• Spectator Perceptions of Fan Misbehavior: an Attitudinal Inquiry

      Cavanaugh, Brian M.; The College at Brockport (1981-04-01)
      Spectators (N = 1,747) attending a Brockport State College, Rochester Americans or Buffalo Sabres hockey game responded to a 28 item, 14 factor questionnaire. The questionnaire was developed to identify factors perceived as facilitative to fan misbehavior at sporting events. The responses to the top ranked factors were (1) age, (2) referees, (3) rivalry, (4) alcohol, and (5) nature of game. Kendall's coefficient of concordance (W) was computed and converted into a Spearman rank correlation coefficient in order to assess the similarity of factor rankings. The findings indicated that regardless of the location where the spectator completed the survey statistically significant ranking of the factors were identified as facilitating fan misbehavior. This statistically significant rank ordering of the factors also existed for spectator perceptions when the college sample was compared to the combined professional samples. The Kendall coefficient of concordance and Spearman rank correlation coefficient demonstrated that regardless of an individual's sex or age, the spectators identified the factors above as facilitative to fan misbehavior at sporting events. These factor rankings were statistically significant for all comparisons of concordance. The discussion centered on the importance of the identified factors facilitating spectator misbehavior and how these factors tend to be related to the characteristics of the spectator, the game and the environment where the game is played.