• The Impact of Background Music on Student Reading Comprehension

      Seewagen, Amanda (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2019-05)
      Reading is the foundation for lifelong learning. It has been shown that music has an impact on students learning depending on what music you use in the classroom (Rashidi & Faham, 2011; Chew, Yu, Chua, & Gan, 2016; Chou, 2010). This brought up the problem of music impacting students reading comprehension. This problem led to the research question of does background music have an impact on students reading comprehension. An online survey was used to find if middle school general education and special education teachers used music in their classroom and if the music has an impact on the students reading comprehension. The results showed three major themes. The first theme was that music helps the student’s comprehension. The second theme was that the music teachers used in their classrooms are a range from upbeat to slow soothing music. The third theme was that music that the participants who used music in their classroom found their students to be more engaged and focus more on the lesson. The teachers also stated that they would also recommend using music in the classroom to other learners. These findings were important to the research because they showed that more research needs to be done on this topic. The teachers found differing results from the research stated in this study. There are limitations and recommendations offered for a future study.
    • The impact of Classwide Peer Tutoring for students with emotional or behavior disorders.

      Jo, Alex (2015)
      This study investigated how ClassWide Peer Tutoring can be effective for students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders. This research was a quantitative study and followed an A-B-A design, where the first A was the initial baseline observations, B was the ClassWide Peer Tutoring intervention, and the second A was the baseline reintroduced after the intervention was withdrawn. The study was six weeks and each phase of the research design was for two weeks with two observations each week. The study examined data from a single subject participant with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders in an 8th grade mathematics class. Results from this study found on-task behaviors increased while off-task behaviors decreased when ClassWide Peer Tutoring was implemented during intervention. In addition to improved behavior, academic accuracy was better with ClassWide Peer Tutoring. Implications for further research include lengthening the research study to an A-B-A design and examining the differences between student thought incentives and teacher incentives.
    • The Impact of Dunkirk High School Technology Education on Overall Student Report Card Grades.

      Wright Jr., Steven R. (2014)
      This study’s focus was to identify whether or not Dunkirk high school technology courses had an impact on overall student report card grades. This research was conducted using the report card grades of roughly 600 students at Dunkirk High School in Dunkirk, NY. The data was collected through access of the schools computer software E-School. The report card scores were grouped into two groups: students who took technology education classes and students who did not take technology education classes. The mean averages of both groups’ report card grades were calculated, and used to determine whether technology courses had an impact on overall student report card scores. The results indicate that students who were enrolled in technology education courses scored higher on their final report card compared to students who were not enrolled in technology classes.
    • The impact of home computer use on ELL's reading performance

      Alsharif, Rasha (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2018-05)
      This research study investigated the impact of home computer use on English Language Learners' reading performance. The primary research question was: What is the relationship between home computer use and the reading performance of ELLs? The participants were 13 Hispanic students who are 6th, 7th and 8th graders in School #1 and School #2. Both settings are located in Chautauqua County, New York, in the United States. This study used a 10-item survey distributed to these students, asking them about the effectiveness of home computer use on their reading performance with special attention to their English Language Arts (ELA) test scores. Results, in general, showed that computer use had positive effects on those students who had access to a home computer and used it for reading purposes. However, using a computer for a variety of purposes had a weak correlation with students' test scores. In conclusion, the study showed some similarities and differences between the current study and other previous studies on the same field. The findings of this study add to the understanding of using computers to increase ELA test scores in the field. [from author's abstract]
    • The impact of homework incentives on student homework completion in a secondary mathematics classroom

      Garland, Brianna (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2017-05)
      Assigning homework to secondary school students has been a highly discussed topic among educational researchers, as well as the general public, for several years. Several aspects of homework have been researched in depth; however, there are still significant gaps in research regarding the impact of homework incentives. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of homework incentives on student homework completion in a secondary mathematics classroom. Mixed methods research was conducted in a suburban middle school in Western New York in order to address this research topic. Quantitative data was collected in the form of student homework completion grades, and qualitative data was collected in the form of student surveys. The results of this study indicated that implementing a homework incentive in a 7th grade mathematics classroom improves the majority of students' homework completion grades. These findings have significant implications that will give secondary teachers new insight on whether to implement a homework incentive in their classroom. [from author's abstract]
    • The impact of integrated curriculum on students' comprehension of expository texts.

