• Pageantry to Pornography: Gazing at and Selling Female Bodies

      LeSavoy, Barbara; Wright, Kelsey (2017-05-10)
      “All women live in sexual objectification the way fish live in water.” (Catharine MacKinnon, 1989) Have you ever watched a beauty pageant contest? What about mainstream pornography? These two capitalistic industries continue to enforce the misogynistic view that the female body is to be consumed by the male population. I argue that the societal standards we commonly consider the norm affect female embodiment and what it means to be a woman in contemporary society. Beauty standards, gender roles, sexualization, objectification, and the male gaze all point towards this ideology that the female body is to be consumed by men. Pageantry and pornography only continue to enforce this ideology as the two industries flourish off the femininity of the contestants and actresses. In this paper I argue, we need to abandon these societal standards that control female bodies and behaviors in a heteropatriarchal world. I want to advocate freedom from the “male gaze” for all women.
    • Pairing and Comparing in the Middle School Mathematics Classroom

      Wade, Carol H.; Clark, Elizabeth A.; The College at Brockport (2012-10-01)
      This study was designed to examine the effects of cooperative learning in the middle school mathematics classroom. This action research project seeks to answer the question of does cooperative learning improve academic performance of middle school mathematics students. The study took place in two parallel middle school mathematics classrooms in a district of New York’s Southern Tier. There was an experimental group and a control group. The experimental group participated in a pair and compare teaching strategy following daily independent practice of the day’s lesson, as well as an open ended group task. The control group did not participate in this cooperative learning strategy and continued with teacher directed instruction. This was a quantitative action research study in which a t-test was used to analyze results of a formal assessment following two weeks of this intervention. In addition, some qualitative observations were made and have been included into the data results where they provide meaning. It was hypothesized that students in the experimental class would perform better after the use of cooperative learning. The t score indicated that although there was a difference, it was not a significant difference.
    • Palladium Catalyzed Hydrodechlorination of 4-Chloroanisole in Phosphonium Ionic Liquids

      Logan, Margaret E.; Hennig, Joseph (2016-06-24)
      Until their production was banned in 1979, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB’s), formed as complex mixtures, were used in electrical equipment. Although they are no longer manufactured, some PCBs are still in service—albeit, in closed or semi-closed systems such as dielectric fluids for transformers and capacitors, or are still present in the environment. The continued presence of PCBs is problematic, due to their toxicity. Their hydrophobic nature and resistance towards metabolism leads to bio-accumulation up the food chain. resulting in long term effects in chronically exposed persons, like firefighters, factory workers or persons whose food have accumulated appreciable levels of PCBs. Efficient dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has relevance in the environment, as it would reduce the toxicity of these pollutants. The chemistry described in this thesis is a model study for dechlorinating PCBs using 4- chloroanisole as a model compound. In this fundamental study, palladium-catalyzed dechlorination of chloroanisole was studied in ionic liquids (ILs), where the catalyst was expected to be more stable than in methanol, the previously used solvent. This thesis describes the hydrodechlorination efficacy and longevity of palladium catalysts with ligands 4 (2-(di-tert-butylphosphino)biphenyl) and 5 (2-(di-tertbutylphosphino)-2 ’ ,4’ ,6’ -triisopropylbiphenyl) in methanol and ILs 6 (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide), 7a (trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium chloride), and 7b (trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide) (Scheme 9). Additionally, this thesis focuses on improving the logistical aspects of determining the water content in the ILs, sampling reactions to follow their progress, data reproducibility, and analysis of reaction progress, as well as the impact of water on the rate of hydrodechlorination reactions in ionic liquids. After excluding results from obviously compromised reactions, it appears that reactions in IL 7b proceed faster on average than those in IL 7a, that reactions performed with ligand 5 run faster than those with ligand 4, and that there may be a bell curve to the concentration of water vs rate of reaction, with the reaction proceeding best at intermediate water concentrations. Further experiments would be needed to confirm these results.
    • Paper Wings

