• The Effects of Conspecific Songs on the Aggression and Phonotaxic Behavior of House Crickets (Acheta Domesticus)

      Sendi, Kawthr (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2016-12)
      Mating in crickets has continued to be an especial topic because of the interesting phenomena of female mate preferences and male-male aggression. Most crickets produce three distinct song types, with each one produced under a different social circumstances. A clear understanding of the responses of crickets to different song types will help clarify the function of multiple song types. We carried out two experiments with related tests: the effect of the calling song, the courtship song, and the aggression song, on male-male aggression and on male and female phonotaxis. In the aggression experiment, we played back a single song during male-male contest, and the results showed low values of aggression intensity in the presence of calling and aggression songs. Playback songs significantly affected the duration of a fighting contest and the aggressive encounters were resolved at low intensity compared to muted treatment. In the phonotactic experiment, we played a single song and female crickets showed non-significant tendency to respond less to the courtship song compared to the aggression and calling songs. Overall, the results show no significant phonotactic preference for both male and female crickets.
    • Effects of cooperative learning on academic performance of college students in Saudi Arabia.

      Alshammari, Norah Mashouj (2015)
      The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of cooperative learning on academic performance of college students in Saudi Arabia. This experimental quantitative study sought to answer the research question: How would jigsaw cooperative learning strategy affect college students' academic performance in Saudi Arabia compared to the traditional teacher- centered approach? The study involved 40 females ranging in age from 20 to 25, in an education course in Hail City. Over a period of four weeks, the researcher conducted the study in two classes: one class was the control group, and the other was the experimental group. The experimental group was taught by using a jigsaw strategy while the control group was taught by using a traditional teacher-centered lecture. The results showed students who were taught by the jigsaw strategy had a better understanding of the content as compared to the students who were taught by lecture. Therefore, the conclusion of this study is that the cooperative learning had a positive impact on students' academic performances in Saudi Arabia.
    • Effects of female quality on mate choice tradeoffs under predation risk in house crickets (Acheta Domesticus L.).

      Watro, Rebecca A. (2014)
      There are a myriad of factors that can affect how a female makes mating decisions including male quality, environmental variables, and factors intrinsic to the female. We examined the effects of female quality within the contexts of predation and mate choice. To do this, we performed two-choice tests using a rectangular experimental arena with one side containing protective cover and the other side open. A speaker at either end of the arena played out artificially created low quality or high quality male calls. The low quality call was always associated with the covered side of the arena. This design forces the female to make a tradeoff between level of risk and the quality of a potential mate. We tested high and low quality females three times. A repeated measures logistic regression revealed no significance in the relationship between female quality and tradeoff preferences. Instead, there was a significant preference overall for females to move through open space towards the high quality male. Females took significantly longer to reach the high quality male through open space compared to females moving through cover towards the low quality male. Additionally, females were not consistent in exhibiting tradeoff preferences, supporting the idea that there is no variation in mating preferences among females.
    • Effects of flipping the classroom on suburban middle school math students.

      Alswat, Mohammad (2014)
      The purpose of this research is to examine the effects of using the strategy “flipping the classroom" with students. One eighth grade math class was selected to be used from a school in Western New York. The teacher of this classroom taught seven math units using traditional homework and classwork, while four of the units were taught with a flipped classroom. Data was collected through a Likert survey for the students, an interview with the teacher, and the analysis of the students’ grades. Results of the data show that the students generally like the strategy of flipping the classroom. The students also scored 3.11 points higher on average on their tests with a flipped classroom. The teacher also said mostly positive comments about this strategy. She and her students were more comfortable using it in the classroom because their class time was more productive for them. Some suggestions for future research and limitations are discussed in this paper to provide evidence that flipping the classroom can be an effective strategy in certain classes.
    • The effects of homework Derby on the completion and accuracy of mathematics homework of 1st grade students

      Dryndas, Katherine (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2016)
      The purpose of this study will be to examine the effects of a relatively new and underresearched, team-based intervention called Homework Derby - an intra-class team competition program - on the homework completion and accuracy rates in mathematics of 1st grade students. Homework Derby (HD) infuses powerful components derived from the Class Wide Peer Tutoring Model (e.g., weekly team competition, daily posting of student scores, and contingent rewards) and applies them to daily homework completion and accuracy rates. This investigation will answer the following questions: (a) what effect will homework derby have on 1st graders' daily math completion rates, and (b) what effects will it have on their daily math homework accuracy? When the intervention was implemented, the percentage of students completing math homework increased from 73% to 95% in the final intervention stage. Homework accuracy also improved using homework derby as an intervention. The class' overall homework average before the intervention was put into place was failing, with a mean of only 52% and rose to 72% during the final intervention phase. Findings of the present study will be reviewed in detail and practical implications of the study will be discussed. [from author's abstract]
    • The Effects of Literature Circles on Non-fiction Reading Comprehension and Self-Perception of Reading Skills.