      Rockwood, Amanda (2015)
      The increasing curricular demand on K-12 students to comprehend expository texts has teachers looking for ways to improve comprehension. An integrated curriculum offers the promise of providing students with a curriculum connected across disciplines and enabling students to increase their comprehension of expository texts. To explore that promise, the research question asked was, what is the impact of an integrated curriculum on K-12 students’ comprehension of expository texts in the content areas? The most appropriate way to answer that question was with a research synthesis. The exhaustive literature review and subsequent research synthesis for this study produced four findings. The first is that a key to comprehension of expository texts at the early elementary grade levels appears to be students’ ability to make personal connections with the material being read across an integrated curriculum; the second finding is that students’ comprehension in the upper elementary to high school grade levels can be significantly impacted by activating prior knowledge for an integrated curriculum. The third finding is that when the integrated curriculum includes hands on, interactive practices for students in grades one through six, the impact on student learning behavior and academic performance, including some literacy performance, is positive. The fourth finding appears to be that integrating literacy with nearly any other subject area may produce a positive impact on student academic performance from grades three to eight. These findings then form the basis of professional development for teachers that takes the form of an information-bearing Google Site.
    • The Impact of Middle School Teachers' Personal Reading Habits on Their Literacy Instruction

      Ruber, Jessica (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2019-05)
      All educators, regardless of subject or grade level taught, are expected to incorporate literacy best practices into their classroom (Huang, 2017). They are also expected to inspire their students to be lifelong readers which can be problematic when teachers do not have positive personal reading habits (Nathanson, et al., 2008). Based on this understanding, this empirical study sought to answer the question: what is the impact of core middle school teachers’ personal reading habits on their classroom literacy practices? Participants consisted of nine middle school teachers. The study used an online survey tool and resulted in three main findings. First, there was no clear connection between the participant’s personal reading habits and their use of literacy best practices in the classroom. Second, the participants mainly valued reading but were not frequent readers themselves. Third, within the qualitative data, there was no connection between the participant’s reading habits and their use of best practices as they value a variety of best practices with an emphasis on more “non-social” strategies. In conclusion, the lack of reading habits of the middle school teachers surveyed did not impact their use of literacy best practices in the classroom.
    • Impact of music on student achievement.

      Szentgyorgyi, Emily A. (2015)
      This study compares the impacts of playing classical and pop music as background music on student achievement in reading. The study took place over a period of four weeks in one elementary classroom, and was conducted in an A-B-A-B Single Subject Design. The target population was 17 students in a general education, 5th grade classroom in a public elementary school within a rural school district. The findings suggested that playing pop music improved student scores more than playing classical music did.
    • The impact of peer tutoring strategies on student learning in social studies.

      Costantini, Scott T. (2015)
      This study investigated how Class Wide Peer tutoring (CWPT) impacted student knowledge and students’ ability to better relate course material to historical themes in an 8th grade social studies classroom. Located in an urban school in Western New York, the classroom was composed of 18 students, eight males and ten females. The mixed method study sought to answer the following central research questions: What effect does CWPT have on students’ academic performance in social studies measured by weekly vocabulary quizzes? What effect does CWPT have on students’ ability to link content to one another using a common theme? Is there a difference in students’ test scores when CWPT is combined with a group oriented motivator compared to a team oriented motivator? What are student’s perceptions of the effectiveness of CWPT and how do these perceptions relate to the finding of the study? Using a mixed method single baseline design, weekly quizzes were given at the end of each intervention for seven weeks. Findings demonstrated that CWPT had a positive impact on student’s content knowledge and on a student’s ability to link course content to historical themes. CWPT was also found to be positively correlated with the academic performance of the 8th grade student’s social studies measured by the weekly quizzes. Findings concluded that there was no statistically significant difference between the group oriented motivators and the team oriented motivators.. The student’s response on a Likert scale-based survey showed that the majority of students believed they were learning more because of CWPT, which is consistent with the data collected during the interventions.
    • The impact of personal loss on Music Therapists' ability to work with clients.

