• Effects of reciprocal peer tutoring for students in a 6th grade mathematics class

      Graf, Samantha (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2016)
      The current mathematics curriculum intertwined with the Common Core State Standards has created a struggle for teachers and struggling students in the classroom to find time and successful ways for interventions. Research has shown for decades that tutoring has been a useful strategy employed with students and over time has been altered through trial and error to create different types of tutoring based upon student needs. Extensive previous research using Reciprocal Peer Tutoring (RPT) has occurred at the elementary and high school level. The purpose of this study is to select the specific research based tutoring program RPT and to use the historical research to create a study to explore its impact on struggling 6th grade mathematic students views of their math skills and show academic gains or losses. In the study described, students took a survey of their views of their individual math skills before and after the implementation as well as a pre and post-test for Quarter 1. Twelve students were selected to participate in the study that occurred 5 days per week for 3 weeks. After 3 weeks data was collected and analyzed to show the effects of RPT on academics and math viewpoint. At the completion of the study students were shown to have made growth in their math skills from quarter one.[from author's abstract]
    • The effects of repeated reading strategies on Saudi Arabian 5th graders

      Alamri, Sarah Dhafer (2016-05)
      The repeated reading strategy can be used to reach effective results and increase students’ reading comprehension. The purpose of this study is to explore the effects of the repeated reading strategy in Saudi Arabia on 5th grade students’ reading comprehension. Repeated reading is a strategy that consists of rereading a short and relevant passage until an acceptable level of fluency is attained. The research question answered by this study is: Compared to the traditional teaching strategy, how does the repeated reading strategy impact reading comprehension of fifth grade students in Saudi Arabia? The study began in December, 2014 and continued until January, 2015. The participants of this study were twenty female students in the fifth grade in a girl’s elementary school. The study was done in two groups using two classes. The experimental group used the repeated reading strategy, while the control group was taught using a traditional teaching method. The questions on the test were taken from a fifth grade text book. The researcher used the repeated reading strategy with these students to investigate the impact of the repeated reading strategy on students’ reading comprehension. According to the results, the repeated reading strategy showed positive effects on the development and improvement of these Saudi students’ comprehension. In conclusion, repeated reading is one of many important reading strategies, has a positive impact on students, and helps them to improve their reading comprehension.
    • The effects of response cards on 11th grade physics achievement and off-task behaviors.

      Bittinger, Daniel L. (2015)
      This study investigated how the use of response cards in an 11th grade Physics classroom impacted both students’ academic performance and off-task behaviors. This experimental quantitative study applied an A-B-A design, wherein traditional hand raising was used for student response during the first week of the study or the baseline (A), response cards were used for the second week or the intervention (B), and traditional hand raising was used again for the third week of the study or withdraw of intervention and return to baseline (A). The central questions being investigated were as follows: How does the use of response cards impact student academic performance? How does the use of response cards impact student off-task behaviors? With a quantitative approach short daily quizzes were used to measure the students’ academic performance and teacher observations recorded on a chart were used to measure the frequency of off-task behaviors over the three week period. The results showed that student academic performance increased while off-task behavior decreased.
    • The effects of the fan-n-pick cooperative learning strategy on young Saudi students

      Al Matrafi, Sameha (2016-03)
      Cooperative learning allows students to share ideas, ask questions and give feedback. The “Fan-N-Pick” strategy is a cooperative learning strategy developed by Spencer Kagan. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of using the Fan-N-Pick cooperative learning strategy with young Saudi girls, aged 6-7, in science class to improve performance and participation. The research was conducted over a period of two weeks in an elementary school in Makkah, Saudi Arabia. The participants in this study were 48 female students from two science classes in the first grade. One class was the experimental group, and the other was the control group. The experimental group was taught by using the Fan-N-Pick cooperative learning strategy while the control group was taught by using a traditional, lecture method. The researcher compared the posttest scores and students' participation rates, as measured by observations during four lessons, between the control group and the experimental group. The results of this study showed significant improvement of students’ performance and participation through using the cooperative learning Fan-N-Pick strategy.
    • The effects of the Good Behavior Game on first grade students' behaviors.

