• Head and Black Assistant Coaches in the National Football League: A Comparison of Sociological Profiles

      Melnick, Merrill J.; Livingston, James; The College at Brockport (1992-09-01)
      The study attempted to determine empirically if Black assistant coaches in the National Football League (NFL) possessed the “necessary” credentials to be a head coach in the NFL. The problem was investigated by developing profiles of head White and assistant Black coaches and then comparing the credentials of the assistant Black coaches to those of the head White coaches. If the Black assistants did not possess the same credentials as the head White coaches, then the absence of head Black coaches in the NFL could be justified by that fact. However, if the Black assistants’ credentials were equal to or better than those of the head coaches then the all-too-familiar explanation, "Blacks lack the necessities,” could no longer justify the lack of head Black coaches in the NFL. All 28 head and 45 Black assistant coaches in the NFL during the 1988-89 season were subjects in the study. Data about each coach were collected, and modal coach profiles were constructed. When the profiles were compared, it was found that NFL Black assistant coaches generally possessed the same achieved occupational credentials as White NFL head coaches and therefore, there is reason to believe that race may have been a factor ln the hiring of head coaches in the NFL.
    • Heritage or Hate?: An Examination of Americans’ Popular Memory of the Confederate States of America and Its Icons

      Daly, John P.; Falter, Benjamin; The College at Brockport (2016-05-09)
      During the American Civil War, the southern states declared themselves an independent nation called the Confederate States of America. After the Civil War ended, the Confederacy was reabsorbed into the United States. However, its memory and icons continued to be perceived separately. The current debate over whether Confederate icons, such as the so-called "Confederate Flag," Robert E. Lee, and Nathan Bedford Forrest, should be considered symbols of heritage or of hate reflects the controversial nature of Confederate Memory. However, the true history of these Confederate icons is lost in the modern debate, especially among those espousing the heritage position. If one examines the history behind these icons, one will find that they are truly symbols of racism hiding under a thin veneer of "heritage."
    • Intersectionality and Feminist Pedagogy: Lessons from Teaching about Racism and Economic Inequity

      Cunningham, Lisa J.; Vue, Pao Lee; Maier, Virginia B.; St. John Fisher College (2017-12-06)
      This paper utilizes Rochester, NY, as a case study to argue that approaching race intersectionally and across disciplines creates a stronger model of feminist pedagogy. It is based on our work in the classroom and on the Fisher Race Initiatives—a series of three interactive workshops we created on our campus to create change in the aftermath of the Michael Brown shooting in Ferguson, MO, and in the subsequent rise of the #BlackLivesMatter movement. Our goals were to promote dialogue on race, to expose participants to factual information on race, and to emphasize the intersectional causes of poverty in the Rochester region. We use the framework of Gunnar Myrdal’s vicious circle theory about the perpetual cycle of black poverty and white racism to present how racism engenders and promulgates economic inequity, and we describe that framework here in the context of the Rochester region. We look at historical and current examples in the housing and education markets as specific examples of institutionalized racism and how it perpetuates the cycle of poverty. We conclude our paper by reflecting on how this intersectional interdisciplinary approach provides valuable lessons for faculty and students on diminishing unaware/unintentional racism and white privilege and promoting a more equitable campus committed to social justice.
    • Racism and Education

      Corey, Mary E.; Hunt, Alicia M.; The College at Brockport (2014-08-04)
      This research focuses primarily on the effects of imperialism on the spread of racism. By evaluating specific historical relations, such as the British Empire and the Xhosa of Southern Africa, race relations are examined and their effect on American students of Social Studies clarified. Students are not always adequately instructed on the role of race in many historical events, and too often the role of minorities is minimized or even deleted from teaching materials. By understanding the legacy of imperialism, teachers may use carefully selected texts within their classrooms to help alleviate the disproportion of history taught in schools and elevate their awareness of race issues today, as well as creating a diverse curriculum for all students.
    • Racism and the Discourse of Phobias: Negrophobia, Xenophobia and More---Dialogue with Kim and Sundstrom

      Garcia, J. L .A. (2020)
      The article discusses recism as a topic for conceptual analysis, touching on other phobias as well.
    • Women and the Black Lives Matter Movement: Relevance Past to Present

      Burns, Ronieka; The College at Brockport, State University of New York (2016-08-24)
      Traditional white American society wonders why the Black Lives Matter Movement is even taking place, since many Americans argue that racism doesn’t exist. This paper explores why women in the Black Lives Matter Movement are needed and relevant. This paper sets out to open readers’ eyes to the fact that, although this is the year 2016, the same trials and tribulations that have taken place throughout our nation’s history are still taking place. We still have a long way to go to end racism and sexism.
    • You CAN Handle the Truth: How to Create a Caring Classroom Culture in which to Address Uncomfortable Topics

      Giblin, Thomas R.; Andalora, Delia (2019-12-13)
      High school teachers have the job of equipping students with a set of skills and knowledge that will help them be successful, functioning members of society in this complex world. Unfortunately, public schools across the country are failing to adequately prepare young adults for the adversity that each of us must inevitably face in our lives. By avoiding topics such as race, sexuality, sexism, immigration, and other topics because they are uncomfortable, teachers are lying to their students about the world which can lead to a pervasive and damaging ignorance. Creating a caring classroom in which teachers and students respect themselves, each other, and other cultures opens the door to addressing these sensitive subjects. This paper outlines methods and techniques for creating a caring classroom in order to teach about touchy topics.