      Younis, Ashley Marie (2013-07-10)
      Loss and grief are common experiences across age, gender, race, religion, socioeconomic status, sexual orientation, and occupation. However, there is a paucity of research on how loss impacts music therapists’ clinical work. The purpose of this descriptive study was to explore the influence of personal losses on music therapists’ clinical work. Ninety-five music therapists participated in an internet survey via SurveyMonkey®, and answered questions regarding (a) the impact loss has had on their work with clients, (b) self-care techniques they use to work through these losses, and (c) their viewpoints on taking a leave of absence to cope with loss. Relocation, death of a loved one (not otherwise specified), decline in health, loss of a pet, car accident, death of a parent, end of a friendship, end of a romantic relationship, loss of job, and loss of safety were the most reported losses that impacted the music therapists’ clinical work, either positively or negatively. The most commonly reported coping strategies were to talk with friends (92.4%), cry (83.5%), listen to music (81.0%), and talk with family (79.7%). All participants consistently reported that taking a leave of absence to cope with loss may be beneficial depending on the situation, and that music therapists must help themselves before they can help clients, even if that includes a leave of absence. Results are described, and limitations and implications for future research are discussed.
    • The impact of using a bilingual dictionary (English-Arabic) for reading and writing

      Almaliki, Ali (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2017-12)
      The purpose of this study is to explore the impact of using a bilingual dictionary (English- Arabic) for reading and writing in a Saudi high school and also to explore the Saudi Arabian students' attitudes and EFL teachers' perceptions toward the use of bilingual dictionaries. This study involves 65 EFL students and 5 EFL teachers in one Saudi high school in the city of Alkobar. Mixed methods research is used in which both qualitative and quantitative data are collected. For participating students, pre-test, post-test, and surveys are used to collect quantitative data. For participating teachers and students, in-person interviews are conducted with select teachers and students so as to collect qualitative data. This study has produced eight findings; first is that the use of a bilingual dictionary has a significant effect on the reading and writing scores for both high and low proficiency EFL students. Other findings include that most EFL students feel that using a bilingual dictionary in EFL classrooms is very important to help them translate and learn new vocabulary words but their use of a bilingual dictionary is limited by the strategies for use that students know or are taught, and that both invoice and experienced EFL teachers agree that the use of a bilingual dictionary is important for learning word meaning and vocabulary, but they do not all agree about which grades should use bilingual dictionaries. The results of this study have a potential to alert Saudi policy-makers to the benefits of using bilingual dictionaries in the English curriculum through all grade levels in Saudi schools. [from author's abstract]
    • The impact of “Clickers” on student achievement in second grade math class.

      Alrouqi, Fawaz (2015)
      This thesis sought to answer the question: Does using personal response systems, or "clickers", improve the achievement of second grade students in addition and subtraction facts as measured by their performance on chapter tests? The research was carried out in a school in Makkah, Saudi Arabia, where participants in the study were second grade students and their math teacher. There were two sections of second grade students with a total of 20 student participants, with ten student participants from each section of the class. The technology was introduced and used during instruction centered on addition and subtraction. Students in both sections were given a pretest and post-test consisting of three questions on subtraction and addition, comprising of single, double and triple digit numbers. The data collection period was during the second half of May 2014. Weekly continuous assessments or diagnostic exercises were also conducted. A survey questionnaire was conducted after the instruction and the use of the clickers in order to examine the students’ experience of using clickers. The responses of the students were collected from the class using the clickers. The test results showed the scores in both classes were similar in post and pretests (26 correct answers), compared to 23 and 24 correct answers without the clickers, thus showing a slight advantage with the use of clickers.
    • Implementing WebQuests in the elementary classroom.

