• H+ and K+ Transport in Nitella

      Barr, Charles E.; Holland, Daniel John; The College at Brockport (1980-08-01)
      This study attempts to determine if a fixed stoichiometry of the K+­­/H+ exchange is present in Nitella clavata. Nitella was cultured with constant aeration under illumination of approximately 2000 lux measured at the culture solution surface, with sixteen hours of illumination alternated with eight hours of darkness. Internodal cells were harvested by excision, with harvested cells ranging from 3-5 cm in length and 700-900 ?m in diameter. Isolated cells were then placed in a 5.70 pH K solution and kept in an incubator at 22°C under 350 lux illumination. Cells were preconditioned for seven days before experimentation. H+ extrusion was measured with a Leeds and Northrup pH meter using a small volume pH electrode. Experiments ranged from .75-8 hours. Prior to the measurement, cells were pre-loaded with H+ by placing them in a large volume of K solution at pH 4.7, usually for a period of 85 minutes. Cells were then rinsed in fresh K solution at pH 5.7 for three minutes, followed by a second rinse in fresh K solution for seventeen minutes. After this rinse period, the net H+ efflux in K solution was found to be negligible. Then the cells were placed in a 20x K solution. Net H+ extrusion was measured by addition of 5mM KOH at intervals to keep pH at 5.7. This continued until the rate of pH change of the external K solution became negligible. K+ influxes were measured using the same system with the exception that the 20x K solution was 20x 42K solution. Cl- influxes were measured using the same procedure, with the exception that the 20x K solution contained 36Cl-. Membrane potentials were measured using an Ag+/AgCl glass microelectrode consisting of a chloride silver wire inserted into a 1 mm microcapillary glass tube. The researcher observes that the present study does not indicate the presence of a strict relationship between H+ extrusion to K + influx. Nitella may require a critical amount of H+ accumulation within the cell before any significant quantity of that H+ will become available for net extrusion into the external environment. The 1:1 stoichiometry observed in some cells and tissues does not appear to be present in Nitella clavata. Further work must be done to determine if the observed phenomenon is indeed characteristic of Nitella clavata.
    • Habitat Associations of Fish Species and their Assemblages in the Tonawanda and Johnson Creek Watersheds of Northwestern New York State

      Wells, Scott M.; The College at Brockport (2009-08-01)
      Stream fishes and their habitats were surveyed at 108 sampling sites to determine the status of the rare longear sunfish (Lepomis megalotis) and redfin shiner (Lythrurus umbratilis) in the Tonawanda (TCW) and Johnson Creek (JCW) watersheds of northwestern New York, May-September 2005. Of the >27,500 individuals captured and 70 fish species identified, most were cyprinids, followed by centrarchids, catostomids, and percids. Each watershed revealed cyclic patterns and substantial variation in the longitudinal profiles of habitat and fish assemblage variables, especially at sites with anthropogenic disturbances. Fish assemblagees were easily delineated longitudinally in the two watersheds using detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) but associating fish species and their assemblage variables (CPUE, fish richness, Simpson’s Diversity) with habitat variables was more challenging using canonical correspondence analysis (CCA: 62 associations, 27 species) and multiple linear regression (MLR: 80 associations, 47 species/33 assemblages) at 17 watershed and sub-watershed scales. In the more statistically rigorous MLR analyses, aquatic vegetation accounted for the greatest number of habitat associations (32%), followed by pool type, bank cover and substrate composition (16-17% each), suggesting that these habitat features may have been the most important to stream fishes in the study. In most cases, these finding were supported by the literature on stream fish ecology. Overall, fish species richness has remained relatively high and stable over time in both watersheds, even with ongoing localized disturbances occurring in the lower basins: NYS Barge (Erie) Canal, Batavia Dam (TCW) and Lyndonville Dam (JCW), as well as agricultural and suburban activities. New habitat associations were suggested for seven species. Findings from this study have already assisted with restoration efforts for the longear sunfish and may support future management of lesser known stream fishes in New York State.
    • Habitat Relations and Breeding Biology of Grassland Birds in Western New York: Management Implications

