• La Cicatriz

      Sutherland, Mark J.; The College at Brockport (2015-05-01)
    • La francophonie: An Alternative to Americanization

      Wilkerson-Barker, Donna; Micale, Elise A.; The College at Brockport (2013-05-07)
      This paper will discuss la francophonie as the French response to globalization. Originating during a period of deep cultural and political transformation for the French nation, the Francophone community today has developed into an alternative to the Anglo?Saxon political and cultural model. Through an examination of French national identity, we will look at how la francophonie serves as a vehicle in the promotion of French cultural values even while it maintains the French cultural influence in an international context.
    • Lack of Preparation for Mainstream Teachers of English Language Learners

      Rossi, Frank; Barone-Crowell, Hannah (2020-08-01)
      This capstone aims to resolve the issue of lack of preparation in mainstream teachers in regard to English Language Learners (ELLs). Through research, three main themes were identified as contributing factors to the issue; current legislation that affects ELL education, deficits in mainstream teacher preparation programs, and deficits in ELL professional development. These issues, when in combination, have effects on teachers’ abilities to meet the specific needs of ELLs in a mainstream classroom setting. Additionally, research has shown that when there is a deficit in pre-service training and professional development there can be potential effects on teachers’ attitudes towards ELLs and ELL education. This capstone presents and supports the argument that all teachers, not just those with TESOL certification, should be provided with various forms of training to support the needs of ELLs. Training should be provided in pre-service teacher preparation programs as well as in professional development for continuing education of current teachers. Solutions to this problem are presented in the form of a professional development product titled “Supporting ELLs in Content Areas.” This product works to provide teachers training in regard to ELL theory and practice. This product also provides schools with a survey to identify deficits within a school’s faculty in regard to ELL training. Additionally, this capstone makes recommendations to further research in relation to this problem. There is a need for additional work focused on the academic and social effects of this issue.
    • Lake at Night

      Aboard the Buffalo State research vessel RV Seneca on Lake Ontario
    • Lake Erie 1993, Western, West Central and Eastern Basins: Change in Trophic Status, and Assessment of the Abundance, Biomass and Production of the Lower Trophic Levels

      Dahl, J. A.; Graham, D. M.; Johannsson, O. E.; Millard, E. S.; Myles, D. D. (1995-01-01)
      The western and west central basins were mesotrophic and the eastern basin was oligotrophic, based on many biological and chemical parameters measured in 1993. Gradients were observed for most parameters, with chlorophyll a, nitrogen, phosphorus, silica, and light extinction decreasing from west to east. In the western basin, phytoplankton biomass declined by 51% from 1983-85. Phytoplankton photosynthesis (g C·m-2), predicted from total phosphorus (TP) using a relationship developed in other offshore productivity studies in Lake Ontario, declined by 35% in 1993, without a corresponding decline in phosphorus (P) loading or TP. Diatoms decreased and there was a shift towards smaller phytoplankton species. These changes were attributed to zebra mussel filtration, but were not of sufficient magnitude to reduce zooplankton biomass. In the west central basin, the reductions in phytoplankton biomass were modest. Photosynthesis (g C·m-2) in 1993, was in line with that predicted by TP and the empirical relationship developed in other offshore studies. Limited mussel populations in the west central basin, resulting from low hypolimnetic oxygen concentrations, caused little change in the phytoplankton. There also were no reductions in mean biomass of zooplankton from 1984-87. In the eastern basin, phytoplankton biomass declined by 49% from 1983-85. Photosynthesis (g C·m-2) declined by 50% from the value predicted, from TP and the empirical relationship developed for other studies, for 1983-85, without a decline in P-leading. TP was lower in 1993 and was attributed to filtering by Dreissena and subsequent redirection of pelagic material to the sediments. Phytoplankton species indicative of eutrophy were reduced and there was an overall shift towards smaller species. Zooplankton biomass was also reduced. Mean zooplankton community size and the loss of Daphnia sp. suggest that predation by planktivores as well as a reduced food supply, affected zooplankton biomass in 1993. The Dreissena population also affected the benthic community structure as Diporeia were virtually eliminated from the eastern basin and Gammarus increased in all basins. Benthic biomass was 40% higher on average than in 1979. Dreissena dominated benthic production at all stations except offshore in the west-central basin.
    • Lake Guardian boat

      The Lake Guardian is the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) largest Great Lakes' research and monitoring vessel. It is the only self-contained, non-polluting research vessel on the Great Lakes.
    • Lake Michigan Wetlands: Classification, Concerns, and Management Opportunities