      Bartela, Ashley L. (2015)
      The positive reinforcement contingencies, particularly the Good Behavior Game, have been used by teachers to improve behaviors among students within the classroom. Prior research suggests that the Good Behavior Game saves educators time in constantly administering consequences to students, and promotes both positive social behaviors and academic performance among students involved simultaneously (Tankersley, 1995). This quantitative study investigated the effectiveness of the positive reinforcement contingency, the Good Behavior Game on increasing on-task behavior and decreasing disruptive behaviors among a group of five first grade students (three girls and two boys) enrolled in an Academic Intervention Services (AIS) classroom. The researcher collected data through an ABA design, which spanned over a cumulative period of four weeks. Findings demonstrated a direct correlation between the implementation of the Good Behavior Game and on-task behaviors, as well as a significant decrease in disruptive behaviors among each of the five first grade students involved in the study.
    • Effects of the Literature Circle Strategy on participation of English Language Learners.

      Balone, Erika M. (2015)
      A common issue in education classes comprised of English language learners is a lack of participation in the classroom. The purpose of this research was to determine if the use of literature circles would have an impact on the number of times students raised their hands to participate during a book discussion. The participants were 4th grade students in two ELA classrooms within an urban elementary school located in western New York. This study included six lessons based on chapters in a book, three of which utilized the literature circle strategy, and three that did not. The results of this study were measured based on the number of times students participated by raising their hand during the discussions to see if students participation increased when using the literature circle strategy. Results determined that in this study, participation was positively affected by the use of literature circles.
    • The effects of using interactive laboratory simulation in teaching Biology

      Almutrafi, Hannan (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2016-05)
      This study was designed to investigate interactive simulation in a high school biology class with a focus on whether interactive simulation technology had an effect on academic achievement, as measured by standardized assessment scores. Also, the study included a survey to measure by standardized assessment scores. [from author's abstract]
    • Eliminate the substitution or substitute the elimination?

      Hammond, Ricardo S. (2013-01-25)
      This research examines the different methods used for solving systems of equations, how those methods are taught, and how they can be applied to real world situations. More specifically, this research examines which of these methods student tend to favor, as well as whether or not students can properly apply the concept of systems of equations to real world situations. “It is hypothesized that high school algebra students will use substitution over elimination when solving systems of equations, and that students who have not been previously introduced to any method will naturally use “guess-and-check.” Furthermore, it is hypothesized that students’ general approach to solving systems of equations is “procedural,” causing them to score higher on algebraic-type problems than on word problems". It was determined that students who had already been instructed on solving systems of equations were likely to favor substitution over other methods. It was also concluded that students who had not yet been instructed on solving systems of equations had a tendency to favor guess-and-check over other methods. Furthermore, students performed better on the algebraic problems than the word problems. Many students approached the word problems differently than how they approached the algebraic problems. Regardless of the methods used in the algebraic problems, many students abandoned those methods when attempting the word problems.--
    • The emotional and social effects of having sibling with a disability

      Cox, Lindsey (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2017-05)
      The purpose of this curriculum project was to create an instructional unit emphasizing awareness, consciousness, and intentional social justice teaching; for teachers, administrators and educators to implement in their educational setting. The goal of this project was to present a a high school curriculum unit full of social justice language, literature, and suggested activities that motivate leadership development, which in turn may create welcoming educational environments for the liberation of the oppressed ones. The project encourages users to implement educational advocacy practices, diversity/pluralism, needs and educational assessments, and create space for teacher, students, and parents' relationship. It is a curriculum project reflecting community organizing leadership examples as road map for teacher/student leadership development. Effective teaching. [from abstract]
    • Engaging practices in civics education

      McNeill, Daniel (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2017-05)
      High school civics education is often an overlooked part of the senior high curriculum. As students transition from school to the college campuses and the workplace setting they must be prepared for the key roles and responsibilities of citizenship. Citizenship in the United States, as it is in many nations around the world, is a special privilege that requires a functioning body of citizen contribution to maintain and succeed. As part of an effort to provide a well-rounded and wholesome education to our young adults, social studies educators are charged with the responsibilities to enlighten and encourage civics and civic participation. The purpose of this study is to examine traditional and contemporary practices in civics education to bring light to the most impactful strategies and activities that promote civic engagement. An in-depth examination of literature provides a glimpse into the success and shortcomings of civics education over the course of its history. A student to teacher comparative survey study and its findings are also presented to provide a bead on two schools in rural Western New York and how both parties feel about the Participation in Government (PIG) course and what it provides to them. The results dictate relative agreement between students and educators on the content of civics education, but reveal shortcomings in the preparation of Senior students for active participation as citizens. [from abstract]
    • English Language policy changes in China, Japan, and Korea and the effect on students studying in the United States.

