• Division Buyout and Refinancing of Event Risk Covenant Bonds: Evidence from the Long-Term Stock Performance

      Tewari, Manish; The College at Brockport (2013-05-17)
      The focus of this paper is to assess the long-term common stock performance of the parent firms that underwent divisional buyout (DBO) and had event risk covenant (ERC) bonds outstanding at the announcement of the DBO. The final sample of 46 parent firms exhibit a common characteristic where all the ERC bonds were redeemed (either called above par or put on the firm at par) or restructured at a higher cost to the firm around DBO announcement date due to the presence of ERCs. ERCs are triggered since the parent firms that divest their assets through a DBO reveal future cash flow volatility, which has potential to lower the value of existing bonds. This refunding of the bonds leads to costly refinancing for the parent firms, which has long-term implications. I find significantly negative cumulative abnormal returns at the issue date of the ERC bonds for these firms due to potential managerial entrenchment and foregone transfer of wealth from bondholders to stockholders. Consistent with the finance literature, I find significantly positive cumulative abnormal returns for parent firms at the announcement of the DBO. These positive short-term returns at the announcement do not translate into long-term positive returns. The common stock of these parent firms significantly underperforms the market over the periods three, four, and five years after the DBO date. This dichotomy can be attributed to the security market overreaction to the announcement of DBO. The long-term underperformance can be attributed to the costly refinancing of the ERC bonds.
    • Division Buyout and Refinancing of Event Risk Covenant Bonds: Evidence from the Long-Term Stock Performance

      Tewari, Manish; The College at Brockport (2013-05-17)
      The focus of this paper is to assess the long-term common stock performance of the parent firms that underwent divisional buyout (DBO) and had event risk covenant (ERC) bonds outstanding at the announcement of the DBO. The final sample of 46 parent firms exhibit a common characteristic where all the ERC bonds were redeemed (either called above par or put on the firm at par) or restructured at a higher cost to the firm around DBO announcement date due to the presence of ERCs. ERCs are triggered since the parent firms that divest their assets through a DBO reveal future cash flow volatility, which has potential to lower the value of existing bonds. This refunding of the bonds leads to costly refinancing for the parent firms, which has long-term implications. I find significantly negative cumulative abnormal returns at the issue date of the ERC bonds for these firms due to potential managerial entrenchment and foregone transfer of wealth from bondholders to stockholders. Consistent with the finance literature, I find significantly positive cumulative abnormal returns for parent firms at the announcement of the DBO. These positive short-term returns at the announcement do not translate into long-term positive returns. The common stock of these parent firms significantly underperforms the market over the periods three, four, and five years after the DBO date. This dichotomy can be attributed to the security market overreaction to the announcement of DBO. The long-term underperformance can be attributed to the costly refinancing of the ERC bonds.
    • DNA Fingerprinting: Identification of Organisms Using the Polymerase Chain Reaction and Various Primers

      Kline, Larry K.; Santoleri, Vera; The College at Brockport (1999-12-01)
      The study undertaken involved small scale DNA isolation from eight different fruits using a modified technique written for leaf material. Genetic analysis of this extracted DNA was performed by PCR. Four primers known to target specific DNA sequences were utilized: Analu, Bactoribo, HHFl, and Mitocox. PCR with the Analu, HHFl, and Mitocox primers resulted in a unique pattern of bands that enabled each fruit to be differentiated. Since one major band was observed with the Bactoribo primers and the size of that amplified DNA fragment was either the same or very similar for each fruit, they could not be distinguished based on this primer. Furthermore, the amplification products yielded by the fruits were different from the positive control thus allowing them to be distinguished also. In most cases, 10 ?l of fruit DNA extract in the PCR resulted in the best banding pattern, although informative bands were detected with 1 and 5 ?l of DNA also. Interestingly, 5 ?l of fruit DNA extract in the PCR reaction yielded variable results whereby in some cases, such as with the analu primers, either fewer bands were seen compared to 1 and 10 ?l of DNA, or no bands were visible at all, thus providing less meaningful data. Like RFLP and RAPD analysis, this study demonstrated that the entire genome does not have to be sequenced to detect DNA polymorphisms between different organisms.
    • Do Biases and Experiences of Elementary Teachers Affect the Referral Process?