      Wilcox, Douglas A.; The College at Brockport (2005-01-01)
      The wetlands that border Lake Michigan are an extremely important component of the lake ecosystem. Wetlands are considered to be among the most productive and ecologically diverse habitats on earth, with attributes of both upland and aquatic ecosystems. Although wetlands comprise only a small fraction of the total area of Lake Michigan, they provide habitat for thousands of species of plants and animals and perform environmental functions that affect the whole lake (Wilcox, 1995; Environment Canada, 2002). However, unlike open waters of the lake that have been studied for nearly a century, wetlands have been studied for only a few decades. The numerous forms of degradation and assault on wetland resources have been documented, but few are understood thoroughly. Management of wetlands and the problems they face has thus not progressed quickly, and debates still occur regarding descriptions of wetlands. In this paper, I will review the status of wetland classifications used for Lake Michigan and the other Great Lakes, as well as the major management concerns and opportunities presented by Lake Michigan wetlands.
    • Lake Ontario Alewife, Alosa pseudoharengus, maturation and reproduction dynamics

      Rinchard, Jacques; Chislock, Michael; Weidel, Brian; Bianchi, Tom (2020-05-01)
      Since their introduction in Lake Ontario, alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) have dominated the forage fish community, making them the primary food source for the lake’s economically valuable sport fish populations. Therefore, alewife population dynamics can impact fishery success and management. Recently observed declines in alewife abundance and year class strength variability further increase the need to better understand alewife reproduction. The objectives of this study were to quantify maturation and reproductive dynamics of Lake Ontario alewife by 1) determining if alewife display determinate or indeterminate fecundity, 2) determining if age 2 alewife could be considered part of the spawning stock, and 3) assessing reproductive potential across alewife ages 2 to 6. We collected alewife from various locations in Lake Ontario from October 2017 to October 2018 and measured gonadosomatic index, condition factor, gonad development, spawning potential, batch fecundity, and embryo survival data. Evidence of a prolonged spawning season and the presence of multiple batches of advanced oocytes in the ovaries of alewife suggest this species display indeterminate fecundity (i.e., can spawn multiple batches of eggs in a single spawning season). Spawning potential (observed spawning and or the presence of mature gonads) was observed in 63.9% of age 2 females and 90.4% of age 2 males captured in June and July, indicating age 2 alewife should be considered part of the spawning stock. This was confirmed by the successful survival of embryos of age 2 parents. When comparing embryo survival data among all ages, older females displayed higher embryo survival, and our beta regression model suggested female age best explained observed. In addition, alewife older than age 2 appeared to have a higher proportion of indeterminate spawners, further suggesting older alewife have increased reproductive output vs younger fish. However, the lack of variation in relative batch fecundity among ages suggest other variables, such as size may better explain this variability.
    • Lake Ontario Atlas: Chemistry

      Allen, Eric R. (1977-01-01)
      The chemical and water quality characteristics of Lake Ontario reported prior to the International Field Year for the Great Lakes (IFTGL, 1972-1973) study have been reviewed and summarized. The low surface-to-volume ratio of this lake has allowed it to retain oligotrophic characteristics based upon biological parameters. However, some of the chemical paramerters, including the nutrient inputs and concentrations, suggest that eutrophication is imminent. In general, the water quality of Lake Ontario is good and projected increased in the loadings of major ions do not pose a threat to the use of this natural water resource during the rest of this century. The input of trace materials, such as the heavy metals and refractory organic compounds, is cause for concern since a significant contribution is made by an uncontrollable source, namely atmospheric precipitation. More stringent controls on the discharge of phosphorus, trace elements and synthetic organic compounds is recommended to preserve the integrity of Lake Ontario for the continued benefit of all users of its waters.
    • Lake Ontario Coastal Initiative Action Agenda

      Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Landre, Betsy; Lewandowski, Stephen; Terninko, John; Thorndike, Elizabeth; Center for Environmental Information; Finger Lakes–Lake Ontario Watershed Protection Alliance; The College at Brockport (2006-01-01)
      The mission of the Lake Ontario Coastal Initiative (LOCI), encompassing all New York State North Coast stakeholders from the Niagara River to the St. Lawrence River, is to enlist and retain broad public commitment for remediation, restoration, protection, conservation and sustainable use of the coastal region. This mission will be accomplished by securing funds and resources to achieve scientific understanding, educate citizens, and implement locally supported priorities, programs and projects as identified through this Initiative.
    • Lake Ontario Coastal Initiative Action Agenda 2004