      Kicak, Lauren M. (2013-03-25)
      Technology, including computers, is an ever increasing topic within the world today. Since technology is finding its way into classrooms, WebQuests, a particular learning tool that fosters student learning while working with the computer and the Internet are the focus of this curriculum project. The Internet can be a vast, unsecured network with a mix of accurate and inaccurate information. Teachers become responsible for sifting through the information on the Internet to create quality learning environments in the form of WebQuests for their students. Although the research related to this topic is limited, several studies have shown positive outcomes for using computers technology in the classroom. Within this curriculum project is a manual, How to Create a WebQuest for Your Students, designed to provide teachers with a step--by-step guide for creating a WebQuest, implementing the. tool in the classroom, and providing research-based ideologies for its use.-- Author abstract
    • The importance of sound design and its affect on perception.

      Drake, Jessica Ryan (2013-01-17)
      The purpose of this research is to clearly define the importance of sound design in film, television, and movies, with emphasis on how the audience is affected by the use of sound. Sound design is the overall aural image of a production, from pre-production to post-production. Sound designing is a process that greatly influences the outcome of a production. Sound is the secret emotional messenger in narrative Western film making and without it a film falls flat. However, to fully influence the perception of the audience, sound and visuals need to work together in a symbiotic relationship, where each element benefits from each other. Sound and picture should never compete for dominance, but in our Western visual culture, sound often fights for its right to belong. Filmmakers need to realize and fully understand the importance of sound design and how it can greatly improve their production. Without sound, narrative Western Films, only have moving pictures that are absent of depth and lack connection with the audience.
    • Improving English pronunciation among Arabic EFL school-age students using minimal pairs.

      Altamimi, Ali K. (2015)
      This study investigated whether the use of the minimal pairs’ strategy improves English pronunciation of unfamiliar consonant sounds for native Arab student in a 2nd intermediate grade in Saudi Arabia. The minimal pair defines as patterns of words which sound similar but are in fact different in only one sound (phoneme). Thirteen of participants in this study were male Arabian school students who had been studying English as a foreign language. The type of research used in this study was action research which was designed to enhance teaching in the classroom. The researcher had used four phases in conducting this study; plan, act, observe and reflect. The intervention (use of minimal pairs) was used in this study for approximately fifteen minutes each time, four times per week over a four-week period. Three instruments were used in this study: pretest, post test and oral assessment (based on observation). This research was designed using pretest and post test to determine if there was any improvement with the pronunciation of specific English consonant phonemes (/p/, /ʒ/, /v/, /tʃ/ and /ŋ/) by the study participants. Finally, the findings revealed that teaching strategy, minimal pairs, is effective in improving the pronunciation of the 2nd intermediate grade Arab speakers.
    • Improving home-school relations for Spanish speaking families

      Robertson, Jane (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2016-05)
      Parental involvement in the education of their children has been a widely popular area of study in the past. There is general consensus among many scholars as to the importance and potential positive outcomes of effective parental involvement. Educational researchers such as Lee and Bowen (2006), Marschall (2006), and Jeynes (2007) agree that high levels of parental involvement can result in the improvement of students' academic achievement and improve their attitudes toward education. This area of educational research can be especially impactful among typically lower achieving subgroups of students, such as students of low socioeconomic status (SES) or English Language Learners (ELLs). That makes this issue particularly important for researchers studying English Language Learners or related fields, because parental involvement could have the potential to help diminish the achievement gap for them. The purpose of this research study is to investigate parental attitudes to and perceptions of their involvement in their child's education in a middle school setting in a small city school district in Western New York. It also seeks to delineate specific factors that parents at this school perceive to positively or negatively impact their involvement at the middle school level, specifically those related to language or cultural differences. The goal of this study is to determine specific ways this school can improve parental involvement and home-school relationships for Spanish-speaking parents' based on their own perceptions, in turn, improving the educational outcomes of their children. [from author's abstract]
    • Improving reading comprehension for Saudi Students by using the Reading Aloud Strategy.