      Callen, Kerriann; The College at Brockport (2004-05-01)
      Teachers could be referring students based on where the student lives or what background he or she comes from rather than on educational needs. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the biases and experiences of elementary teachers affect whom they refer or whom they do not refer for special education. All of the subjects in this study are teachers from a small suburban school district in Western New York. According to the findings of this study, teachers tended to refer the male student with behavior problems more often than the students with severe academic needs. Teachers in this study also referred the male student with behavior problems more often when they were not able to recognize specific characteristics of disabilities consistently. If teachers are aware of the impact that their biases can have on the referral process, the process could become more reliable.
    • Do EVA ™ Adopters Outperform their Industry Peers? Evidence from Security Analyst Earnings Forecasts

      Cordeiro, James J.; Kent, D. Donald; The College at Brockport (2001-06-01)
      The purpose of the present study is to re-examine the link between EVA ™ adoption and firm performance, using security analyst earnings forecasts. These forecasts, we argue, function as a proxy for firm performance that usefully supplements other accounting and stock market measures. We begin by reviewing some of the literature on EVA™, noting claims for strengths and weaknesses of that performance measure and management system. We then make the case for why security analyst earnings forecasts are a useful performance measure for testing the performance effects of EVA TM adoption. We test our hypothesis using Stern Stewart's sample of firms in 1997.
    • Do EVA ™ Adopters Outperform their Industry Peers? Evidence from Security Analyst Earnings Forecasts

      Cordeiro, James J.; Kent, D. Donald; The College at Brockport (2001-06-01)
      The purpose of the present study is to re-examine the link between EVA ™ adoption and firm performance, using security analyst earnings forecasts. These forecasts, we argue, function as a proxy for firm performance that usefully supplements other accounting and stock market measures. We begin by reviewing some of the literature on EVA™, noting claims for strengths and weaknesses of that performance measure and management system. We then make the case for why security analyst earnings forecasts are a useful performance measure for testing the performance effects of EVA TM adoption. We test our hypothesis using Stern Stewart's sample of firms in 1997.
    • Do Friends Self-Select on the Basis of Virtue?

      Solecki, Candace; The College at Brockport (2006-11-01)
      This study explored the role of signature strengths (e.g., leadership, appreciation of beauty and excellence, social intelligence) in close friendships. Specifically, it was hypothesized that college-aged individuals' signature strengths would be similar to those of their closest friends, and also that the closer and more intimate the friendship, the more similar would be the friends in their signature strengths. It was also hypothesized that the strength of the relationship between best friends' signature strengths would be associated with an individual's level of identity development; with the length of the friendship; and with the gender of the persons reporting. College students were administered the Values In Action Signature Strengths Inventory (VIA-IS), the Berndt Adult Friendship Questionnaire, the Positive and Negative Affectivity Schedule, the Ego Identity Process Questionnaire, and an open-ended measure assessing perceptions of friends' positive qualities. Results indicated several trends for data in predicted directions, although the small sample size precluded any conclusions based on statistical significance.
    • Do Parents Use of DBT Skills Change After a 12 Week Parent/Adolescent DBT Skills Group?

      Powell, Danielle M.; The College at Brockport (2014-04-01)
      The following research looks at the results of a pre and post assessment of parents’ DBT skills use after completing a 12 week DBT skills group. The research design compared individual and group raw score means of the pre and post assessment data. It was hypothesized that caregivers’ post DBT-WCCL scores would indicate more use of DBT skills following the intervention. The data showed a decrease in dysfunctional coping and an increase in DBT skills on post assessments. The magnitude of decrease in dysfunctional coping was greater than the increase in use of DBT skills. Clinicians need to ensure that their DBT groups teach skills to caregivers along with their teen.
    • Do Social Events Defy Scientific Prediction?

      Morrison, Paula G.; The College at Brockport (1972-01-01)
      If Professor Macintyre is correct, then there is not, and cannot be, any such thing as a scientific explanation or prediction of anything social, and hence there can never be any social science. This paper responds to Professor Macintyre’s argument, and rejects his position.
    • Do Students in the Fifth-Grade Benefit from the Writing Workshop with Regard to their Scores on the New York State Fifth-Grade Writing Test?

      Begy, Gerald; Torrell, Lisa E.; The College at Brockport (1997-08-01)
      There are two very different approaches being used in classrooms today with regards to teaching writing. A traditional approach to teaching writing might include using a grammar textbook and/or a workbook. A holistic approach to teaching writing believes that students learn to write by writing. Students move through the entire writing process, from prewriting to publishing, for each piece of work they create. This is called the Writing Workshop. More current research was needed to determine if one approach was more beneficial than the other. In this longitudinal study, both approaches were taught in separate classrooms for an entire school year. The scores on the end of the year writing test were compared with one another to see if there was a statistically significant difference between the two teaching methods. Computed t (2.44) was greater than Table t (2. 019) indicating a statistically significant difference between Group A and Group B. Therefore, the null hypothesis was rejected. Statistically, then, the Writing Workshop seems to have positively affected the writing skills of the fifth-grade students. Those students participating in the intervention group demonstrated more growth in their writing by the end of the year than the control group showed.
    • Do Study Cards Really Work?