      Tedesco, Daniel J. (2015)
      The growing need for proficient English speakers in China, Japan and Korea has spurred a shift in English language policy from the traditional model focusing on reading and writing to a model emphasizing communicative language teaching (CLT) (Hu & Lei, 2014; Hu & McKay, 2012). However, despite policy changes, CLT methods are not regularly used in the classroom because of constraints such as the university entrance exam system. Therefore, students remain unprepared for the English method instruction (EMI) demands at university. As such, the purpose of this study is to explore student perspectives regarding their experiences attending high school in their home countries and then EMI programs at U.S. universities. The following is a mixed-method study that focuses on students who attended high school in China, Japan or Korea and are currently studying at a U.S. university. This study further focuses on the perspectives of these students with regard to whether they believe they were prepared for the English demands of their current university. Data was obtained through an online 33-item survey from fourteen university students as well as from semi-structured interviews from six of those participants. Results are mixed, because although the interviews revealed unanimously that the participants did not feel prepared for university in the U.S., the survey revealed no conclusive evidence as the participants felt neutral about the majority of the items regardless of country of origin. Implications for addressing the English language needs of current Chinese, Japanese and Korean university students and future research are also discussed.
    • English teacher perception of the current English curriculum and instruction at a university in Saudia Arabia

      Almahmoud, Abdullah (2016-12)
      Task design allows teachers to organize and implement tasks according to the specific needs of the learners. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the teacher perception of curriculum and instruction in regards to English language development at a King Saud University, KSA. The study mainly used the quantitative questionnaire technique as a main data collection instrument. The participants are a total of 35 male and 25 female professors who are originally from Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Syria, India, United Kingdom and the United States aged from 25-55 years old. The results showed lack of development of English as a Foreign Language according to teachers’ perception in KSA. Teachers from Saudi Arabia and foreign countries advocate for evolution to the curriculum and its integral parts. Yet, the changes have not occurred in the system. This clearly shows that there is less involvement of the teachers in the development of the curriculum. The teachers have not also been able to provide inputs, help write and contribute their own material. This study showed valuable insights into the English Language Curriculum problems and various rectifications, which might help improve the quality of the curriculum and therefore, enhancement in increasing interest of students and developing their skills.
    • Environmental enrichment as a means of increasing male-female social interactions in a critically endangered species, Macaca nigra.

      Smith, Danielle Renee (2013-07-10)
      Environmental enrichment refers to any modification of the physical and social environment of an exhibit in an attempt to improve the animal’s quality of life in captivity. While prolonged levels of both high and low stress tend to result in a suppression of reproductive physiology, acute, yet moderate stress can potentially promote reproductive activity. Sulawesi Crested Macaques are critically endangered. The species exhibits a polygynandrous (multi-male/multi-female) mating system. The captive Macaca nigra population at the Buffalo Zoo was observed for 14 weeks, alternating between an enrichment item and lack of enrichment, and interactions between males and females were recorded. Analysis indicates a significant increase in the frequency of friendly behaviors in the presence of enrichment, accounting for 90.43% of behaviors compared to 71.24% of behaviors without enrichment. A decrease in frequency of unfriendly behaviors was also observed with enrichment, in which 9.57% of behaviors were unfriendly compared to 28.76% of behaviors without enrichment. An increase in duration of grooming behavior from a mean of 154.2 seconds to 279.8 seconds with enrichment was observed. If enrichment can be used to increase social interactions between males and females, then this research has the potential to improve captive breeding programs, particularly for threatened, endangered and/or slowly reproducing species.
    • Ethnic identity of Seneca Nation students in Seneca language revitalization program.

      Lesher, Janelle L. (2015)
      There were once 300 indigenous languages spoken in the United States. Today, only 35 of those languages are still in use and are in severe risk of extinction (Reyhner, 2000). Causes of this language loss include social, economic, and political factors (Whaley, 2003). Due to the prominence of White culture and its necessity for success in the U.S., many Native American populations are losing their heritage language, and with that, their sense of ethnic identity. To combat the rapid rate of language loss, various Native American nations are implementing language revitalization programs, including the Seneca Nation. The goal of this study was to measure the ethnic identity of Seneca Nation students participating in a language revitalization program, as well as to determine the effects that the program has had on their ethnic identity. The participants of this study included seven Seneca Nation students enrolled in the Seneca language revitalization program of a school district in Western New York. Data was collected through a paper Likert-scale survey and an audio-recorded focus group. Results were varied and showed that some Seneca Nation students participating in a language revitalization program possessed a strong sense of ethnic identity while others demonstrated a weaker ethnic identity. Furthermore, the Seneca language revitalization program has positively affected and strengthened the ethnic identity of its participating Seneca students. This study may aid as a source for further research i this area.
    • An ethnographic case study of technology use in the elementary classroom.

