levels.
    • Educational Technology and Instructional Pedagogy: Teacher’s perceptions and abilities to integrate technology in the classroom

      Corey, Mary E.; Philipp, Adam M.; The College at Brockport (2013-08-01)
      Many teachers leave the educational profession due to many factors. However, a majority of these conditions exist because our educational system and the institutions that prepare educators often fail to give educators the tools to do their job well. Preparatory courses for pre-service teachers, for example, lack the strength needed to ready the degree earners that enter their program with necessary skills to advance, especially when their institution has deficits laterally across the campus in terms of technology awareness, process, and structure. Once educators enter into school districts they are held responsible for student achievement that is not often supported by the latest technology and ever changing technologies that are present in the fields of other professional fields. Schools all around the country must make choices around adequate funding and balancing the needs of standards set forth by a hierarchy of government legislation. It is up to districts and their personnel to ultimately choose how to best meet all the needs and demands placed upon them in order to meet all of the needs of all their students. Technology of everyday life has moved well beyond what educators are taught to and regularly use to support student learning. Technology is being used in education as a tool for learning, collaboration, curriculum development and staff development. The fluent and collaborative use of technology is now as vital a skill as any other taught in the schools, and as such is an integral part of the curriculum whose purpose is to ensure that students enter the workforce fully equipped and completely at ease with the technology currently in use in the workplace.
    • Educazione Fisica per Bambini con Sindrome di Charge: Ricerca per la Pratica

      Haibach, Pamela; Schedlin, Haley; Lieberman, Lauren J.; DAKE Junior HS Rochester, NY; State University of New York College at Brockport (2012-09-01)
      I bambini affetti da sindrome di Charge mostrano spesso un significativo ritardo nell o sviluppo motorio, che influisce sull a loro performance in diverse abilità motorie e attività fisiche. Lo scopo di questo studio era determinare lo stato dell ’educazione fisica offerta ai bambini affetti da questa sindrome. Le principali aree di interesse erano: (1) setting dell ’educazione fisica; (2) modalità di comunicazione; (3) modifiche; (4) lezioni di successo; (5) lezioni di educazione fisica problematiche. Ventisei genitori di bambini con sindrome di Charge, di età compresa tra 6 e 19 anni, hanno compilato un questionario durante una conferenza internazionale rivolta all e famiglie di soggetti affetti da questa sindrome, che è stato utilizzato come principale fonte di raccolta dati, per comprendere meglio la prospettiva dei genitori sull e esperienze di educazione fisica dei loro bambini con sindrome di Charge. I dati contenuti nell e risposte dei genitori al questionario sono stati usati per fornire indicazioni pratiche per la programmazione di attività di educazione fisica. I risultati hanno rivelato che il tipo di inserimento nell ’educazione fisica influisce sul successo dei bambini e sull a soddisfazione dei genitori rispetto al programma di educazione fisica. Inoltre, i bambini che avevano la possibilità di usufruire di personale di sostegno, come un assistente dell ’insegnante, un educatore o un coadiutore durante l’educazione fisica, avevano maggiore successo. Sono state utilizzate svariate modalità di comunicazione con i bambini con sindrome di Charge. Le lezioni di educazione fisica di successo, secondo quanto riportato dai genitori, erano nuoto, monopattino, bowling, scherma, T-ball , danza, roccia, hockey su pista, hockey su prato e ginnastica artistica. Le lezioni in cui i bambini facevano più fatica erano quell e relative ad abilità motorie fondamentali, come saltare la corda, correre, saltell are, e tutte le lezioni di sport che implicavano l’uso di una pall a che si muoveva velocemente. In conclusione, le modalità di inserimento in educazione fisica, la comunicazione e le modifiche devono essere definitive in modo individualizzato, tenendo conto dell e caratteristiche di ogni singolo bambino con sindrome di Charge. Inoltre, il personale di supporto deve essere appositamente formato sull e esigenze speciali di ogni bambino e sull e aree base di insegnamento del programma di educazione fisica. Vengono infine inclusi nell ’articolo alcuni suggerimenti per migliorare i programmi di educazione fisica, in modo da favorire il coinvolgimento del bambino con la classe e aumentare il successo nell e singole lezioni svolte.
    • Effect of Actinomycin-D on the Ultrastructure of Molting in a Parasitic Nematode, Nippostrongylus Brasiliensis

