• Ultra-Structural Identification of the Interstitial Cells of Cajal in the Zebrafish Danio rerio

      Ball, Evan R.; Matsuda, Miho M.; Dye, Louis; Hoffmann, Victoria; Zerfas, Patricia M.; Szarek, Eva; Rich, Adam; Chitnis, Ajay; Stratakis, Constantine A.; National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; et al. (2012-01-01)
      The interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) are important mediators of gastrointestinal motility due to their role as pacemakers in the GI tract. In addition to their function, ICCs are also structurally distinct cells most easily identified by their ultra-structural features and expression of the tyrosine kinase receptor c-KIT. ICCs have been described in mammals, rodents, birds, reptiles and amphibians ; there are no reports at the ultra-structural level of ICC’s within the GI tract of an organism from the teleost lineage. This report describes the presence of cells in the muscularis of the zebrafish intestine with similar features to ICCs in other vertebrates. ICC-like cells were associated with the muscularis, were more electron dense than surrounding smooth muscle cells, possessed long cytoplasmic processes and mitochondria, and were situated opposing to enteric nervous structures. In addition, immunofluorescent and immunoelectron microscopic studies using antibodies targeting the zebrafish ortholog of a putative ICC marker, c-KIT (kita), demonstrated c-kit immunoreactivity in zebrafish ICCs. Taken together, these data represent the first ultra-structural characterization of cells in the muscularis of the zebrafish Danio rerio and suggest ICC differentiation in vertebrate evolution may date back to the teleost lineage.
    • Ultrastructure of Zebra Fish Dorsal Aortic Cells

      Miano, Joseph A.; Georger, Mary A.; Rich, Adam; De Mesy Bentley, Karen L.; The College at Brockport; University of Rochester (2006-01-01)
      Expression of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) markers such as serum response factor (SRF) is complicated in zebrafish because of the ill-defined histology of the dorsal aorta and the presence of perivascular pigment. We report the ultrastructure of aortic cells in 7-day, 1-month, and 3-month-old zebrafish and provide clear evidence for the presence of perivascular melanocytes harboring an abundance of melanin. In 7-day-old larvae, endothelial cells (EC) and synthetic mural cells that display little evidence of VSMC differentiation comprise the dorsal aorta. The latter mural cells appear to fully differentiate into VSMC by 1 month of age. In 3-month-old adult zebrafish, EC exhibit greater differentiation as evidenced by the accumulation of electron-dense bodies having a diameter of approximately 200 nm. Adult zebrafish aortae also exhibit at least one clear layer of VSMC with the characteristic array of membrane-associated dense plaques, myofilament bundles, and a basement membrane. Subjacent to VSMC are collagen-producing adventitial fibroblasts and melanocytes. These studies indicate that fully differentiated VSMC occur only after day 7 in zebrafish and that such cells are arranged in at least one lamellar unit circumscribing the endothelium. These findings provide new data about the timing and accumulation of VSMC around the zebrafish aorta, which will be useful in phenotyping mutant zebrafish that exhibit defects in blood circulation.
    • Una comparación de asuntos sobre la violencia doméstica en los Estados Unidos y España

      Souto Rumbo, Jose Ismael; Bialy, Brendan; The College at Brockport (2018-05-04)
      This paper will focus on gender issues in the U.S. and Spain. Spain has a very low domestic violence rate of about 13% in comparison with the rest of the world and especially the U.S. which has a rate of about 36% (genderindex.org). This text explains why there is such a difference by comparing key statistics that track gender issues. The objective is to show that there are policies used in Spain that would benefit the U.S. in reducing its prevalence of domestic violence. There are certain key factors that explain the prevalence of domestic violence. These factors are history, economics and government. Scholars examine history to find out how it has impacted this issue: are there key events or points in time where treatment of gender issues changed? We examine what the gender norms are and how those norms could contribute to these issues: are women present in the workplace, military, etc. and what are their roles? We look at economics to see how capable a country is to apply an effective policy directed toward gender issues and to see if there is an inherent inequality in the sexes: how dependent are women on men. Is it the other way around? And lastly we observe how the government implements its policies in relation to gender issues: are policies implemented by a central or federal government and does this change the policies? Also, what is public opinion like toward gender issues? One clear example of a comparison to be made between countries is of the quality, quantity and availability of programs and institutions that try to prevent domestic violence. This paper will also evaluate the programs and institutions that seek to help those people who have been victimized. Programs like these are important because, often enough, victims will return to their abusers if they have no alternative place to go; when they have no money, home or accepting family. Governmental programs that are implemented in each country have a varying 3 degree of effectiveness that can be quantified and altered to further reduce the prevalence of domestic violence. By evaluating these programs we can conclude that certain programs are effective in dealing with domestic violence. This paper will demonstrate that Spain’s gender equality programs, which have been effective in reducing the domestic violence rate could serve to do the same if applied in the U.S.
    • Uncertainty in Everyday Situations