      Pinchman, Elizabeth (2016-01-01)
    • Parallel Lines cut by a Transversal

      Seitz, Carrie; The College at Brockport (2006-08-01)
      Students will Determine angle pair relationships when given two parallel lines cut by a transversal
    • Parent Involvement and Literacy Achievement: A Case Study

      Joseph-McEwen, Debra A.; Martorana, Jessica M.; The College at Brockport (2015-04-01)
      The purpose of my research is to explore, through observing students at work during literacy lessons and analyzing the responses of distributed parent, teacher and student surveys, how parent involvement affects literacy achievement. The data collected was analyzed and used to determine the impact parent involvement has on a child’s literacy achievement; and what parts of literacy are affected by parent involvement (i.e. reading, writing, fluency, comprehension…). The methods used to collect data for my research will be anecdotal notes, observations, teacher surveys, parent surveys and student interviews from three student participants over a six-week period.
    • Parent Involvement in an Urban Head Start Classroom

      Olmstead, Kathleen; Whitmire, Stephanie; The College at Brockport (2016-05-28)
      The purpose of this study is to investigate how to build a stronger connection between home and school literacy in preschool. To do this, I interviewed parents of my students to talk about the types of activities they do at home with their child. I also wanted to find out what barriers or challenges they face in being involved with their child’s education, and how I can help support them to help overcome the challenges. In doing this, I hope to create a stronger relationship with the families, and learn more about their funds of knowledge in order to bridge the gap between home and school, and build a stronger relationship with the families I serve.
    • Parent Perceptions of Authentic Assessment

      Beers, Morris J.; Schlosser, Linda; Baker, Patricia E.; Onderdonk, Tamalyn M. (1996-07-01)
      Authentic assessment allows students to comprehend what they have learned and connect it to real-world issues and challenges. Unlike testing designed to measure recall, this form of assessment requires students apply the knowledge they have acquired and create their own thoughts and ideas from this knowledge base. Exhibitions, including essays, artwork, oral presentations, and some traditional tests, are the means for authentic assessment as they allow students to demonstrate their knowledge. Given that many parents went through educational instruction without this form of assessment, it is unclear whether they understand its value. This paper sought to determine what information parents need to understand authentic assessment. Surveys completed by the parents of eighth-grade humanities students as well as by teachers were analyzed. The teacher survey determined what information about authentic assessment parents most seek out, while the parent survey determined what information lowered the parents’ level of concern. The results show that parents overwhelmingly support the eighth-grade humanities program, even if they do not fully understand authentic assessment and exhibitions. Overall, lack of knowledge and miscommunication cause most of the concerns about educational reform. Teachers can lower the parents’ level of concern by communicating the purpose behind assignments and how their child will be prepared and assessed for them. Sending home letters, face-to-face meetings, and open houses are the best methods of achieving this communication.
    • Parent Responses to Children’s Oral Reading Miscues During At-Home Reading Experiences

      Smith, Arthur; Hise, Sandra Lee; The College at Brockport (1994-08-01)
      Two hundred twenty-five miscues made by fifteen children reading to their parents were categorized according to miscue type and parent response. Results indicate a strong parental reliance upon supplying words or providing decoding instruction when their children miscue while reading orally. This is in response to a large number of miscues made by the children in sounding out a word or hesitating when approaching a word. Miscue-response pairings were also considered according to the response's emphasis on decoding or obtaining meaning from the story. One third of the 212 miscue-response pairs that could be used toward answering this question emphasized accurate decoding. The remaining two-thirds emphasized obtaining meaning from the text. Several factors could have biased these results, including lack of training by parents in the strategies of teaching reading.
    • Parent-Child Attachment after International Adoption

