• X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy and Imaging of Heterogeneous Hydrothermal Mixtures Using a Diamond Microreactor Cell

      Fulton, John L.; Darab, John G.; Hoffmann, Markus M.; Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; The College at Brockport (2001-04-01)
      Hydrothermal synthesis is an important route to novel materials. Hydrothermal chemistry is also an important aspect of geochemistry and a variety of waste remediation technologies. There is a significant lack of information about the speciation of inorganic compounds under hydrothermal conditions. For these reasons we describe a high-temperature, high-pressure cell that allows one to acquire both x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectra and x-ray transmission and absorption images of heterogeneous hydrothermal mixtures. We demonstrate the utility of the method by measuring the Cu(I) speciation in a solution containing both solid and dissolved Cu phases at temperatures up to 325?°C. X-ray imaging of the various hydrothermal phases allows micro-XAFS to be collected from different phases within the heterogeneous mixture. The complete structural characterization of a soluble bichloro-cuprous species was determined. In situ XAFS measurements were used to define the oxidation state and the first-shell coordination structure. The Cu–Cl distance was determined to be 2.12 Å for the CuCl2? species and the complete loss of tightly bound waters of hydration in the first shell was observed. The microreactor cell described here can be used to test thermodynamic models of solubility and redox chemistry of a variety of different hydrothermal mixtures.
    • Yoga’s Effect on Pain and Functional Disability in Patients With Chronic Low Back Pain: a Literature Review

      Lenz, Elizabeth; DuCharme, Alexa; The College at Brockport (2015-05-01)
      Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is one of the most prominent causes of functional disability worldwide. A systematic review observed 18.3 percent (±12.7) of survey takers having a current diagnosis of CLBP (11). In the United States, 90 percent of reported cases are deemed unspecific, due to unknown pathologies (31). The estimated cost of treating this widespread disability in the United States is $4.3 billion (18). Due to the prevalence and the associated cost of CLBP, several cost effective alternative and complementary treatments have been found to effectively treat CLBP. Yoga is a common treatment for a number of ailments including migraines, carpal tunnel syndrome, osteoarthritis, multiple sclerosis, hypertension, asthma, irritable bowel syndrome, neck pain, and back pain (24). Yoga is an exercise program focused on improving muscle function and control of the voluntary nervous system (7). Due to its emphasis on the correction of physical causes of pain and functional disability, researchers believe yoga has the potential to be a very cost-effective treatment (4). This Review investigates the effects of yoga on pain and functional disability in patients with CLBP which has made yoga a valuable alternative and/or complementary treatment for patients with chronic low back pain.
    • You CAN Handle the Truth: How to Create a Caring Classroom Culture in which to Address Uncomfortable Topics

      Giblin, Thomas R.; Andalora, Delia (2019-12-13)
      High school teachers have the job of equipping students with a set of skills and knowledge that will help them be successful, functioning members of society in this complex world. Unfortunately, public schools across the country are failing to adequately prepare young adults for the adversity that each of us must inevitably face in our lives. By avoiding topics such as race, sexuality, sexism, immigration, and other topics because they are uncomfortable, teachers are lying to their students about the world which can lead to a pervasive and damaging ignorance. Creating a caring classroom in which teachers and students respect themselves, each other, and other cultures opens the door to addressing these sensitive subjects. This paper outlines methods and techniques for creating a caring classroom in order to teach about touchy topics.
    • You Can Say That Again

      Braude, Stephen E.; University of Maryland, Baltimore County (1986-01-01)
    • You Took a Name That Made you Amiable to the Music: Toni Cade Bambara's The Salt Eaters

      Rosenberg, Ruth; Kingsborough College, City University of New York (2014-10-16)
    • Young Adult Trauma: Representation, Intersectionality, and Friendship in Leigh Bardugo’s Six of Crows

