• Adolescent reading habits and perceptions

      Glasier, Alyzia (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2018-05)
      It is said that adolescents do not read, but this is not true. Teachers and educators of adolescents need to become aware of adolescent reading habits. They are reading, it is the materials that are being read and adolescents' perceptions of those materials that has led to the widely held opinion that adolescents do not read. The goal of this research was to examine what adolescents perceive reading to be, what types of materials they read, and to understand if students are not reading anything at all, what they are doing in their leisure time. The major questions driving this research are what are adolescents' perceptions and attitudes of reading and what are their reading habits? The research for this study was conducted with six high school student participants (grades 9-12) who were recruited from a local library's homework help program. The participants completed two surveys, one on paper and one online. The data collected through the surveys was analyzed quantitatively through a survey generating program (Freeonlinesurveys.com, 2018) and qualitatively using descriptive coding and pattern coding (Saldaña, 2016). The main findings from the data were that the participants were either avid readers or non avid readers. Also, there were many differences between avid readers and non avid readers including: enjoyment levels, when reading occurs, the types of reading done, and motivations to read. [ from author's abstract]
    • Adolescents' out of school writing practices with technology

      Lotocki, Kimberly (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2018-05)
      Reports of writing assessment results from The Nation's Report Card (NAEP, 2011) and the New York State 2017 Grade 8 ELA assessment (NYSED Data Site, 2017) indicate that students in grade 8 are struggling with writing achievement on standardized assessments in school. Also, the use of technology is popular among most students. Research shows that the number of school aged students with personal cell phones and other electronics appears to be increasing (Lenhart, 2009). With this rise in technology use, it appears that eighth graders may be composing texts for self-expression and communication with peers every day, yet struggling with writing achievement in school. Thus, to obtain more information regarding students' writing with technology, appropriate research questions are: what are adolescents' out-ofschool writing practices?; and how do adolescents use technology in their out-of-school writing? By conducting an empirical study with a qualitative methodology, this research determined the out-of-school writing practices of three eighth grade students, specifically writing with technology. After analyzing digital writing samples, survey responses, and individual interviews of the three participants, the following findings emerged. First, the most prevalent out-of-school writing practice included texting or other typing on a cell phone, tablet, or game system. Second, following standard writing conventions was not a priority or necessity for the participants in their out-of-school writing. Third, textisms and emojis make up a large portion of the participants' writing with technology. And finally, the students prefer to type on a cell phone or computer rather than writing with paper and pencil. [from author's abstract]
    • Altering the Home Literacy Environment: A Look into How Teachers are Supporting Families Through Home Literacy Interventions

      Piatek, Kaitlyn (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2019-05)
      This empirical research study investigated the following two research questions: what are kindergarten, first and second-grade teachers currently using to make improvements to the home literacy environments of their students and what supports are teachers providing to families of their students to make these improvements successful. In this study, nine elementary teachers were surveyed. An online survey containing qualitative and quantitative questions was used. The first finding from this research study was that teachers are currently provided families with literacy resources/activities to complete at home with their child/children. The second finding for this research study was that teachers stated that it would be possible to positively influence the home literacy environments of their students but they needed more literacy resources in order to adequately support their students’ literacy learning at home. The third finding was that the participants were confident in their ability to support families with home literacy practices and were knowledgeable about the most effective home literacy practices that families could use. The findings from this research study showed that kindergarten, first and second-grade teachers were supporting the home literacy environments and the families of their students by sending home literacy resources.
    • An Analysis of Acceleration and Advancement Criteria in Middle School Mathematics

      Rappole, Robert (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2016-11)
      This research explores the criteria associated with various accelerated middle school mathematics programs currently employed by New York, North Carolina and other states across the United States. In addition, a longitudinal study of a single accelerated cohort of 25, 2016 graduates was investigated, so as to discern possible gaps in their original accelerated design. It was hypothesized that school districts make use of limited mathematics acceleration criteria, often focusing solely on either teacher recommendations or standardized assessments. Also, it was expected that the majority of district policies did not offer/include provisions for students to easily transfer into the accelerated mathematics program if students exhibit qualifying mathematical talent later in their secondary school career. First and foremost the survey research showed that teacher recommendation was used by 68.75% of schools, testing was addressed in 90.63% of schools and grades were a factor for 75%, making up the primary criteria for advancing students. Other data collected revealed that only about 60% of schools give the option to join the program at a later date, approximately 40% gave parents the right to override the school's placement decision, and roughly 20% of all schools surveyed had a set number or percent of students allowed into the program each year. When examining the longitudinal study, the 12 ‘additional’ students faired almost identically to the 13 ‘primarily placed’ students, each had approximately 33% of their group drop out of advanced placement and both groups had 6 students successfully complete Calculus I or higher. Half of the students in the additional group took Calculus or more advanced courses their senior year of high school. Based on the original criteria, none of these students would have had access to the advanced/college level mathematics coursework. In a class of only 60 students to miss 6 students is to miss 10% of the class. Implications from this study were that all policies should have opt-in or opt-out options for students, a scoring rubric, parental override procedure, a balance between and use of multiple criteria, no population limit or percentile cut-off and schools should compact classes, meaning combining 6th and 7th grade mathematics, not just skip grades.
    • An analysis of language difficulties in Algebra I (Common core) assessments versus integrated Algebra assessments