      Norment, Christopher J.; Ardizzone, Charles D.; Hartman, Kathleen; The College at Brockport (1999-09-01)
      In 1994 we began a study of the habitat relations and breeding biology of grassland birds in western New York. Most fields contained fewer than four grassland species, with Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorous) and Savannah Sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis) being the two most common species. Species of management concern in the Northeast, such as Henslow's Sparrow (Ammodramus henslowii) and Upland Sandpiper (Bartramia longicauda), were absent from the study area. Bird habitat models generated through Principal Components Analysis and stepwise multiple regression indicated that field area, or variables correlated with area, explained most of the variation in overall grassland bird species richness (partial r2 = 0.43) and abundance (partial r2 = 0.60) and in the abundance of Bobolinks and Savannah Sparrows. Grassland birds were generally absent from fields smaller than 5 hectares. Areas with few shrubs and low horizontal heterogeneity supported more grassland bird species than did fields with more shrubs and high horizontal heterogeneity, and fields with shorter, less dense vegetation had more individuals than did fields with taller, dense vegetation. Few grassland birds occurred in fields planted in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) monocultures. More than 90 percent of all known nesting pairs fledged young by the end of the first week in July. Nest success was generally high; the proportion of nests fledging one or more young was 0.76 for Savannah Sparrows, 0.54 for Bobolinks, and 0.67 for Eastern Meadowlarks (Sturnella magna). Grassland bird populations in this study may benefit from management practices that increase field area, control shrub invasion, and encourage the growth of grasses other than switchgrass. The current low levels of grazing at Iroquois National Wildlife Refuge, with cattle allowed in pastures only after 15 July, do not appear to be harmful to grassland bird populations.
    • Habitat Requirements of Stream Spawning Walleye: An Evaluation of Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) Information and Lake Erie/Niagara River Tributaries

      Lowie, Christopher Eric; The College at Brockport (1998-12-01)
      A Lake Erie Walleye Spawning Stream Rehabilitation Plan was initiated by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation to stabilize and enhance walleye recruitment in Lake Erie. One component of the plan includes stream habitat assessment to determine candidate streams for rehabilitation efforts. Information from research literature has been compiled to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model and identify optimum habitat requirements for walleye. The model hypothesizes species-habitat relationships which can vary by geographical area. The objectives of my thesis project were to: (1) determine habitat conditions in a local stream where walleye spawn (control site); (2) compare these data with the HSI; and (3) use the data to evaluate four tributaries as candidates for walleye rehabilitation efforts. Spawning walleye were observed in the control stream on four days over the two-year period of study. Velocity, depth, and water temperature conditions where walleyes spawned were at the lower end of or below the optimum ranges specified in the HSI. However, optimum HSI conditions for velocity, depth, and water temperature generally do not exist in the control stream. Substrate, dissolved oxygen, and pH variables were optimum when compared to the HSI. Cluster analysis was used to group streams according to their similarities in velocity, depth, water temperature, and substrate. Significant differences (p ?0.05) in these parameters occurred among all grouped streams. No candidate stream evaluated in this study fully met the conditions found in the control stream. The candidate stream most similar to the control stream was Eighteenmile Creek. The candidate stream most similar to the national HSI model was Ellicott Creek.
    • Habitat Selection and Dispersal of the Cobblestone Tiger Beetle (Cincidel marginipennis Dejean) along the Genesee River, New York

      Hudgins, Rhonda; Norment, Christopher J.; Schlesinger, Matthew D.; Novak, Paul G.; New York Natural Heritage Program; New York State Department of Environmental Conservation; The College at Brockport (2011-04-01)
      The goal of this study was to determine ecological, behavioral and environmental factors that would facilitate a management plan for the rare cobblestone tiger beetle (Cicindela marginipennis). We used a mark – recapture study to document dispersal distances of the cobblestone tiger beetle along the upper Genesee River in western New York and binomial logistic regression models to compare habitat characteristics measured during occupancy surveys. Cobblestone tiger beetles occupied cobble bars with approximately twice the interior area and difference between minimum and maximum elevation, and higher shrub cover, than unoccupied cobble bars. Beetles occasionally dispersed distances greater than the maximum distance between cobble bars in our study area. In order to preserve cobblestone tiger beetles and riparian habitats along the upper Genesee River, habitats should be managed to reduce impacts from recreational activities and sand/gravel mining.
    • Habitat Selection of Shrubland Birds in the Great Lakes Plains Region of New York State