      Minier, Lee N.; The College at Brockport (1974-01-01)
      The effect of actinomycin_D on the fine structure of the hypodermis of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis was studied during the second molt. The drug inhibited cuticle formation to approximately 90% of control levels, and several ultrastructural alterations were observed in response to treatment with the antibiotic. The morphology of the hypodermis in treated larvae did not progress beyond that state seen in early second stage (L_2) worms. The appearance of large ribosome-bound vesicles derived from the RER in the hypodermis of L_2 treated with 50ug/ml actinomycin-D was diminished, and subsequent cuticle deposition was inhibited. Nucleolar alterations suggestive of segration, capping and fragmentation were observed in worms exposed to the drug for more than 12-18 hr. Configurational changes of RER such as concentric ring formation and aggregation of cisternae near the nuclear envelope were reported. Both actinomycin-D and ? –amanitin induced the formation of nuclear and cytoplasmic crystalline inclusions after 12-18 hr of treatment. The inclusions were not limited by a membrane, and consisted of an aggregation of electron dense particles having an approximate diameter of 100A. The results were correlated with known biochemical and ultrastructural effects of actinomycin-D.
    • Effect of Di-butyl Phthalate on the Reproductive System of Male Rats

      Adhye, Abhijit; The College at Brockport (2003-05-01)
      Reproductive malformations such as hypospadias, cryptorchidism and testicular cancer appear to be on the rise in certain human male populations. Declining sperm counts have also been reported in certain regions of the world, but these findings remain widely debated. Similar reproductive disorders have been seen in wildlife species and have been linked to highly contaminated ecosystems. A unifying mechanism was proposed to explain the decline in male reproductive health.1 According to this hypothesis, all the alleged increases in male reproductive deficits in humans could be linked to disruption of critical developmental events occurring in utero and during the neonatal period when the fetal testes and particularly the Sertoli cells, are undergoing differentiation and replication. Thus, this theory centers on the disruption of the endocrine system during development by chemicals with hormone-like activities such as estrogens and anti-androgens. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of endocrine disrupters on the reproductive system in male rats. In this study, Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), a known endocrine disrupter and a plasticizer was used. Male rats were fed with DBP for the duration of one month both at maturity (3 months) and when they were 1 month of age. After being fed the DPB for one month, some of the experimental animals were necropsied. A second objective was to extend this model to a continuous multi-generation breeding protocol, and to assess if the effects of DBP would be multiplied over the generations. The remaining rats of the original protocol were then bred with control female rats to obtain offsprings which would then be subjected to the same feeding protocol. At necropsy, all animals were sacrificed to obtain serum levels for testosterone (T) measurement, and tissues of testes, accessory sex organs including prostate, seminal vesicles and epididymis were fixed for histological examination. The findings as observed in the first generation of treated rats were consistent with those reported in the literature for DBP. These include minor changes in occasional undescended testis, underdeveloped epididymis, prostate and/or seminal vesicles. However, these changes were observed to have amplified progressively in the successive generation of rats. In particular, the effects were much more pronounced when the feeding protocol were initiated in the immature (one month old) rats as compared to the sexually mature (3 months old) rats. The results clearly indicated that sexually immature rats at one month of age, even well passed the neonatal period, are more susceptible than the older rats at the time when DBP in food is administered; this period of susceptibility extends to the time the development of both the testes and the accessory sex organs are still being formed. Mature rats of the continuous multi-generation breeding protocol, when fed DPB, however, are by comparison quite resistant to the effects of DBP.
    • Effect of Dietary Magnesium Manipulation on the Gastrointestinal Microbiome of a Mouse Model of Ulcerative Colitis

      Ortega, Bernardo; Carlson, Christopher; The College at Brockport (2018-12-17)
      Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a disease characterized by inflammation of the GI tract, which disturbs the mucosal lining and hinders magnesium (Mg2+) absorption. Research has shown that increasing the dietary intake of Mg2+ decreases the severity of the colitis symptoms, but there is no data on the effect this has on the microbiota of the GI tract or the blood. We found that, in DSS-treated mice, the amount of bacteria in the colon increases with a decrease in dietary Mg2+, and that the concentration of bacteria in the spleen does not correlate to symptom severity or to colonic bacterial amounts. Mg2+ could be used as a supplement for UC patients, treating both hypomagnesemia and lowering colonic bacteria closer to healthy levels.
    • Effect of Plyometric Training on the Time-Course of Adaptations to the Elastic Properties of Tendons