      Babaeer, Shahad (2014)
      Technology has become an essential tool that supports the education process and offers educators effective strategies in order to address all learners’ needs, and assess students’ understanding. The purpose of any instructional technology is to enhance the experience of the learners and the learners’ ability to master the material by using a range of technology such as computers, iPads, and SMART boards. This paper is an ethnographic case study to answer the research question, “How does a teacher effectively integrate appropriate educational technology to support students’ learning in an elementary classroom”? This research examined effective ways of integrating educational technology into the elementary classroom. Data collected included non-participant observations and open- ended surveys of the teachers. The sample included four elementary classrooms and four elementary school teachers from an American school and four elementary teachers from a Saudi Arabian School. The most significant finding that I have seen through my research in the United States school is that there were a large and diverse number of technologies in each classroom. The SMART boards were the most prevalent technology tool being used with the teachers using SMART boards for their daily lessons. As a result of my study I believe that the SMART board should be a required teaching tool in each elementary classroom.
    • Evidence for IRES Mediated Translation of Gurken.

      Merle, Jacob Andrew (2014)
      The gene gurken (grk) in Drosophila melanogaster is required to establish the anterior/posterior and dorsal/ventral axes of the egg. When insulin levels are high such as when food is readily available, grk is translated using a common mechanism that requires recognition of the 7-methylguanosine cap at the 5’ end of the RNA. Translation of grk requires Vasa activity which is inhibited through phosphorylation is spindle-B (spn-B) mutants. It was discovered in our lab that Insulin/Insulin-like Signaling (IIS) mutations or inhibition of TOR by rapamycin result in increased grk translation in spn-B mutants thereby overcoming this cap-dependent block. Based on these data, we hypothesize that the grk 5’ UTR contains an Internal Ribosomal Entry Site (IRES). An IRES provides an alternative mechanism of translation that occurs through use of a secondary structure in the 5’ UTR in the mRNA. The utility of the IRES is that it allows for translation of important mRNA’s even in the absence of canonical cap-dependent translation factors. These conditions can arise in nature when insulin levels or nutrient availability is low. The presence of an IRES will be explored in vivo through a comparison of transgenic reporter lines containing different luciferase reporter constructs. These constructs will be used to test the hypothesis that the grk 5’ UTR contains an IRES and examine the effect of nutrient limitation, inhibition of TOR, or IIS mutations on grk translation. To localize the IRES within the GRK 5' UTR selective deletion mutations will be made in secondary structures identified through selective 2’-Hydroxyl Acylation and Primer Extension (SHAPE) analysis. The activity of these reporter lines will be analyzed through assaying these transgenic lines. This will allow for the identification of the presence and location of the IRES within the grk 5’ UTR. Here we present data demonstrating the activity of reporter constructs that have been generated by fusion with the 5' UTR of grk. Additionally we propose a new technique using GRNA chromatography to identify the presence of an IRES as well as important secondary structures needed for IRES function using the same reporter constructs.
    • An examination of English instructional strategies at university level in Saudi Arabia.

      Alkhalaf, Shatha (2014)
      This research study investigated teaching and learning strategies that English professors at college level use and the professors’ perceptions of the effectiveness of the strategies. The primary research question was: what English instructional strategies are considered the current effective practice for undergraduate students at Qassim University in Saudi Arabia? The participants were sixteen female professors in the English Department at Qassim University in Saudi Arabia. This study used a 33 item survey distributed to these English professors, asking them about teaching and learning strategies and their effectiveness. Results, in general, showed that learning strategies, which are learner-centered strategies taught to students to increase learning, are more aligned to the best practices than teaching strategies, which are teacher-centered strategies a teacher uses to teach effectively, in Qassim University. In the conclusion, the study showed many similarities between current and best practices and few differences. Based on the differences, some recommendations, such as enhancing the communication between professors and students, were made. At the end, the researcher added some suggestions for further studies.
    • An examination of high school students' misconceptions about methods of exponential equations.