      Norment, Christopher; Klees, Kristina A.; The College at Brockport (2008-07-01)
      Over the course of the last century, shrubland habitat in the northeastern United States has declined due to farmland abandonment, deforestation, reforestation, human population growth and increased anthropogenic efforts to limit natural disturbances. In turn, these landscape alterations have caused a decline in the shrubland guild of birds in the northeastern United States, specifically the Great Lakes Plain Region. Declines have been so significant that wildlife managers must actively conserve existing shrublands and create new habitat to support shrubland birds. Thus, to offer suggestions for conservation and management of shrubland habitats and the birds that rely on them, I studied shrubland birds and their associated habitats in the Great Lakes Plains Region over two breeding periods in 2006 and 2007. My results revealed few consistent patterns in the bird habitat models developed from my data. This was not surprising, as most areas studied drastically varied in both vegetation community structure and composition. In addition, shrubland birds are often characterized by broad habitat preferences. Thus, the majority of the results can best be examined on a site-specific and species-specific basis. Some habitat variables did stand out in the models. Shrub hit diversity seemed to be an important predictor of shrubland bird abundance. Shrubland area also came up as a significant variable in a number of bird-habitat models. Even with the lack of consistency among my models, my data, along with other research, yielded management recommendations that should increase shrubland habitat, which should benefit shrubland birds. There are four main characteristics of shrubland habitat that need to be considered in order to increase and sustain declining species of shrubland birds: (1) shrublands should be relatively large (>0.6 ha) in area, regardless of area-sensitivity (or lack-there-of) of shrubland birds; (2) shrublands should be adjacent or near other shrubland sites in order to avoid displacement of shrubland and forest birds; (3) shrublands need to be reasonably accessible to brush hogs and tractors so that they can be maintained without issue; and (4) shrublands should be created and/or maintained from existing shrublands, grasslands, or old fields, as shrublands converted from forest habitats are often of poor quality. When looking at the "big picture" of shrub land management, there is no one management practice that is best. Thus, management should be adaptive so that practices can be changed when new data becomes available, without compromising explicit management and conservation goals.
    • Habitat Selection, Dispersal and Detectability of Cobblestone Tiger Beetles (Cicindela marginipennis Dejean) along the Genesee River, New York

      Hudgins, Rhonda; The College at Brockport (2010-05-01)
      The objectives of my two year study were to (1) understand the dispersal dynamics of the adult cobblestone tiger beetles (Cicindela marginipennis); (2) identify environmental variables associated with suitable habitat; (3) model habitat selection; (4) describe important features of their natural history; and (5) determine their detectability in the riparian habitat along the Genesee River, NY. Data on cobblestone tiger beetle habitat selection and populations established a baseline for monitoring environmental change and population status of this species of management concern in riverine and riparian habitats in western New York. Cobblestone tiger beetles dispersed distances that far exceeded the maximum distance between surveyed cobble bars, and they sometimes moved between cobble bars. Cobblestone tiger beetles were more likely to occur in habitat patches with greater interior area and elevational relief. Occupied cobble bars also had few boulders and shrubs. I found cobblestone tiger beetles throughout occupied cobble bars and not restricted to the upstream end of cobble islands or sandy beaches as cited in most cobblestone tiger beetle literature. My surveys examined two levels of detection probability - individual-level (the probability of detecting an individual cobblestone tiger beetle in a population on a single cobble bar) and site-level (the probability of detecting a single cobblestone tiger beetle on an occupied cobble bar). My results for individual-level detectability show that there was a lower probability of seeing an individual cobblestone tiger beetle than detecting the co-occurring and more common bronzed tiger beetle (C. repanda). The best-fit model for cobblestone tiger beetles had no covariates. Although cobblestone tiger beetle detection probabilities were the same for both models (no covariate and with ground temperature), the results for site-level detectability showed similar detection probabilities for cobblestone tiger beetles in 2008 and 2009, even though the number of sites surveyed and the number of visits per cobble bar differed between years. In addition, an evaluation of a smaller subset of cobble bars surveyed during both years and with the same level of effort showed that the site level detectability and occupancy continued to be consistent with the individual year results. Based on results from my study, I recommend ( 1 ) continuing occupancy surveys with at least three visits to each cobble bar as long as the site-level detection probability is greater than 0.5, in order to detect cobblestone tiger beetles on at least 90% of occupied cobble bars; (2) conducting occupancy surveys when cobblestone tiger beetles are the most active – in mid-July and mid-August; (3) conducting surveys between 10:00 and 17:00 on warm sunny days when ambient and ground temperature are at their highest, preferably when ambient temperatures are above 1 8 . 8 C; and (4) conducting surveys at three- to five-year intervals depending on the study objective - shorter times for better understanding of metapopulation dynamics or longer intervals for simply determining continued occupancy.
    • Hablantes de Herencia (H.H.) de Español en las Clases de Idiomas Extranjeros en la Escuela Secundaria: Los Maestros y su Preparación