      Alshehri, Mohammed (2014)
      Reading is important to help students gain access to many different kinds of knowledge, information, and ideas. The reading aloud strategy can be used to reach effective outcomes and increase students’ reading comprehension. The purpose of this study is to provide support for the reading aloud strategy to improve reading comprehension. The study was conducted during the summer of 2014 in Saudi Arabia. The participants of this study were 41 male students in the 5th grade. The researcher explained the reading aloud strategy to the participants to increase their reading comprehension. Then the students employed the intended strategy during the reading lessons in order to increase their reading comprehension. This research study used the 5th grade textbook to determine if the use of the reading aloud strategy improved reading comprehension for students. This was measured by a comparison of pre and post intervention reading comprehension tests. In addition, a survey created and designed by the researcher for this study measured if students’ enjoyment of reading increased through the use of the read aloud strategy. Lastly, the researcher conducted observations and recorded field notes on students’ behavior during reading lessons. According to the results, the reading aloud strategy showed positive effects on the development and improvement of Saudi students’ comprehension. The participants were able to connect their own experiences and personal knowledge with the daily texts to share their opinions and demonstrate a high level of understanding.
    • Increasing students' participation by using cooperative learning in library and research course.

      Alhabeedi, Ezdehar (2015)
      The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of cooperative learning strategies on students' participation in a high school library and research course in Saudi Arabia. Increased student participation provides social, psychological and academic advantages to students. The review of the literature focuses on four primary frameworks. The first section addresses Vygotsky's theory of social constructivism. Second, previous studies completed in regards to cooperative learning are presented including definitions, benefits, potential drawbacks, elements and strategies, as well as the role of the teacher in cooperative learning. The third section focuses on student development while the last section focuses on curriculum of the library and research course. This research specifically targeted female first grade high school students who were 16 years old from an urban high school in Western Saudi Arabia during the fall semester of 2015. The experimental group was 15 students working in three cooperative groups while the other 15 students in the control group were taught in a traditional teacher centered method. Data was collected using quantitative techniques of participation tallies. The results showed students who were taught by the cooperative learning strategy increased their participation as compared to the students who were taught by a lecture approach. Therefore, the conclusion of this study is that cooperative learning had a positive impact on increasing students' participation in Saudi Arabia.
    • Influence of cooperative learning strategies for English Language Learners with disabilities

      Langworthy, Allison L. (2015)
      Research has shown the amounts of English Language Learners (ELLS) with disabilities are on the rise in the United States. Parallel to the rise of ELLs with disabilities, are the struggles these types of students endure in the classroom. This study investigated the use of specific Kagan cooperative learning structures in the classroom with ELLs with disabilities and if students’ engagement, motivation, and other positive outcomes were affected by these strategies. This study also investigated teacher perspectives in regards to Kagan cooperative learning strategies. Further, a case study was conducted evaluating the use of Kagan cooperative learning structures in the classroom, when implemented by two special education teachers. Overall, findings distinguished that when specific Kagan strategies were implemented in a classroom with ELLs with disabilities, these students experienced increased motivation, engagement, self-esteem, confidence, and peer-acceptance. Findings also determined the teacher perspectives were conclusive with previous literature and were affirmative. Implications for further research are discussed in regards to Kagan cooperative learning strategies use in the classroom.
    • The influence of society on the roles of African Americans, [and] Gays and Lesbians in film.

      Platt, Andrew J. (2013-01-14)
      Minorities, specifically African Americans, and gays and lesbians have been widely represented by negative stereotypes in film. These stereotypical roles have been strongly influenced by society. While these stereotypes may represent some individuals they do not represent the community as a whole. Films such as Birth of a Nation, Gone With the Wind, Imitation of Life, Foxy Brown, Chicago, Different from the Others, These Three, Victim, Making Love and Brokeback Mountain were researched and screened to determine how African Americans and the gay and lesbian individuals were portrayed. Throughout history, the roles played by these minorities have changed. How the majority of society views those minorities has been how they were represented in the films during their time. It should be the goal of Hollywood to represent minority characters with substance and not focus only on the stereotypical roles for financial profitability. More independent studios and filmmakers are needed to create positive images. These types of roles played by minorities may not change until the audiences are willing to pay to see films that have positive roles for minority characters.