• A Curriculum Project on the Utilization of the Rule of Four to Enable Students to Work in Their Zone of Proximal Development

      Wade, Carol H.; Kondolf, Valerie L.; The College at Brockport (2015-01-22)
      Discussed, developed, and written over the course of roughly two-and-a-half-years, the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) seek to prepare students to be college- and career-ready (K-12 Blueprint, 2014). Released for implementation in classrooms nation-wide in June 2010, the CCSS are claimed to be “a balance of concepts and skills, with content standards that require both conceptual understanding and procedural fluency” (K-12 Blueprint, 2014, p. 3), as well as address the issue of mathematical curricula being described as “a mile wide and an inch deep” (Common Core State Standards Initiative, 2014). In order to abide by the newly adopted curricula, teachers must find ways to help students think more conceptually. This curriculum project on trigonometric functions at the Algebra II level attempts to do just that through the utilization of the Rule of Four in order to support students working within their zone of proximal development.
    • An Algebra Unit on Quadratics for Teachers with Students with EBD

      Wade, Carol H.; Williams, Christopher; The College at Brockport (2014-12-03)
      The number of students identified as having an emotional and behavioral disorder (EBD) are increasing rapidly and still underreported. These students often have significant behavioral, social and academic deficits that pose challenges within and outside the school setting and are among some of the most difficult students to teach with the bleakest post-school success or employment rates. Research reveals several effective procedures for conducting interventions to increase performance, participation and engagement and in lowering the number of inappropriate behavior occurrences within the classroom. Based on these findings, an algebra unit plan on quadratics has been developed to assist and direct students with EBD to overcome these difficulties and to demonstrate to the reader and to mathematics teachers that there are both content and pedagogical strategies that work simultaneously to help students with EBD in achieving higher academic performance and increased school engagement. By working in the students Zone of Proximal Development and incorporating these empirically based teaching methods teachers can assist students with EBD obtain grade level proficiencies and have a profound effect on these students and their outcomes.
    • Factors Influencing Readers When Matching Texts to Struggling Students

      Romeo, Brian P.; The College at Brockport (2012-07-01)
      Teachers at every scholastic level search for the best pedagogical practices for their particular classroom and students. The method of leveling, a strategy in which teachers assess the instructional level of a text in order to properly match books with an individual reader, is used increasingly in literacy programs at the elementary level. Books are “leveled” by using a formula that measures sentence and word difficulty. This research project examines how students interact with various texts and explores student fluency, expression, comprehension, and re-telling. The research examines student accuracy rates, self-corrections, and miscue analysis. It considers what text features teachers should include before placing students at specific reading levels. The project identifies other factors that may influence student placement with regard to reading level such as individual socioeconomic and family background as well as features within the text like font size, syllabic number, and oral language. Two specific questions center the research: In what ways does each specific text influence how a teacher sees the reader? Does a reader’s fluency, expression, comprehension, and re-telling vary among different texts? This study was conducted in a western New York suburban district with three, fifth grade students struggling with reading deficits which included both reading comprehension and decoding skills. Research data was gathered using Fountas and Pinnell 2008 Leveling System Kit. Conclusions noted student background knowledge and personal interest as assets in understanding the individual profile of readers and in assessing appropriate material. Recommendations acknowledge the need for more reading practice both at home and in classroom as well as knowing students on a personal as well as academic level.
    • Implementing Technology in an Algebra Classroom

      Wade, Carol H.; Damick, Jennifer M.; The College at Brockport (2015-12-10)
      The drive to place technology in the secondary mathematics classrooms has been on the rise and has shown over time to improve learning outcomes. How to support teachers with the implementation of technology in the midst of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) reform and teacher accountability is important. This thesis provides varied use of technology along with different technological instructional strategies for an Algebra I course. Presenting technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK) in the Algebra I context can support teachers’ implementation of technology into their instruction. Keywords: Common Core State Standards (CCSS), NCTM Standards, Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK), Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPCK), Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD).
    • Scaffolding for ELLs: Increasing Academic Success in Literacy

      Mazurett-Boyle, Rosa; Bartone, Amber (2020-08-06)
      With the increasing rates of English Language Learners (ELLs) in general education classrooms, educators must implement instructional strategies to promote academic success for ELL students. The lack of professional developments suggest that educators are unfamiliar with cultural issues, assessing student progress, and developing instructional strategies for ELLs in a general education classroom. This capstone will examine the question of how elementary general education teachers can implement scaffolding based on the ELL’s proficiency level, zone of proximal development (ZPD), and drawing on diverse backgrounds to ensure academic success in literacy. In the literature review I will examine the effectiveness of the elements of the sociocultural theory, including scaffolding and the zone of proximal development (ZPD) as a tool for educators when applied in the general education classroom for ELLs. The professional development has been grounded on research findings to help educators understand ELLs cultural backgrounds factors, ZPD, and scaffolding strategies in literacy discussions. Keywords: English Language Learners, sociocultural theory, scaffolding, zone of proximal development, literacy