      Rossi, Frank; Cassell, Hercilia I.; The College at Brockport (2016-07-01)
      La falta de preparación académica de los maestros de español como idioma extranjero para responder por las necesidades de los Hablantes de Herencia, HH, de este mismo idioma, los que con frecuencia son incluidos en estas clases las cuales están dirigidas exclusivamente a estudiantes monolingües en inglés, tiene un efecto adverso en el desarrollo de su competencia lingüística. Por esta razón, para averiguar que deficiencias encontraban los maestros en su preparación surgió este proyecto de investigación con el objetivo principal de ayudarles a adquirir los conocimientos que les permitirán educar de manera eficaz a los HH. En esta investigación se realizó una encuesta con diez maestros exclusivamente de español como idioma extranjero a nivel de la escuela secundaria. Los resultados mostraron que el 90 por ciento de ellos no había recibido ninguna preparación académica para enseñar a los HH. Con la información obtenida se creó un taller de desarrollo profesional con el que se espera que estos educadores mejoren no sólo sus destrezas pedagógicas sino que puedan llegar a conocer mejor a los HH y sus necesidades. De esta manera, la enseñanza será eficaz y los HH lograrán desarrollar no sólo su L1 a nivel competente sino el bilingüismo y el biculturalismo, algo esencial en la sociedad global de esta época.
    • Half Life and Radioactive Decay

      Zuniga, Joseph J.; The College at Brockport (2004-10-29)
      • Students will be able to complete a table which shows conservation of matter. • Students will be able to determine the half life of a substance given a graph of the radioactive substance and its stable product. • Students will recognize the graph as exponential decay.
    • Half Life Demonstrations Using AgentSheets

      Burleigh, Nathanial; Parlatore, Kimberlee; The College at Brockport (2013-07-01)
      This model demonstrates the concept of half life decay via the AgentSheets modeling tool. Various rates of decay can be simulated in the model. The primary file is a lesson plan, accompanied by supplemental files. In the supplemental zipped files, you will find: Student worksheets Lesson plan Powerpoint presentations
    • Handbook for Project Beacon Teachers

      Logan, Katherine; The College at Brockport (1968-02-01)
      The 1960s saw a shortage in available teachers, part of which could be traced to teacher attrition. This paper examines teachers’ motivation their inner-city teaching positions to take positions at other schools in the Rochester area. The researcher then conducted one-hour personal interviews with fifteen teachers who had left inner city schools to teach at other schools in the greater Rochester area. Questions focused on teachers’ perceptions of their professional resources and challenges, as well as their personal motivations. The study juxtaposed this information against data gleaned from a survey administered to 28 teacher-orientation program directors about their orientation methods, procedures, statistics, goals and philosophies. The researcher found that teachers cited better disciplinary control of their classrooms, more productive cooperation with parents, and more motivated students as positive motivators for their job change. However, the researcher also found that teacher-orientation programs were inconsistently applied, sometime prompting confusion and division between program teachers and non-program teachers. The researcher announced her intention to create a handbook to alleviate some of this confusion and help new teachers better understand the resources available to them. Areas for future research include the relationship between teacher-training and job success in challenging inner-city environments, location of student teaching, and specific methodologies used in orientation programs.
    • Handbook for student-teachers : Abraham Lincoln School : East Irondequoit Central School District #1

      Gefell, Robert H.; The College at Brockport (1962-01-01)
      This booklet is directed to you who are about to embark on a career of teaching children. It is intended to help you in your work as a student teacher at Abraham Lincoln School, East Irondequoit Central School District #1. The task of any teacher is to provide situations in which pupils can acquire maximum growth. It is the author's hope that this guide will help you to arrange such conditions early in your student teaching assignment.
    • Handbook of Teaching and Learning: A Theoretical and Practical Review of the Literature on Modern and Recent Theories of Learning

      Hoppe, Katherine; Wallace, Glen D.; The College at Brockport (2012-12-05)
      Learning and teaching are two interrelated processes that are of primary concern to educators. This project begins with a thorough investigation of the foremost modern educational theories that seek to explain the process of teaching and learning. The second section examines landmark educational theories which contribute to the modern understanding of teaching and learning. Finally, the project explores some practical instructional activities that have been developed out of the more theoretical research.
    • Handling the cultural divide: Discussing unfamiliar territory in the classroom