      Baker, Patricia E.; Sentiff, Ann Marie (1996-07-01)
      Study cards are recognized as a useful tool for building vocabulary and general comprehension in secondary school students. However, results from previous studies on their efficacy are mixed. Note-taking is often cited as a superior method, but secondary school students often lack the skills to create the most effective notes. Study cards are an alternative method to note-taking that is easier to utilize. The study investigates information recall in a group of 10th grade Regents biology students. Students in the study group utilize 25 study cards per unit, while the control group rely on other study methods of their own choosing. Based on a pre- and post-test evaluation of information recall, the results show only a minor improvement using study cards over other methods. The results are not statistically significant, and therefore do not support the efficacy of study cards as an educational technology.
    • Do Study Cards Really Work?

      Brautigan, Walter F.; Ribble, Robert B.; Baker, Patricia E.; Sentiff, Ann Marie (1996-07-01)
      Study cards are recognized as a useful tool for building vocabulary and general comprehension in secondary school students. However, results from previous studies on their efficacy are mixed. Note-taking is often cited as a superior method, but secondary school students often lack the skills to create the most effective notes. Study cards are an alternative method to note-taking that is easier to utilize. The study investigates information recall in a group of 10th grade Regents biology students. Students in the study group utilize 25 study cards per unit, while the control group rely on other study methods of their own choosing. Based on a pre- and post-test evaluation of information recall, the results show only a minor improvement using study cards over other methods. The results are not statistically significant, and therefore do not support the efficacy of study cards as an educational technology.
    • Does Exercise Affect a Person’s Heart?

      Englert, Lisa; The College at Brockport (2003-07-28)
      1. Students will count off 1-7 forming 7 groups of 4. 2. Assign each group an exercise: sit-ups, jump rope, running in place, hand weights, walking and jumping jacks. One group will be a control at rest. 3. Each student in the group will perform the exercise for a total of 20 minutes, taking a pulse rate every 2 minutes and record. 4. Students are to enter the data onto an EXEL Spreadsheet. A summation of the “20 minute” data for the 4 students is then averaged. 5. A class data is added to spreadsheet by having the students post their averages on the board. 6. A bar graph is constructed and used to help in answering the Exploration Questions.
    • Does Gender Impact on the Learning Style of Student Athletes?

      Kozub, Francis M.; Marchese, Kristina; The College at Brockport (2013-05-08)
      Throughout life everyone learns, but everyone does not learn the same. This is why learning styles have been a focal point of much research examining learning in various contexts. This synthesis examined a critical mass of research to determine if gender was a factor in the learning style preference of student athletes. Along with learning style preferences, this project focused on how to use existing research and identifying strategies to assist coaches working with female athletes. Results indicated that nonathletic males prefer to learn by words (read/write, abstract conception, and reflective learner) while females outside of athletics have been identified as preferring the learning styles of pictures (visual and reflective observation) and words. Collectively, males and females prefer pictures over the other learning styles. This synthesis examined a critical mass of research and found that the learning styles using pictures and words are most preferred over hearing/speaking and experience regardless of gender or athletic status. Additional research is needed to identify the learning style of student athletes and particularly female athletes.
    • Does Grouping Based on Gender Affect a Child's Sight Word Recognition Ability and Their Affective Domain?

      Watts, Tracy L.; The College at Brockport (1997-08-01)
      The purpose of this study was to see if gender grouping could affect a student’s ability to increase his or her sight word recognition and to examine its connection to the affective domain. The subjects of this study received reading instruction in both single and dual sex groups. The subjects responded to a questionnaire regarding the affective domain. The findings of the study imply that the treatment used did not solely affect the recognition of sight words. Both groups showed an increase in the recognition of sight words. The findings of this study do indicate that there was an effect on the student’s affective domain.
    • Does Grouping for Language Arts Have an Impact on Student Performance?