      Landre, Betsy; Lewandowski, Stephen; Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Terninko, John; Thorndike, Elizabeth; Center for Environmental Information; Finger Lakes–Lake Ontario Watershed Protection Alliance; Ontario County Soil and Water Conservation District; The College at Brockport (2004-01-01)
      The mission of the Lake Ontario Coastal Initiative (LOCI), encompassing all New York State North Coast stakeholders from the Niagara River to the St. Lawrence River, is to enlist and retain broad public commitment for remediation, restoration, protection, conservation and sustainable use of the coastal region. This mission will be accomplished by securing funds and resources to achieve scientific understanding, educate citizens, and implement locally supported priorities, programs and projects as identified through this Initiative.
    • Lake Ontario Environmental Summary 1965

      The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of the results of the chemical, biological, and physical studies of Lake Ontario. These studies were conducted by the Lake Ontario Program Office, Great Lakes Region, Federal Water Pollution Control Administration, U.S. Department of the Interior, in cooperation with the New York State Health Department, Monroe County Health Department, U.S. Corps of Engineers, and U.S. Geological Survey.
    • Lake Ontario Lakewide Management Plan

      U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Environment Canada (Binational.net, 2006-04)
      "...contains new/updated information on the current status of beneficial use impairments, sources and loads of critical pollutants, public involvement and communication and significant ongoing and emerging issues...
    • Lake Ontario Long Term Biological Monitoring Program: 1981, 1982 Data Base

      Johannsson, Ora E.; Dermott, R. M.; Feldkamp, R.; Moore, J. E. (1985-12-01)
      The Bioindex, or Long Term Biological Monitoring Program, was developed to: 1) determine normal seasonal patterns and annual ranges of abundance, community structure, and when possible, productivity of the biological components - phytoplankton, zooplankton, and benthos; 2) relate the biological components to variations in the physical, nutrient, and biological environment; and, 3) assess the adopted sampling strategy for long term monitoring. The data bases from the first two years are summarized in this document.
    • Lake Ontario Water Chemistry Atlas

      This atlas contains a broad assessment of the results of phosphorus loading reduction in Lake Ontario in the 1970s, including the in-lake phosphorus concentration reduction. It also describes trends of other indicators of recovery from eutrophication. The summer Secchi depths and summer oxygen depletion rates were fairly stable in the 1970s, whereas they would have worsened without phosphorus control. Particulate organic carbon in offshore surface waters during August/September declined steadily by 20% from 1975 to 1981. Also illustrated are the chemical/biological aspects of the spring time thermal bar, and lakewide upwelling/downwelling in response to winds in summer. In July 1972, there was a prominent lakewide chlorophyll maximum at a depth of about 10m. The spring time diatom crop was located near the lake bottom in summer, as indicated by abundant particulate organic matter and near-bottom release of soluble reactive silica. March/April nitrate+ nitrite had steadily increasing values, from 215 p.g N /L in 1968 to 340 p.g N /L in 1981. There was a residual level of nitrate + nitrite in surface waters during late summer in the later years, amounting to about 100 p.g N /L, which, along with decreased phosphorus and increased N:P ratios, means that troublesome blue-green algal blooms and scums will not occur. In summary, the phosphorus control program and a fortuitous increase of soluble reactive nitrogen have resulted in very good metabolic conditions in Lake Ontario, with moderate phosphorus and plankton con tent, prevention of troublesome plankton blooms, and excellent oxygen conditions. It is strongly recommended that the phosphorus loading control program for Lake Ontario and upstream Lake Erie be continued, to maintain the presently ideal trophic conditions in Lake Ontario.
    • Lake Ontario: Maps, Facts and Figures

      Lake Ontario, the 14th largest lake in the world, is the smallest of the Great Lakes. Bordered to the north by Ontario, Canada, and to the south by New York State, it is the smallest in surface area, fourth among the Great Lakes in maximum depth, but second only to Lake Superior in average depth. The basin land area is largely rural with a significant forested and agricultural portion. The Lake is nestled between the mighty Niagara River to the west...and the picturesque St. Lawrence River Valley to its east. Almost one-third of the land area of New York State drains into Lake Ontario, making the wise use and management of natural resources vital to the long-term sustainability of the Lake Ontario region's ecology, environment and economy. This booklet is designed to provide those who live, work, and play along Lake Ontario with an overview of the use and management that occurs within the drainage basin. we encourage you to use this booklet to add to your understanding of the issues impacting the Lake and your management and planning activities. The Finger Lakes- Lake Ontario Watershed Protection Alliance in partnership with New York Sea Grant developed this booklet and has made every effort to insure that the information is accurate. The maps provided were provided by the Lake Ontario Coastal Initiative (LOCI) with permission for their use. This information is provided for educational purposes only.
    • Lake Pollution