      Williams, Christopher; Robertson, Thomas P.; The College at Brockport (2011-04-01)
    • Effect of Stroke Rate on the Velocity/Time Curve of a Rowing Shell

      Puthoff, Martilu; Bernfield, John S.; The College at Brockport (1977-08-01)
      The 1976 U. S. Olympic eight oared crew was filmed (16 mm, 70 FPS) rowing six trials each at stroke rates of 37, 39, and 41 st/min. Shell instantaneous velocity was calculated and plotted for positions throughout the stroke cycle and a cubic spline curve fit to these data points. Time and percentage of total time for leg drive, upper body drive, transition, hands and upper body away, seat movement, and blades to water phases of the stroke cycle were determined. In addition, actual stroke rate, boat average velocity, and curve amplitude were calculated for each trial. Data was ranked by stroke rate and average velocity and a correlation matrix constructed to examine the relationships between variables. Minimum shell velocity occurred approximately 27% into the leg drive phase and maximum velocity was reached during the middle of the seat movement phase. Average shell velocity was found to be positively related to stroke rate (r = .66). Data analysis indicated that boat average velocity was increased by spending more total time exerting force with the legs, and was related to a rapid acceleration of power during the drive phase and a decreased time for recovery.
    • Effect of Thiamine Status on Probability of Lake Ontario Chinook Salmon Spawning in the Upper and Lower Sections of Salmon River, New York

      Ketola, H. George; Johnson, James H.; Rinchard, Jacques; Verdoliva, Francis J.; Penney, Mary E.; Greulich, Andreas W.; Lloyd, Russell C.; Cornell School of Hotel Administration; New York State Department of Environmental Conservation; The College at Brockport; et al. (2009-01-01)
      Consumption of thiaminase-containing forage fishes reduces egg and muscle thiamine content and impairs the spawning migration of Cayuga Lake (New York) rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Because some Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha from Lake Ontario have been shown to produce eggs low in thiamine, we examined the relationship between the migration of Chinook salmon and the thiamine content of their eggs spawned in the lower and upper sections of the Salmon River, a major tributary to Lake Ontario, in 2003–2006. Eggs from the upper section of the river were collected from 79 salmon returning to the state hatchery 25 river kilometers from the mouth. Eggs from 25 salmon in the lower section were collected from redds or females angled on redds approximately 1–3 km from the mouth. For all years combined, we found the mean thiamine concentration in eggs spawned in the lower section to be significantly lower than that for eggs spawned in the upper section; however, the annual differences in thiamine content of eggs between the upper and lower sections were significant only in 2003 and 2006. Binary logistic regression showed that the odds of spawning in the upper section was increased by 96% (95% confidence interval, 21–217%) for every nanomole of increase in the thiamine content of eggs. Therefore, the migratory achievement of Chinook salmon was significantly dependent on their thiamine status.
    • Effect of Two Volleyball Arm Swings on Post-Impact Ball Velocity

      Short, Francis X.; Bowman, Jonathan A.; The College at Brockport (2001-07-01)
      The purpose of this study was to determine if differences exist between post-impact ball velocities generated by the bow-and-arrow arm swing (BAS) and circular arm swing (CS) in volleyball spiking. Ten female collegiate volleyball players were videotaped using two-dimensional cinematography. Markers were placed at the hip, shoulder, elbow wrist, end of the fingers, and the ball. Three videotaped trials of the BAS and the CS techniques for each subject were analyzed with Peak 5 Performance Analysis System. The mean post-impact ball velocity for the BAS was 12.72 m/s (SD = 1.30, SE = 0.41). The mean post-impact ball velocity for the CS was 13.26 m/s (SD = 1.49, SE = 0.47). A dependent t-test (t_(9) = -3.131) revealed significant differences (p = 0.012) between the CS and BAS post-impact ball velocity. No significant difference between CS and BAS pre-impact hand speed was found, which suggests that other factors (the time of contact between the hand and the ball and the transfer of angular momentum) affect ball velocity.
    • Effective Approaches for Teaching Revision