      Beers, Morris J.; Schlosser, Linda; Robinson, Scott D.; Persia, Julianne (2000-04-01)
      Educators disagree about the effectiveness of grouping students by reading level for language arts instruction. Ability grouping can allow instruction that is congruent with the students' reading level, as well as encourage group participation. However, homogenous grouping can have negative effects on students placed in low-ability groups. This study compares the outcomes for a class of students grouped by reading level, and a class of students grouped heterogeneously. The author uses the Degree of Reading Power Test, the New York State PEP test, and teacher interviews to determine reading levels. Analysis shows that the students placed in groups by reading level exhibit greater improvement in reading ability at the end of the year.
    • Does Participation in College Athletics Prepare Student-Athletes for Careers and Life After College Sports?: A Review of the Literature

      Stout, Morgan; The College at Brockport (2018-04-01)
      The transition from student-athlete to non-student-athlete is a daunting time for many student-athletes that can bring a flood of both positive and negative emotions. Currently there are few organized programs that prepare student-athletes for this challenging life transition. This synthesis reviewed literature regarding the transition process that student-athletes experience when leaving collegiate athletics. A total of ten articles were chosen to be included in the critical mass for this synthesis and information was organized by completing 12-step outlines for each article. The following six research questions were intended to be answered: (a) what do student-athletes experience when leaving the world of college athletics?, (b) is there a difference between males and females when transitioning out of college sports?, (c) what are the experiences of DI and DIII athletes like?, (d) what is the impact of injury on the transition from student-athlete to non-student?, (e) what are some of the strengths and weaknesses student-athletes bring to careers and life after college sports?, (f) what can colleges do to prepare student-athletes for life after college athletics? Results indicated the transition experience is a process that requires both academic and career planning. Between Division I and Division III, there are few differences in the transition experiences of student-athletes. Gender played a significant role in the transition and males needed more targeted intervention programs than females. The athletes who suffered career ending injuries had a more difficult transition experience, especially when they had to make the decision to leave sport themselves. It is important for institutions to provide career planning early and often for student-athletes in order to prepare them for life after college sports.
    • Does Physical Activity Improve Cognitive Functioning? A Synthesis of the Research Literature

      Petersen, Susan C.; Houston-Wilson, Cathy; Klos, Nathan; The College at Brockport (2019-05-13)
      The purpose of this synthesis was to examine the effects of physical activity on cognitive function. A comprehensive literature review was conducted to study the effects of physical activity on cognitive function in adolescents and adults, what types of physical activity impact cognitive function, as well as to determine the effects that physical activity has on people with Parkinson’s disease. Scholarly peer-reviewed articles were found completely online through the SUNY Brockport Drake Memorial Library Research Guides. Key words were selected to find pertinent articles related to the research questions. Past and current research suggests that physical activity could be an important, natural, and simple way to promote the well-being of an individual at any age, socio-economic group, or lifestyle. Regular high-vigorous physical activity, primarily aerobic, has a direct relationship with the improvement of cognitive function at all ages (Davis et al., 2007; Kvalo, Bru, Bronnick, & Dyrstad, 2017; and Linde and Alfermann; 2014). Alberts et al., (2016), DE Assis, DE Silva, & Silva Dantas (2017), Fiorelli et al., (2017), Fisher et al., (2008), Hazamy et al., (2017), and Loprinizi, Danzel, Ulanowski, & Paydo (2017), each agree that regular physical activity has a positive effect on individuals with Parkinson’s disease both physically and cognitively.
    • Does Reducing Supervision for Low-Risk Probationers Jeopardize Community Safety?

      Duru, Haci; Lovens, Lori Brusman; Lovins, Brian (2020-06)
      The number of individuals on community supervision in the U.S. far surpasses those incarcerated. Of the 6.6 million addults in 2016 under correctional control, more than 4'5 million (68%) were serving a term of ommunity supervision. Eighty-one percent of the individuals placed on community supervision were on probation. With large numbers of individuals on supervised probation, agencies must explore how to best allocate resources while meeting mandates for increased public safety.
    • Does Reducing Supervision for Low-risk Probationers Jeopardize Community Safety?

      Duru, Haci; Lovins, Lori B.; Lovins, Brian; Justice System Partners; State University of New York College at Brockport; University of Houston, Downtown (2020-06-01)
      THE NUMBER OF individuals on community supervision in the U.S. far surpasses those incarcerated. Of the 6.6 million adults in 2016 under correctional control, more than 4.5 million (68 percent) were serving a term of community supervision Eighty-one percent of the individuals placed on community supervision were probationers ( With large numbers of individuals supervised on probation, agencies must explore how to allocate resources more wisely, all while meeting the mandate for enhanced public safety.