• The Effects of Tension Recognition and Control on Beginning Taekwon-Do Instruction

      Frederick, Bruce; Park, Young Don; The College at Brockport (1981-06-01)
      This study was designed to investigate the effects of Jacobson's differential relaxation techniques on beginning instruction in Taekwon-Do, a Korean form of self defense. The subjects for this study consisted of twenty-two male and two female students enrolled in an introductory performance course in Taekwon-Do within the physical education program at the State University College at Brockport, Brockport, New York, Videotaped evaluation of the students' techniques by master instructors was employed to measure improvement and skill level of the subjects. The test measured body position, leg or arm position, breathing, focus, relaxation, power, and stance of the subject while he/she performed two basic routines normally required for the promotion to yellow stripe, (Saju Jirugi and Saju Chagi). The class, consisting of twenty-four students, was randomly divided into two groups. Both groups received identical instruction in Taekwon-Do for approximately fifty minutes per day, three days per week for seven weeks. During the last ten minutes of class, one group received instruction in Jacobsonian methods of tension recognition and control (differential relaxation) while the other group practiced independently under the supervision of a black belt instructor. Prior to their separation into two groups, all of the students were pre tested on their ability to perform the two test routines, Six weeks later, the students were post tested on their ability to perform the same two routines. Both the pre test and post test were recorded on videotape and scored by five master instructors (one 8th, two 7th, and two 5th degree black belts in Taekwon-Do). An analysis of simple main effects demonstrated a significant (p ‹ 0.5) improvement of the experimental group over the improvement of the control group. Within the scope and the limitations of this study, it is concluded that a ten minute instructional program in Jacobsonian methods of tension recognition and control, when given simultaneously with instruction in Taekwon-Do, three days per week, for six weeks, resulted in significant improvement in beginners, performance of the beginner patterns Four Directional Punch (Saju Jirugi) and Four Directional Kick (Saju Chagi).