      O'Neill, Jerome James; The College at Brockport (2008-08-01)
      Beyond the grammatical slip, punctuation error, or misspelled word, revision is a fundamental skill that resides at the very heart of the writing and thinking process. This thesis project highlights concerns over students’ and teachers’ similar disdain for the revision process in composition. It suggests the overarching importance of this benchmark skill in all disciplines as a means to deepen consideration of issues and ideas. The concept of revision as more than correction--as a re-seeing and re-thinking--can enable students to be better prepared for further academic pursuits and extends from the classroom to life and vocation. The comprehensive literature review section examines teaching revision and writing concepts to a range of different students. It discusses the idea of revision as an accepted part of the writing process which then becomes a necessary step instead of perceived “busy work.” Key revision techniques suggested throughout the literature are reviewed and discussed for possible implementation. Some of the strategic principles of revision include: positive attitude toward revision, identity of students as real writers, appeal to multiple intelligences, self-evaluation, and peer review. Through an eleventh-grade English Language Arts curriculum model, designed to engage and instruct, this project offers and encourages strategies for educators to apply new revision tools for their students. The curriculum includes lessons which incorporate visualization and auditory elements, computer technology, and communication skills.
    • Effective Leadership of Sport Organizations through Political Astuteness

      Schneider, Robert C.; The College at Brockport (2012-07-22)
      The sport leader’s astuteness to the politics of the sport organization is a necessary component of effective sport leadership. The goal of this presentation is to provide an overview of the organizational politics literature for the purpose developing recommendations to sport leaders that will help improve their astuteness of organizational politics in the sport organization.
    • Effective Literacy Based Software Programs in a 5th Grade Environment

      Shin, Dong-shin; Yu, Randall; The College at Brockport (2013-05-01)
      As technology has evolved in our society, the same can be said for elementary literacy instruction. Students today are growing up in a technologically advanced society which offers many different modes of interacting with literacy. With the development of new online software devices, there are many opportunities for students to grow and learn about literacy in interesting ways. Teachers are often competing against computer games for the attention of their own students. What many teachers fail to see is that they need to take advantage of our students’ engagement with computer software. While traditional methods such as guided reading, read-alouds, and practice sheets may still be important, they will not hold the attention of our student body for very long. Teachers need to incorporate the use of literacy software programs into their classrooms in order to increase motivation in student literacy learning. In turn, students should be more engaged in their own learning and will be learning valuable computer skills that will carry over into their adult life. The purpose of this study is to determine how literacy software programs that the teacher uses affect student’s motivation and achievement in literacy learning activities. In order to determine this, I conducted a 6 week research study in a 5th grade classroom at an elementary school in a small suburban school district. All findings in this study were directed to answer three focal questions about the effectiveness of literacy based software programs in an elementary classroom.
    • Effective Methods to Reach Victims of Domestic Violence

      Stanford, Kate M.; The College at Brockport (2009-01-01)
      The estimated number of women in abusive relationships in the United States is almost 2 million (Pyles & Postmus, 2004; Tjaden & Thoennes, 1998; Tjaden & Thoennes, 2000). Each year 1,500 of these women are murdered by their partners (Shostack, 2001). Yet there are 3 times as many shelters for abused animals then shelters for abused women and children (NiCarthy, 2004) this is at odds with the number of victims in need of services. This study explored a variety of methods to reach victims of domestic violence. To provide a basic understanding of domestic violence in the United States is presented, various definitions of domestic violence are discussed and the history of domestic violence in the United States is explored. The study attempted to understand ways women who utilized their services learned about what was available, the services they utilized and suggestions they had for improving outreach. The findings indicated women often learned about the services from friends and medical professionals who suggested they seek help. The study also revealed that only after leaving the abuser did the women feel safe enough to see help.
    • Effective Models of In-Class Remedial Reading Instruction

      Oakden, Donna L.; The College at Brockport (2005-07-01)
      In light of No Child Left Behind, state assessments, and the pressure to serve children in the least restrictive environment, the methods used to meet student needs are changing considerably. Academic Intervention Services, Title I programs, and special education have all been impacted. This paper will discuss the role of a reading specialist today and how students can receive remedial reading instruction in the regular classroom setting. This topic was selected due to observations of the difficulty my school based literacy educator (SBLE) faces in trying to implement a push-in model of instruction. The purpose of this research is to help the school develop a repertoire of effective co-teaching strategies to ease the implementation of a push-in model. This research then will use previous studies in special education and co-teaching to develop strategies for reading instruction in the classroom. The previous work of Rita Bean dealing with effective reading specialists will be the backbone of the classroom observations that will take place throughout the study. At the end of the research the goal is to have identified the strategies that are already in use at the school and discover several effective collaborative strategies for the reading specialist and classroom teachers to begin to use more often to improve the current program. Ultimately the researcher hopes that these methods will continue to be utilized in the future, both in the school being used for the study and shared with other schools implementing the push-in model.