• Level of Extraversion and its Impact on Reading Comprehension in the Presence of Background Music

      Birch, Stacy; Holmes, Abigail; The College at Brockport (2019-05-10)
      The current study seeks to understand how background music affects reading comprehension depending on the personality of the individual. According to Eysenck’s theory of personality, extraverts perform better with high levels of outside stimuli compared to introverts. So far, support for this theory has been unclear. This could be because the tasks participants are being asked to complete are too easy, resulting in little competition between mental resources. In order to better understand whether or not task difficulty is important, this study uses both easy and difficult reading conditions. Participants listened to Alternative/Rock music with lyrics while reading easy or difficult reading passages, and then answered comprehension questions to the best of their ability. Based on previous research, the study hypothesized that in the easy reading condition introverts and extraverts would have similar scores, but for the difficult reading condition extraverts would perform better than introverts. There were no significant results for the interaction between extraversion and reading difficulty, however, a pattern did emerge to support this hypothesis. In addition, studying habit was measured to reveal that scores for participants who regularly listen to music while studying were not significantly different from scores of participants who do not regularly listen to music while studying. This was true for both easy and difficult reading passages.
    • The Effect of Background Music on Retention of Vocabulary Terms

      Smith, Arthur; Gearinger, Lori Lomker; The College at Brockport (1998-05-01)
      The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of background music on studying and retention of vocabulary terms. Is music adversely affecting or enhancing our children's studying habits? Can music be stimulating the brain to positively affect concentration and retention? The subjects consisted of 37 sixth graders. All of the subjects participated in the three different sessions. Three different vocabulary lists (10 words on each) were developed by the researcher. All of the vocabulary came directly from a novel called The View from Saturday by E.L. Konigsburg, a reading selection used within the students' reading class. In the first session the students studied the vocabulary lists without background music (control). During the second session, students studied to Mozart's Piano Concerto No. 21, C Major, K.467 and Mozart Serenade in G Major, K. 525. During the last session students selected "Men in Black" by Will Smith and "I'll Be Missing You" by Puff Daddy. Students were exposed to all different kinds of music and to the testing and studying format for several weeks prior to the actually sessions used for this study. An analysis of variance of two-factor with replication showed a statistically positive difference in the test scores. The experimental group, with Mozart as background music, performed significantly better on the vocabulary tests compared with no music or preferred choice of music.