      Spoth, Amy (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2016-05)
      The purpose of this study was to determine if the difficult linguistic features of mathematics assessments correspond to teachers' perceptions of the assessments. A mixed methods research design was used in order to analyze the linguistic features of each exam and also gain insight to how teachers feel about the assessments. The assessments analyzed in this study were the June 2008 Integrated Algebra Examination and the 2015 Algebra I (Common Core) Assessment. In addition to comparing linguistic features of the two assessments, interviews were conducted. Two teachers were interviewed in one school district. The results of the data collection indicated that while the Algebra I (Common Core) Assessment contained more difficult linguistic features in fourteen of the sixteen categories, readability tests showed the Integrated Algebra Examination is written at a higher reading and grade level. The results of the interviews concluded that while students may struggle with linguistically difficult features in mathematics, there are strategies which may be incorporated into instruction in order to help these students overcome these challenges. Some of these strategies may include practice reading texts with difficult linguistic features in mathematics classrooms, explicitly teaching students how to separate mathematics and language, and collaborating with other teachers to determine what strategies may work best for your students. [from abstract]
    • An analysis of the changes to New York State commissioner's regulations part 154 and the impact on the landscape of English language education

      Marks, Caroline (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2018-05)
      The purpose of this study was to identify the changes between the two most recent iterations of New York State's Commissioner's Regulations (CR) Part 154, a policy document detailing the requirements for services provided to English language learners in the state. The researcher performed a content analysis of two versions of the same policy to identify specific changes in text and additions to the policy. Readings of outside sources in print media and press releases from educational organizations were performed to assist in interpretation of the contextual features of the policy and structural influences on policymakers in order to develop an understanding of the policy and a sense of the direction in which ELL education and services may be heading in the future. Findings from the document analysis indicated five major changes and additions between the two versions of CR Part 154 as well as minor alterations that may have an effect on stakeholders in ELL education. An investigation of educational issues in the media and press releases support findings that some aspects of the Part have been given priority in educational decisions. It is suggested that future research utilize interviews and observations of all those involved in the education of ELLs in order to develop a clear picture of the implications of the expanded policy on achievement, language development, and teachers' work experiences. [from author's abstract]
    • Analyzing the linguistic landscape of Japantown and Koreatown in Manhattan, New York

      Golden, Judy (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2017-05)
      Over time, Manhattan, New York has become home to thousands of Korean and Japanese people. These groups have brought their languages and cultures with them, along with a drive to be successful. To better understand the representation of these minority languages within the landscape, an analysis must be done on the landscape and on the representation of these minority groups. This study examines the linguistic landscape of Koreatown and Japantown in Manhattan, focusing on the representation of culture and identity in the landscape. In addition, language policies and linguistic boundaries are examined for insight into the formation and representation of signs in these linguistic landscapes. All signs in Koreatown and signs pertaining to Japanese establishments in the unofficially labeled Japantown were photographed and categorized. Surveys were randomly conducted with pedestrians and shop workers of Korean or Japanese ethnicity. Signs were examined for representation of the respective languages in their linguistic landscapes and surveys were studied to obtain attitudes about language, landscape and policy. The findings revealed that the linguistic landscape of Manhattan is English dominant, there is language and cultural representation in these linguistic landscapes. Yet, one linguistic landscape has suffered due to a small number of speakers and negative language attitudes. Overall, the linguistic landscapes in Koreatown and Japantown, to a lesser degree, does reflect the groups language and cultural identity. However, inconsistencies on language attitudes are found between the survey answers and photographs. Implications are discussed with regards to Korean ANALYZING THE LINGUISTIC LANDSCAPE and Japanese communities and the ethnolinguistic vitality they may have towards areas of Manhattan, NY's linguistic landscape. [from author's abstract]
    • Analyzing the multilingual landscape of Buffalo, New York.