      Lombard, Kim; The College at Brockport (2004-10-29)
      Students use ideas of uncertainty to illustrate that mathematics involves more than exactness when dealing with everyday situations.
    • Unconscious Actions Emanating From the Human Cerebral Cortex

      Eccles, John C.; The College at Brockport (1972-01-01)
      This paper presents some recent work of Roger Sperry and his associates on “split-brain cases.” The remarkable finding is that, after surgery, the actions that are programmed from one side of the cerebral cortex are not recognized by the other side of the cerebral cortex as belonging to the subject.
    • Uncovering Models and Visualizations in the Chemistry Classroom, an Assessment of Classroom Activities and Lessons

      Veronesi, Peter; Brooke-Gay, Michael (2016-10-01)
      Chemistry education, although difficult, can be improved through the use of modeling and visualizations in the classroom. Example case studies throughout will show the importance of models and questioning techniques used to assess student understanding. By injecting mental models, physical scientific models, cartoons, analogies and computer simulations into the curriculum, chemistry can become a subject where seeing the unseen is possible.
    • Underage Drinking: A Learning Experience

      Rosenbaum, Bradley L.; The College at Brockport (2007-01-01)
      Presented is a review of an educational program on the topic of alcohol use and abuse among teenagers. A literature review, method, results, discussion, references and appendices are presented.
    • Undergraduate Physical Education Teacher Preparation: What Practitioners Tell Us

      Collier, Douglas; Hebert, Fred; The College at Brockport; University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point (2004-04-01)
      Provides data to assist faculty in determining curricular decisions and future directions in undergraduate physical education programs.
    • Underrepresented: The Lack of Black Designers Featured in Harper’s Bazaar and Vogue

      Ellington, Tameka N.; Kent State University (2017-12-06)
      During the Fall 2012 New York Fashion Week preview, only two African American designers showcased collections of the 127 designers (Mullins). Spring 2015 Fashion Week showcased 25 African American/African (Black) designers (Superselected), which is a significant increase. However, there is still minimal to no presence of Black designers in high-fashion magazines. There has been lay/popular research on this phenomenon (Kearney; madamenoire; Mullins; Williams; Woodberry), but no academic data has been published regarding this injustice. Through a Critical Race Theory (CRT) lens the coverage or lack thereof that Black designers receive is divulged. CRT recognizes that racism is engrained in the fabric and system of the American society (UCLA School of Public Affairs). A content analysis of Harper’s Bazaar and Vogue was conducted for year 2000 and 2012 in order to track a possible increase in coverage. The data revealed that there was no increase of exposure Black designer received in Harper’s Bazaar and Vogue from year 2000 to 2012. Tokenism was found as an issue which did not allow for other non-token Black designers to be recognized. The results suggest that there is continued need for diversification in high-fashion publications.
    • Understanding and Managing Organizational Politics

      Schneider, Robert C.; The College at Brockport (2016-02-18)
      The aim of this paper is to present a basis for an understanding of organizational politics and provide various approaches to decreasing its presence and generally negative effects on the organization. Self-interest is a common component of organizational politics and is represented by members’ interests to preserve one’s career (Vigoda, 2000) and to advance one’s career (Randall, Cropanzano, Borman, & Birjulin, 1999). The negative effects of organizational politics can ultimately undermine the overall goals of the organization and include: the playing of favorites (Malik, Danish, & Ghafoor, 2009); poor organizational citizenship behaviors (Chang, et al., 2009); the decline in job satisfaction and increases of job stress (Miller, Rutherford, & Kolodinsky, 2008; an indifferent employee attitude, and poor job performance (Witt, Andrews, & Kacmar, 2000); disruption of return on employee investment (Hochwarter, Kacmar, Perrewe, & Johnson, 2003); and lower morale (Chang et al., 2009). Strategies found effective in reducing organizational politics include but are not limited to: involving employees in decision making, fostering teamwork, building trust and social support, hiring politically under-skilled employees, and basing personnel and program decisions on objective criteria. Politics’ omnipresence across organizations presents a challenge for managers in that it will never be eradicated but must be consistently addressed if organizational outcomes are to be achieved and maximized.
    • Understanding Cultural Differences Between Home and School for Latino Students