      Proehl, Kristen; Esposito, Catherine; State University of New York College at Brockport (2020-09-14)
      The trauma represented in YA Literature is relevant to young adult readers. The texts Six of Crows by Leigh Bardugo, Suzanne Collins’ The Hunger Games and Angie Thomas’ The Hate U Give (dir. George Tillman, Jr.) represent fantasy YA, dystopian YA, and contemporary YA, and give different contexts for the multitudinous nature of trauma. Outlining the history of trauma in the world and in literature before delving into its representations into these texts will provide context for the intricate ways they are used. The examples from these texts will provide proof of the popularity of trauma as a method of reaching viewers, who may have experienced similar traumas or post-traumatic symptoms. This is all to draw conclusions about the way and the reasons that young adult readers are impacted by reading about trauma in texts. Between race, gender, and sexuality, marginalized groups are often left out. Without these fictional representations, children who do not see themselves represented can feel like their experiences are not valid. The intersection of gender, race, and class is important to each of these texts, especially Six of Crows and The Hate U Give. Bardugo crafts her world utilizing these contexts to create a diverse cast of characters, all of whom come with their own form of trauma.
    • Zombie Apocalypse (Biology Lesson Plan)

      Lush, Colby; Flores, Arcangell; The College at Brockport (2013-07-01)
      Objectives: Students will be able to use a model of a zombie outbreak to collect data, organize data on an Excel sheet, create a scatter plot with data, and analyze/interpret what the created graphs mean, as well as a couple sample graphs. It seeks to answer the question, “What is the projected human casualty rate?” Main Activity: Students will run the model on Agentsheets to collect raw data, then record that data onto an Excel sheet, and plot graphs of the data to identify patterns. Science and Engineering Practices: lesson outline as utilized with this model 1. Asking questions (for science) and defining problems (for engineering) 2. Developing and using models 3. Planning and carrying out investigations 4. Analyzing and interpreting data 5. Using mathematics and computational thinking 6. Constructing explanations (for science) and designing solutions (for engineering) 7. Engaging in argument from evidence8. Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information Cross Cutting Themes: 1. System Model 2. Stability and Change 3. Patterns 4. Scale Proportion and Quantity Biology and Math Standards: 1. Living Environment Performance Indicator 5.2: Viral/disease growth in a population 2. Living Environment Performance Indicator 6.1g: Predator/Prey relationship 3. Living Environment Performance Indicator 3.1: Survival of the Fittest 4. CCSS.Math.Practice.MP4: Model with mathematics. 5. CCSS.Math.Content.HSS-ID.A.3 Interpret differences in shape, center, and spread in the context of the data sets, accounting for possible effects of extreme data points (outliers). 6. CCSS.Math.Content.HSS-IC.B.6 Evaluate reports based on data. The primary file is a lesson plan, accompanied by supplemental files. In the supplemental zipped files, you will find: Student worksheets Lesson plan Powerpoint presentations
    • Zooplankton Community Response to Salinity Addition

      Costa, Robert R.; Lukos, Glenn C.; The College at Brockport (1974-01-01)
      The primary objective of this study was to determine the effect of salinity stress on a mixed Cladocera and Copepoda community, including shifts in zooplankton densities, percent composition of populations, and changes in percent composition of females carrying eggs or young. The researcher collected zooplankton samples at depths of 0.5m to 3.0m from a lake in Western New York as the water approached the temperature selected for each phase of the project. Samples were taken with a hand pump or a #20 mesh plankton tow net. Organisms were then concentrated into 4L of lake water and transported to the laboratory, where they were immediately placed in a Percival incubator set at the temperature at which they were collected (+- 2C) and aerated for 24 hours. The culture was then randomly sub-sampled to provide 15 sub-cultures (250-300ml each). The researcher replaced the water of each subculture with one of five salt solutions (0, 500, 1000, 1500, and 2000 ppm NaCl in native lake water), resulting in three replicates for each salinity value. Subcultures were maintained in the incubator under a 12-hour photoperiod at the selected temperature. The subcultures were then immediately partitioned and examined with a dissecting microscope for changes in the composition of the zooplankton community and reexamined at 1-2 day intervals thereafter. Only obviously living organisms were counted and classified as to generic makeup and reproductive condition. The salinity-temperature combinations appeared to be within the zooplanktons’ zone of tolerance. However, the researcher observed that long-term exposure to elevated salinity had negative effects on large segments of the zooplankton community. Cladocera were particularly affected and were eliminated at salinity values of 1000 ppm NaCl or greater. The researcher observed that the decline in numbers did not appear to be the result of salinity-induced death, but rather of a lower rate of reproduction/replacement among affected populations. The researcher concludes that higher chloride concentration selectively and significantly reduces biotic potential in specific genera or groups, resulting in lowered diversity.