      Dixson, Amanda E. (2015)
      In recent years, Buffalo, New York has become home to thousands of immigrants and refugees from across the globe. These people have brought with them diverse cultures, desires for the future, and their home languages. As a designated refugee resettlement city, Buffalo is an incredibly diverse city that welcomes thousands of refugees from all over the world each year; Buffalo also has an established Latino/a community. This study examines how these linguistic communities are represented in the linguistic landscape, and what deeper symbolic meanings signs in the linguistic landscape hold for them. All signs on six streets within a two mile radius of Buffalo's most diverse neighborhoods were photographed and categorized. Signs entirely or partially in non-English languages were plotted on an electronic map and examined for potential symbolic meanings. The linguistic landscape of Buffalo, although vastly English dominant, reflects some of the diversity of the area. However, the signs in Buffalo’s linguistic landscape reveal language ideologies are present and sometimes promote one language over another. Since languages are tied to identity, relegating languages can promote ideologies against ethnic groups tied to those languages. Overall, the linguistic landscape reflects the need to learn English to function in American society, but inconsistencies are found throughout the city that reflect the presence of non-English speakers in the area, and occasionally the promotion of their culture and language.
    • Anxiety in action.

      Gulick, Mimi E. (2013-01-24)
      Math Anxiety is a term used to describe the anxious symptoms felt by those who suffer from it while confronted with mathematics. This study investigated the levels of math anxiety experienced by college students. It was hypothesized that students in non-major mathematics courses would score higher on the Gulick Math Anxiety Scale than their peers enrolled in mathematics courses for mostly mathematics majors. Furthermore, those students who identified themselves as having medium to high levels of math anxiety, would attribute that anxiety to a negative past experience in a mathematics classroom. Data collected was both qualitative and quantitative in nature, and revealed that students in the non-major classes scored higher on the Gulick Math Anxiety Scale than the students in the classes for mostly mathematics majors. The math anxiety that existed in students was highest when associated with testing anxiety, and the main reason students reported math anxiety was due to a lack of confidence.
    • Application of cooperative learning approach.

      Xuan, Ling (2015)
      This paper makes a study of the feasibility of CL application and the teachers and student’s attitudes towards it in the foreign language classroom in China. The study adopted a mixed-methods design- an online questionnaire for the students regarding their attitudes of CL, and individual interviews of 7 English teachers toward the use of CL. Her participants were 166 students and 7 of their English language teacher of English class in Wenzhou, China. By doing this research, the researcher hopes that CL can receive more attention and enjoy more popularity among EFL teachers at all grade levels, so that English education in China can be actually improved. Along with the results that the researcher found from this research, she puts forward her suggestions about application of CL in foreign language classroom in china. What's more, the findings of this study will have a potential to alert Chinese policy-makers to improve the current college English learning instructions through better understanding of students’ and teachers’ attitudes.
    • Are you smarter than a high-schooler?

      Martin, Ashley R. (2013-01-14)
      This research examines the ability of students in introductory level college mathematics courses to recall fundamental information they learned in high school mathematics courses. During the first week of the Spring 2012 semester, students from three college mathematics classes were given a nineteen-problem quiz that consisted of problems on high school mathematics topics. Immediately following the quiz, the students were asked to complete a six question survey which was used to measure students’ prior mathematical knowledge, their outlook on mathematics, and how easily the students felt they could complete the quiz based on their ability to recall previously learned material. Results from the quiz and survey were compared and analyzed to draw conclusions. At the conclusion of this research study, it was determined that a significant difference existed in the students’ scores on individual questions based on the type of mathematics problem and a significant difference existed in the students’ total quiz scores based on their previous mathematics experience.
    • Area Awareness : a preadolescent perspective.

      Bland, Reid (2013-01-25)
      No author abstract.
    • Artifacts and actors

      Voegler, Emily (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2016-05)
      The linguistic landscape is a powerful indicator of the linguistic communities within an area, their prevalence, and their position within the social and political hierarchy. Therefore, language artifacts in the physical space reflect the attitudes toward different languages in the area and toward language revitalization projects. This study examines the linguistic landscape on the Seneca Nation Cattaraugus Reservation. The physical language representations in this area are analyzed in conjunction with interviews from community members to understand how the linguistic landscape represents the local population, and their attitudes toward Seneca language revitalization. The intentions of this study are to understand how the linguistic landscape is influenced by, and how it influences, the population's attitudes toward different languages on the Seneca Nation, how the linguistic landscape is being used for Seneca language revitalization, and how it could be used for language revitalization in the future. [from abstract]
    • Attitudes of parents and children toward maintaining their heritage language.

