• Children?s Step Counts on Weekend, Physical Education, and Non?Physical Education Days

      Brusseau, Timothy A.; Kulinna, Pamela H.; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; van der Mars, Hans; Darst, Paul W.S.; Arizona State University; Pennington Biomedical Research Center; The College at Brockport (2011-01-01)
      There have been well?documented increases in overweight and obese children, sedentary lifestyles, and increased prevalence of a hypokinetic disease over the past 20 years. Thus understanding the physical activity patterns of children is essential for developing effective interventions. Little evidence exists that illustrates the contribution of weekend, physical education, and non?physical education days to overall physical activity patterns of children. The purpose of the study was to examine differences in pedometer?determined physical activity patterns of fourth and fifth grade children during weekend, physical education and non–physical education days. Three hundred and sixty?three children (8?11 years old) from six Southwestern USA elementary schools participated by wearing pedometers (Yamax Digiwalker SW?200) for seven consecutive days. Children recorded their steps at arrival to school and when they woke up and went to bed on weekend days. During weekdays, the fourth and fifth grade children averaged 13,196 ± 3,334 and 11,295 ± 3,168 steps/day for boys and girls, respectively. This is compared to a weekend average of 7,660 ± 4,647steps/day (boys) and 7,317 ± 4,062 steps/day (girls). Children were significantly more active on physical education days, averaging 12,979 steps/day (14,197 ± 4,697 steps/day for boys and 12,058 ± 3,772 steps/day for girls),compared to non?physical education school days, when they accumulated 11,809 steps/day (12,788 ± 3,600 steps/day for boys and 11,047 ± 3,382 steps/day for girls). Based on the findings in this study, children and youth are more active during school days than on weekend days. Furthermore, children are more active on physical education days than non?physical education days. These findings suggest that increased physical activity programming and interventions during weekend days may be needed to increase physical activity. The expansion of school?based physical education across more school days may also serve to increase children’s physical activity during the school week.
    • Peer Tutors' Effects on Activity Levels of Deaf Students in Inclusive Elementary Physical Education

      Lieberman, Lauren J.; Dunn, John M.; van der Mars, Hans; McCubbin, Jeff; Oregon State University; The College at Brockport; University of Utah (2000-01-01)
      The purpose of this study was to examine barriers perceived by teachers when including students with visual impairments in general physical education. Teachers (52 males, 96 females) who had children with visual impairments in their physical education classes were surveyed prior to in-service workshop participation. The most prevalent barriers were professional preparation, equipment, programming, and time. A logistic regression analysis, regressing gender, in-service training, number of students with visual impairments taught, masters degree attained, masters hours spent on visual impairments (yes or no), undergraduate hours spent on visual impairments (yes or no), and years of experience failed to indicate significant predictors of professional preparation as a barrier, Model x2 (6, n = 148) = 4.48, p > .05.