      Hewson, Ashley E. (2013-10-21)
      This study examined the errors and misconceptions exhibited by high school students when solving exponential equations. It was hypothesized that high school students in Algebra 2/Trigonometry and Pre-Calculus classrooms would use guess-and-check strategies and linear arithmetic approaches to solve exponential equations. Few or no students would use logarithmic properties to assist them in solving an exponential equation. During this study, a ten-problem assessment was given to New York students in an Algebra 2/Trigonometry class, an Algebra 2/Trigonometry Honors class, a Pre-Calculus class, and a Pre-Calculus Honors class. The instrument was generated by using past state tests appropriate for students in Algebra 2/Trigonometry according to the state and national mathematics standards. Immediately following the assessment, students were asked to complete a nine-question survey in which they described their reaction to the assessment and their knowledge of exponential equations. The results of the assessment and surveys were collected and analyzed to determine if any correlations existed. The data collected showed that high school students primarily used logarithms to solve exponential equations. Additional results revealed that the Pre-Calculus Honors students scored the highest, the Algebra 2/Trigonometry students scored the lowest, and that students made fundamental errors while solving exponential equations.
    • Examining the potential similarities and influences of Stanley Greenspan's developmental, individual differences, relationship based (DIR)floortime model and music therapy in the treatment of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

      Kellogg, Jenna L. (2013-03-27)
      The purpose of this qualitative comparative case study was to explore the relationship between Stanley Greenspan's DIR/Floortime Model and music therapy in the treatment of children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This topic was explored through the perspectives of four special education teachers who implement the DIR/Floortime model within their present classrooms at the agency where the researcher is employed as a music therapist. All of the selected teachers witnessed and experienced music therapy treatment for present and past students in both group and individual sessions. Each teacher participated in one individual interview with the researcher lasting 30 to 60 minutes. Each interview was transcribed by the researcher and analyzed for commonalities including key words and themes that were central to the research questions. The findings of this study indicated that the influences of music therapy treatment for children diagnosed with ASD are largely positive and have the potential to spur growth and development. According to the interviewed special education teachers, the qualities of music therapy that most aid their students to learn and grow include: "motivating", "calming", and " focusing." In addition, the teachers largely recognized a strong connection between the methodology and philosophies of music therapy treatment and Greenspan's DIR/ Floortime model. The keywords and themes that were addressed in discussing this were "following the child's lead", "motivation", and "exploration." Lastly, the process of conducting the study largely resulted in the researcher finding new awareness regarding the importance of interdisciplinary communication and collaboration.
    • Experiences of older adults participating in an intergenerational Suzuki Violin Program.

      Kelso, Sarah Michele (2014)
      This study involved a combination of older adults and young children learning together and interacting with each other in a musical environment created by the intergenerational Suzuki violin program. As the study progressed, the social aspect of this experience became the most prominent feature of the program. It was an unprecedented program facilitated by a retired professional Suzuki violin instructor and a music therapist. The music therapist was hired to do research within the program while also helping to facilitate each violin lesson. The pioneering aspects of the program and the diverse experience of the program facilitators contributed to making this a unique experience for all involved. Throughout the first year of the program data was collected by the music therapist/researcher. Data included attendance records, input from the occupational therapist at the facility, and one-on-one interviews with the participants and staff members involved in the program. After the first year of the program all data was reviewed by the music therapist. Anecdotal reviews written by the facilitators of the program as well as participant testimonials were presented to the grant committee and the nursing home administrators. The staff and participant interviews were transcribed and coded by the music therapist/ researcher. There were many similar observations brought up by the participants and staff enabling the music therapist/researcher to identify common themes. The themes were categorized and specific quotes were extracted from the interviews. The quotes chosen best represented each theme. Although the participants and staff were interviewed separately the themes they had in comment depicted the overall experience of the group. The quotes chosen from participant interviews best illustrated their perceptions of the program and how they were affected by it. Based on the attendance rates and the fact that only five participants withdrew over the course of the year, it can be concluded that the program was beneficial to the participant’s social and life goals. The weekly attendance percentages indicate that the participants wanted to attend and made an effort to be present at the time of the lessons. The participants experienced many benefits which are measured by the positive statements made by the participants in the interviews done at the end of the study. The coded interviews give the participants’ reactions to the experiences that they had within the lessons, and with the children involved in the study. Their perceptions on how they were affected socially, physically, and emotionally are shown in the interviews.