      Stewart, Caleb; Vanartsdalen, Tagen; The College at Brockport (2013-07-01)
      This lesson discusses chemistry as it relates to real life environmental problems by stressing how concentration and rate of diffusion are key factors of pollution in bodies of water. This lesson allows students to gain familiarity with computational thinking. Students who have experience with this simulation will have a simple unintimidating introduction to computational science. Math skills will be assessed and strengthened through calculations and experience with the excel program. The primary file is a lesson plan, accompanied by supplemental files. In the supplemental zipped files, you will find: Student worksheets Lesson plan Powerpoint presentations
    • Lake Quality

      Urban Nonpoint Source Impacts on a Surface Water Supply (p. 129) Nonpoint Source Pollution Control Funding for Lake Restoration: A Case Study at Carlisle Lake (p. 138) Why Scofield Reservoir is Eutrophic: Effects of Nonpoint Source Pollutants on a Water Supply Reservoir in Utah (p. 142) Trophic State Response to Nonpoint Pollution Control: Application of Coupled Microcomputer Models to the Great Lakes (p. 147) A Project to Manage Agriculture Wastes Has Improved the Quality of Vermont's Lake Parker (p. 153)
    • Lake-level Variability and Water Availability in the Great Lakes

      Wilcox, Douglas A.; Thompson, Todd A.; Booth, Robert K.; Nicholas, J. R.; Indiana University - Bloomington; Lehigh University; The College at Brockport; U.S. Geological Survey (2007-01-01)
      Key components of water availability in a hydrologic system4 are the amount of water in storage and the variability of that amount. In the Great Lakes Basin, a vast amount of water is stored in the lakes themselves. Because of the lakes’ size, small changes in water levels cause huge changes in the amount of water in storage. Approximately 5,439 mi3 of water, measured at chart datum, is stored in the Great Lakes. A change of 1 ft in water level over the total Great Lakes surface area of 94,250 mi2 means a change of 18 mi3 of water in storage. Changes in lake level over time also play an important role in human activities and in coastal processes and nearshore ecosystems, including development and maintenance of beaches, dunes, and wetlands. The purpose of this report is to present recorded and reconstructed (pre-historical) changes in water levels in the Great Lakes, relate them to climate changes of the past, and highlight major water-availability implications for storage, coastal ecosystems, and human activities. Reconstructed water-level changes have not been completed for all Great Lakes; consequently, this report presents these changes primarily for Lakes Michigan and Huron, with some reference to Lake Superior also.
    • Land Use Effects on Benthic Macroinvertebrate Communities in Conesus, Hemlock, Canadice, and Honeoye Lakes

      Owens, Mitchell C.; The College at Brockport (2017-05-01)
      Conesus, Hemlock, Canadice and Honeoye lakes are among the smallest Finger Lakes, but they are important for drinking water, recreation and homes along their shorelines. Farms and forests are the major land uses in their watersheds. Hemlock and Canadice lakes are both within a state forest, which provides a buffer along the shoreline. Conesus and Honeoye lakes are unprotected. While the chemical water quality of these lakes is relatively well understood, the benthic macroinvertebrate communities in these lakes have not been studied. This study established baseline macroinvertebrate community data for all four lakes and determined the presence or absence of eight potential invasive species (Bithynia tentaculata, Cipangopaludina chinensis malleata, Viviparus georgianus, Dreissena polymorpha, Dreissena rostriformis bugensis, Corbicula fluminea, Echinogammarus ischnus, and Hemimysis anomala). Five of the eight species (B. tentaculata, C. c. malleata,V. georgianus, D. polymorpha, and D. r. bugensis) were found in at least one lake. All five of these species were found in Honeoye. All species but B. tentaculata were found in Conesus. Only Dreissenid mussels were found in Hemlock and Canadice. This study also explored whether having a near-shore forest buffer improves water quality in lakes and whether relationships exist between individual sub-watershed land use and biotic indicators of water quality and, as determined by biotic indices using benthic macroinvertebrates. While significant differences were found in the overall benthic community compositions between the lakes, biotic indices were similar between lakes and did not follow the expected water quality patterns. In addition, no correlations were found between sub-watershed land use and biotic indices of water quality. This suggests that near-shore buffers in Hemlock and Canadice Lakes have no effect on biotic indicators of water quality and only whole-watershed management might positively influence water quality.