      Rossi, Frank; Rivera, Leslie; The College at Brockport (2018-12-17)
      Many minority families, including Hispanics/Latinos, have limited communication with educators, and it is not by coincidence. Teachers are not always educated on how to work with ELL families, or what strategies to use, in order to communicate and make positive connections with families. Minority families struggle to understand the American educational system, and feel ignored and marginalized because of their limited understanding and language abilities. This researcher took a survey of about three hundred staff members at Monroe #1 BOCES, in order to find the barriers that impact school and ELL family communication the most. The language barrier, miscommunication, and the lack of parent education, or the perception of it, were the biggest concerns for educators. This researcher found that the way to engage parents is to make the school environment more diverse and inviting to different cultures. Inviting parents to lead and participate in school activities makes families feel like part of the school’s community, and having documents translated and interpreters available helps minimize miscommunications. It is the researcher’s recommendation that all educators within BOCES be required to minimally take a basic professional development training in working with ELLs and their families. New hires should take the same training as part of the hiring process. All educators should have basic strategies for working with ELLs and their families, and should know what resources are available within BOCES to facilitate communication with families.
    • Understanding Data using a Mobile GPS

      Paul, Neill; The College at Brockport (2006-08-01)
      • Students will be capable of using a mobile GPS unit to plot latitude and longitude coordinates. • Students will grasp the basic of orienteering with their GPS unit . • Students will capable of applying the importance of GPS to real life scenarios.
    • Understanding Data using a TI Calculator

      Paul, Neill; The College at Brockport (2006-07-25)
      • Students will understand how to input and analyze various data sets by using their graphing calculators. • Students will grasp the importance of having numerous measures of average, in order to understand what their data actually shows. • Students will capable of applying the importance of statistics to real life scenarios, specifically science.
    • Understanding Great Lakes Issues

      This essay is based on material presented at a public forum jointly organized and sponsored by the International Association of Great Lakes Research and the Royal Botanical Gardens. The forum was held at the Royal Botanical Gardens Auditorium on the evening of May 2, 1989. Topics discussed are: physical features of the Lake Ontario Basin history of European settlement and industrialization eutrophication and toxic contaminants in the context of the Lake Ontario food web effects of eutrophication and toxic contaminants on Lake Ontario fish and on the human population of the Basin possible effects of global climate change on Lake Ontario population growth and land use in the Lake Ontario Basin societal stresses arising from real, perceived, or anticipated environmental degradation an optimistic future scenario for Lake Ontario The point of view of the article is consistent with the ecosystem approach to Great Lakes environmental issues. It suggests that individual attitudes and lifestyles will have to be reappraised and changed before the technical knowledge we now or might eventually possess will be effective in assisting a return to a sustainable way of life. The essay is written so as to be comprehensible to high school students.
    • Understanding Mass, Volume and Density

      DeMond, Thomas; Phillips, Jessica; Sheffer, Christopher; The College at Brockport (2004-10-28)
      Students will use mathematics and modeling to understand the fundamentals of mass
    • Understanding Oil Subsidy in Nigeria

      Zaccheus, Oladoyin; The College at Brockport (2013-04-08)
      For several years, Nigeria enjoyed subsidy on gasoline. However, this came to an end on January 1st, 2012, after an announcement from President Goodluck Jonathan, that subsequently, the subsidy was to be removed. While some sort of resolution/middle ground has been reached in response to the reaction that this news generated, the concept and theory behind the oil subsidy removal is worth understanding. This research paper explains the history of the oil subsidy in Nigeria, the rationale behind its removal and subsequently, gives a few recommendations for future reference.
    • Understanding Oil Subsidy in Nigeria

      Hasnat, Baban; Zaccheus, Oladoyin; The College at Brockport (2012-05-07)
      For several years, Nigeria enjoyed subsidy on gasoline. However, this came to an end on January 1st, 2012, after an announcement from President Goodluck Jonathan, that subsequently, the subsidy was to be removed. While some sort of resolution/middle ground has been reached in response to the reaction that this news generated, the concept and theory behind the oil subsidy removal is worth understanding. This research paper explains the history of the oil subsidy in Nigeria, the rationale behind its removal and subsequently, gives a few recommendations for future reference.
    • Understanding Physician Assisted Suicide: A Literature Review

      Lowey, Susan E.; Sollecito, Gabrielle; The College at Brockport (2018-05-11)
      Death and dying are difficult subjects for people to talk about, both for themselves and for their loved ones. It is unfortunate that so many terminal illnesses come with a lot of pain. When it has been determined that someone’s life is coming to an end, one would hope that it can be as peaceful as possible. Two options for end of life care include continuous palliative sedation and physician assisted suicide. This article will discuss physician assisted suicide in depth in order to expand understanding of the treatment.
    • Understanding Police Organizational Transition to Community Policing and Beyond

      Lumb, Richard; Metz, Gary; The College at Brockport (2019-05-01)
      The article surveys police organizational responses over time as demands for sevice change and result in change for police roles.