      Kolbe, Athena; Whalen, Shelby; The College at Brockport (2017-05-09)
      Approximately 19,000 international adoptions by American families take place each year. This means that there are about 19,000 new children and their families in need of services to help them adjust to a new life every year. This study was interested in understanding the attachment issues experienced by families after an international adoption and to explore how social work and other interventions or services could improve attachment. Participants were asked to complete an online survey which contained questions about their adoptive child’s behavior and the type of services the family had or wished they had received while they were in the process of adopting or after the adoption was completed. The question that the participants were asked about their children’s behavior. Through the questioning of the family functioning, and child functioning it was found that most families that participated in the survey were high functioning families, while most of the children (49) were in need of mental health services. It was found that the services the families most wished they had received was therapy for themselves as a family, and for their adopted child. There is still a lot to look at, like how to get families services that are effective, and how to ensure that internationally adopted children are able to form secure bonds.
    • Parent-Child Sexual Health Communication: A Literary Analysis of Interventions Within the Past Ten Years ?

      Wade, Marcus J. (2019-07-01)
      Adolescent African American and Latino children are increasingly engaging in risky sexual behaviors, resulting in higher rates of teenage pregnancy and STI diagnoses. An analysis of 14 current interventions have found that effective communication between caregivers and their adolescent children can successfully increase health communication amongst family members, thus decreasing sexually risky behaviors. Research has, however, found parent reluctance toward initiation of communication and unwillingness to have prolonged conversations about sexuality and sustained contraception use. Prospectively, there is a requisite for theory-based intervention that focuses on creating open communication on sexuality, to lower rates of risky behavior among adolescences.
    • Parental Awareness and Attitudes toward Academic Dishonesty in a Suburban High School Setting

      Sykes, Mike; The College at Brockport (2010-01-01)
      This study examines the parental awareness and attitudes toward academic dishonesty at the high school level to address a gap in the literature. Little data is currently available regarding the knowledge and views of parents regarding various aspects of academic dishonesty. A quantitative survey was created by the researcher and utilized in both online and paper forms to collect data from parents of students in grades 9-12 in a suburban high school. Results indicate that parents think academic dishonesty is unacceptable and are marginally aware of what specific techniques involved. Parents disagreed with students not being punished for academically dishonest behavior. Keywords: academic dishonesty, cheating, plagiarism, awareness, attitudes
    • Parental Involvement and Children's Attitudes Toward Reading

      Durham, Jodi L.; The College at Brockport (1994-01-01)
      The following thesis studied Parental Involvement and Children's Attitudes Toward Reading. The researcher found numerous studies dealing with parental involvement and children's attitudes toward reading although very few dealt with the use of a reading program designed to go home. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between parents' involvement in a home/school reading program and the attitude their child has toward reading. The question was: How is parents' involvement in a home/school reading program related to children's attitude toward reading? The subjects of this study were twenty five-year-old kindergartners attending a suburban elementary school. On a daily basis these twenty children chose a book to go home. Along with this book the child brought a bookmark for their parents to fill out. For two months the researcher kept separate piles of bookmarks for every child. At the end of the two month period the bookmarks were evaluated by the researcher and two other district personnel. The researcher found a strong correlation between parental involvement and children's attitudes toward reading.
    • Parental Involvement and Student Success

      Riorden, Nicholas; The College at Brockport (2010-05-01)
      The main purpose of this action-research project was to discover what parents think about their overall relationship with their children's school and then use this information to build stronger relationships with them. I wanted to find new and meaningful approaches that would get parents more involved in their children's education. I was also determined to review successful literature that has already been completed in the field and decide how to implement that into my classroom. Some of my questions for this study included: What are parents' initial perceptions of their communication with their children’s school. How do I improve the parents perception of the school? How do I get the parents more involved in the education of their children and how do I maintain this involvement? These questions would hopefully give me a better idea as to how parents view their role between them and their child's school. I also wanted to see what type of work and programs needed to be put into effect in order to increase the amount of involvement parents have with their children's school. I hoped to gain essential knowledge needed to bridge the gap between parent-school communications and overall involvement in the education of their child. Past research has focused on this topic but I felt like this type of research should be done within each school district because each district has its own needs. Past and present research about the need for improved parent-school communication has given many recommendations but I believe few have been very successful and most have been subjective.
    • Parental Involvement and the Influence of Parents’ Prior Literacy Experiences