      LaRotonda, Ashley (2015)
      The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes of refugee parents and children in terms of maintaining the heritage language (HL) in an environment that is ethnically dominant in a different culture. A qualitative research design consisting of interviews was used to examine how refugee parents and children felt about keeping their HL, and also culture. The languages in this research include Nepali, Burmese, Karen, and Chin. The researcher interviewed parents and children about HL maintenance. The parents that were interviewed were newcomers (living in the United States for less than four years), and not newcomers (living in the United States for more than four years). The purpose of this research was to understand why refugee parents and children have negative or positive attitudes on the topic of maintaining HL. The researcher used Fishman's (1990, 1991) Graded Intergenerational Disruption Scale for Threatened Languages as a framework to describe how likely it is that populations can maintain their language. Results of this research state that HL maintenance was an occurrence in both newcomer and not newcomer families. All children and parents that were interviewed in this research had positive attitudes toward maintaining their HL. This research concludes with recommendations on how schools can maintain HL. The researcher recommended having a culturally relevant classroom, and using translanguaging as an instructional strategy. Another recommendation included how cities, such as Buffalo, can maintain HLs. A recommendation is to create a widespread message of acceptance toward HLs in public schools.
    • Avifaunal Biodiversity and Land Use on Indonesia's Palau Penida Archipelago

      Abrantes, Ashlee (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2018-05)
      Understanding anthropogenic alterations to land use and their effects can inform conservation efforts in tropical biodiversity hotspots. In 2004 the Indonesian Palau Penida Archipelago, off the coast of Bali, was established as an unofficial bird reserve; however, studies of the islands’ land use and avian biodiversity were never conducted and have not been monitored. I surveyed birds across 32 transects in land use categories designated: agriculture, deforested, developed, and forest. Forest transects presented the greatest endemic species richness, but overall Shannon diversity different significantly among land use categories, particularly forested and deforested. ANOVA indicated exotic bird density was significantly higher than endemic bird density across all transects. Birds serve as a common biodiversity barometer and this study can serve to inform land use management decisions on the Archipelago and throughout reserves and protected areas throughout the tropics.
    • Barriers and facilitators for Saudi women's leadership in higher education

      Almutairi, Naimah (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2016)
      The purpose of this study was to examine both the barriers and facilitators for women leadership in Saudi Arabia. The research question guiding this study was what are the barriers and facilitators for Saudi women in the upper leadership positions in Saudi higher education. [from author's abstract]
    • Barriers to Postsecondary Education for Western New York Rural High School Students

      Mulcahy, Collin (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2019-05)
      Rural high school students in Western New York are faced with numerous challenges when deciding to enroll in postsecondary education. Rural students are faced with limited support, both inside and outside of school. Research has shown that faced with these barriers, rural students are less likely to enroll in higher education than are urban students. The purpose of this study was to the needs of rural high school students as well as to identify the supports in addressing their perceived lack of self-efficacy for their educational abilities in postsecondary education. This qualitative case study analyzed the viewpoints of three high school guidance counselors who provide crucial college admissions assistance to high school students in Western New York. The results of the study illustrated that rural high school students need further support in addressing their perceived lack of efficacy when deciding whether or not to pursue a college education after graduating from high school. Furthermore, many rural students and their parents/guardians are not informed about the costs of higher education. Positive perceptions of postsecondary education were identified as a motivator that helps students overcome the identified challenges in higher education. Higher education institutions can better aid rural students by addressing the challenges they face when making the decision to enroll in postsecondary education.
    • The belief of elementary school teachers on the effect of student choice on achievement and behavior

      Hayes, Emma (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2017-05)
      With educational implementations being utilized in schools, allowing students to make choices in their own learning is becoming a more difficult and daunting task. The purpose of my research is to discover new methods for creating a more student-choice centered curriculum in an elementary setting. I plan to use my research to gain new knowledge on how student-centered classrooms can affect student achievement and behavior. I distributed surveys that asked teachers to read statements that related to student choice in the classroom and respond with the level to which they agreed or disagreed with the statement. The results of my study found that many teachers in the surrounding area believe that giving students choice in their learning can lead to higher achievement and improved behavior. [from author's abstract]
    • The beliefs of undergraduate pre-service teachers at a Western New York college about English language learners

      Denz, David (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2018-05)
      As the population of English Language Learners grow throughout the Western New York Area, it is important to consider how well the undergraduate pre-service teachers emerging within the area are prepared to teach these students. A variety of studies have shown that many mainstream teachers often hold deficit perspectives towards ELLs in public education, meaning they focus on any potential weaknesses of ELLs as opposed to looking at these students in a positive light. This deficit perspective can lead to a variety of issues such as slow development of English Langauge Proficiency, lower achievement rates compared to peers who are native English speakers, and high drop out rates. This study aimed to identify the core beleifs of pre-service undergraduate teachers a major education college in Western New York in order to identify any potential existance of deficit perspective among these students. Characteristics such as experience, past education, and origins of beliefs will be examined in order to further study the undergraduate students at the college. [from author's abstract]