      Robb, Susan; Ekwell, Mikayla (2017-05-08)
      This research explores the vast possibilities and benefits offered to students by teachers utilizing culturally relevant teaching practices, materials, and language in the classroom. The purpose of this research is to demonstrate the positive affect culturally aware teaching practices and pedagogy can have on students of non-dominant minority backgrounds, as well as those of dominant cultural backgrounds. The purpose of this research also, is to explore how discussing sensitive subject matter in the classroom should be handled and executed when it is approached by a child or teacher. Data were recorded for this study over the course of six weeks using transcribed audio-recorded interviews with staff members, and observational field notes recorded in follow up observations of each staff member. Data were analyzed for what strategies and methods veteran instructors have chosen to use in their classrooms relevant to cultural sensitivity, and how the use of those methods and strategies affected classroom rapport, respect, and successes.
    • Hands On Math: The Construction of a Website to Support the Use of Hands On Activities and Field Trips

      Halquist, Donald; Groth, Manuela B.; The College at Brockport (2013-04-01)
      Teachers are facing more and more pressure to make sure that their students perform well on standardized tests. This, in addition to other factors such as having to teach more material in less time, can lead teachers to spend more time engaging in direct teacher-centered instruction and less time on hands-on learning activities. A review of literature shows the importance of using hands-on learning and fieldtrips to help students develop a deeper understanding and generate and sustain students’ interest in the subject. I have created a website that is meant to provide math educators and parents with ideas for hands on math activities as well as suggestions for fieldtrip in and around the Rochester area. The website is intended to serve as a resource that will enable math teachers to more easily and effectively implement hands-on learning and fieldtrips into their work with students and expose parents and caregivers to ideas and community resources they might use to create learning opportunities with their children.
    • Hands-On or Hands-Off: Effective Elements of Elementary Social Studies Hands-on Lessons

      Jackson, Justin; Bailey, G. A.; The College at Brockport (2013-04-08)
      In today's American school system a hole has begun to form in elementary schools as social studies education has been on the decline, or in some cases, cut out entirely in order to allow more time for mathematics and literacy instruction. Modern educators have begun to acknowledge this gap and want to develop new ways of instructing social studies. Hands-on learning may be one solution for this issue. The purpose of this study was to describe what happened in regard to students' understanding of and engagement in social studies content when presented in a hands-on teaching style. One fifth grade inclusive classroom, one fourth grade inclusive classroom, and one self-contained fourth grade classroom were taught using hands-on social studies lessons in a rural school district in Western New York. Five themes of effective hands-on lessons emerged throughout the study that may aid elementary teachers in their creation of these types of lessons: Collaboration, Open-Ended, Meaning, Experience, and Timing (C.O.M.E.T.).
    • Hands-On or Hands-Off: Effective Elements of Elementary Social Studies Hands-on Lessons

      Wright, Allison; Jackson, Justin; The College at Brockport (2011-12-01)
      In today’s American school system a hole has begun to form in elementary schools as social studies education has been on the decline, or in some cases, cut out entirely in order to allow more time for mathematics and literacy instruction. Modern educators have begun to acknowledge this gap and want to develop new ways of instructing social studies as a way to keep the subject current, interesting, and effective. Hands-on learning may be one solution for this issue. The purpose of this study was to describe what happened in regard to students’ understanding of and engagement in social studies content when presented in a hands-on teaching style. One fifth grade inclusive classroom, one fourth grade inclusive classroom, and one self-contained fourth grade classroom were taught using hands-on social studies lessons in a rural school district in Western New York. After utilizing a variety of hands-on lessons and activities, and researching the existing literature there is on hands-on learning as it relates to social studies instruction, five themes of effective hands-on lessons emerged that may aid elementary teachers in their creation of these types of lessons: Collaboration, Open-Ended, Meaning, Experience, and Timing (C.O.M.E.T.).
    • Handy Self Portrait

      Franek, Sabrina; The College at Brockport (2015-05-01)
    • Harold Hacker Grant for the Advancement of Libraries

      Myers, Kim L.; The College at Brockport (2015-09-01)
      The purpose of this grant is to create an online, open access collection for a portion of the Writers Forum audio files and films to serve as the foundation of a digital humanities community, and will open access to this valuable resource for innovative use worldwide.
    • Have We Reached the Point of Critical Mass in Community and Police Relations?

      Lumb, Richard C.; The College at Brockport (2016-01-01)
      Excerpt from author's book, “Issues in Policing and Requisite Challenges” (2016), ISBN-13: 978-1540375841, first published in LinkedIn.