      Robb, Susan; Dobucki, Joseph; The College at Brockport (2014-12-19)
      This study examines parents’ prior literacy experiences and how those experiences influence their involvement with literacy activities at home. The data for this study were collected through interviewing parents who had children in my kindergarten classroom. After analyzing the data, multiple themes were identified, which includes positive literacy experiences may be provided by adults other than parents, parental involvement takes on many forms, and the importance of teachers and parents to establish relationships to support student literacy learning. The conclusion of this study is that parents’ prior literacy experiences have a direct influence on their involvement with their children. This is because parents carry their prior experiences with them as adults. Parents will try to replicate their prior experiences with their children. The literacy activities that parents engaged in as a child are what they will try to engage in with their own children at home
    • Parental Involvement in a Home/School Reading Program and Children's Success in Reading

      Carrozzi, Christine A.; The College at Brockport (1995-07-01)
      The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between parents' involvement in a home/school reading program and their children's success in reading.
    • Parental Involvement with Homework and Third Grade Student Achievement

      Masseth, Staci Lynn; The College at Brockport (2007-08-01)
      Teachers have been assigning homework since the first days of organized education. Homework builds responsibility and encourages practice and review of rudimentary and complex concepts and knowledge. As a means to understand and study possible improvements to student achievement, this thesis project explores the correlation between student achievement in mathematics and parental involvement in student homework and education; further the study seeks to identify successful strategies to improve grades, learning motivation and parental involvement. The research was conducted in a suburban district in Western New York State with a group of twenty third-grade students. (This study mostly targeted students who were in need of academic improvement, but also helped support and strengthen the grades of higher achieving students.) During the course of the study, both students and parents responded to surveys on student’s attitudes and perceptions about homework. While the research conclusions note a correlation between student motivation and parental involvement, it also identified the need for parental “coaching” by the teacher to assure similar strategies and knowledge in order to complete a given homework assignment.
    • Parental Involvement: Barriers Hispanic Parents Face

      Rossi, Frank; Cruz, Iris M.; State University of New York College at Brockport (2016-08-01)
      Abstract Parental involvement in education is considered to be one of the key contributing factors to students’ academic success whose benefits have been well established. In spite of this, lack of parental involvement continues to be one of the leading concerns schools in the United States face, especially among Hispanic parents whose children have long been characterized by low levels of high school completion and highest dropout rates of any other ethnicity. Findings indicate that Hispanic parents face unique barriers, such as language barriers, low levels of education, and economic hardships that hinder their involvement in their children’s education and that traditional approaches aimed at increasing parental involvement, which focus on school-based involvement, have proved largely ineffective with Hispanic parents as they fail to consider the factors that dissuade parents from becoming involved. These insights can inform schools and educators’ efforts of increasing parental involvement by identifying and creating awareness about the factors that influence and preclude parental involvement among Hispanic parents.
    • Parental Perceptions Towards Participation in Physical Activity for Children with Visual Impairments

      Perreault, Melanie; Williams, Hannah (2020-08-15)
      The purpose of this synthesis was to examine the existing body of knowledge regarding parental perceptions towards participation in physical activity for children with visual impairments. Previous research identified experiences, beliefs, and expectations that contributed to parental perceptions. The studies reviewed in the critical mass yielded common themes that included factors that encouraged participation in physical activity and barriers that inhibited participation in physical activity. Common barriers identified were financial constraints and a lack of accessible programming, untrained physical activity providers and difficulty finding physically and emotionally safe physical activity environments. Positive attributes that encouraged participation in physical activity included parental understanding of the importance of physical activity for their children, reciprocal communication between parents and physical activity providers and opportunities for the entire family to engage. Future research should examine the effects of suggested interventions on the perceptions of parents when it comes to their children with visual impairments participating in physical activity.