      Miranda, Ashley (2015)
      The purpose of this research was to determine if the use of literature circles, a discussion strategy, would have an impact on the comprehension of non-fiction texts as well as student self perception of their reading comprehension skills in one Academic Intervention Services (AIS) classroom. The participants were 9th grade students in one AIS classroom within a rural high school located in western New York. This study included pre- and post- intervention comprehension and self-perception data, an intervention that introduced literature circles and their roles, a period of student practice, and a lesson on generalizing the skills learned to all literature. The results of this study were measured based on comparing the pre-and post-intervention data for individual students as well as the group as a whole. Results determined that in this study student comprehension was not positively affected by the use of literature circles, while student self-perception of reading skills was positively impacted slightly throughout the study.
    • The effects of literature stations on literacy proficiency, interest, and engagement among middle school students receiving academic instruction services

      Klubek, Simone (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2017-05)
      With the amplified rigor of the Common Core state standards, the number of students who qualify for academic intervention services (AIS) is increasing. According to the New York State Education Department in 2015, 69% of students who participated in the New York State assessments in 2015 are not proficient. In the school setting of this study, almost 40% of the 7th graders receive academic intervention services. It is imperative to find an effective strategy that will increase these students' literacy skills and transition them out of intervention programs. This study examined how instruction through literacy stations affects the proficiency, reading interest, and engagement of middle school students in a rural AIS classroom in Western New York. Six students took part in this study at one school district in Chautauqua County. The data for this study was collected through a pre and post assessment test, pre and post reading survey, engagement tracker, and 1:1 interviews with the participants. Results were varied and showed that the integration of literacy stations did increase students' proficiency scores and kept them engaged in the lessons, yet they also indicated that reading interest is difficult to teach and or change and the instructional tool did not change the students' negative feelings about reading. Implications are discussed with regards to teachers and their classroom practices in the Academic Intervention classroom. [from abstract]
    • Effects of reciprocal peer tutoring for students in a 6th grade mathematics class

      Graf, Samantha (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2016)
      The current mathematics curriculum intertwined with the Common Core State Standards has created a struggle for teachers and struggling students in the classroom to find time and successful ways for interventions. Research has shown for decades that tutoring has been a useful strategy employed with students and over time has been altered through trial and error to create different types of tutoring based upon student needs. Extensive previous research using Reciprocal Peer Tutoring (RPT) has occurred at the elementary and high school level. The purpose of this study is to select the specific research based tutoring program RPT and to use the historical research to create a study to explore its impact on struggling 6th grade mathematic students views of their math skills and show academic gains or losses. In the study described, students took a survey of their views of their individual math skills before and after the implementation as well as a pre and post-test for Quarter 1. Twelve students were selected to participate in the study that occurred 5 days per week for 3 weeks. After 3 weeks data was collected and analyzed to show the effects of RPT on academics and math viewpoint. At the completion of the study students were shown to have made growth in their math skills from quarter one.[from author's abstract]
    • The effects of repeated reading strategies on Saudi Arabian 5th graders

      Alamri, Sarah Dhafer (2016-05)
      The repeated reading strategy can be used to reach effective results and increase students’ reading comprehension. The purpose of this study is to explore the effects of the repeated reading strategy in Saudi Arabia on 5th grade students’ reading comprehension. Repeated reading is a strategy that consists of rereading a short and relevant passage until an acceptable level of fluency is attained. The research question answered by this study is: Compared to the traditional teaching strategy, how does the repeated reading strategy impact reading comprehension of fifth grade students in Saudi Arabia? The study began in December, 2014 and continued until January, 2015. The participants of this study were twenty female students in the fifth grade in a girl’s elementary school. The study was done in two groups using two classes. The experimental group used the repeated reading strategy, while the control group was taught using a traditional teaching method. The questions on the test were taken from a fifth grade text book. The researcher used the repeated reading strategy with these students to investigate the impact of the repeated reading strategy on students’ reading comprehension. According to the results, the repeated reading strategy showed positive effects on the development and improvement of these Saudi students’ comprehension. In conclusion, repeated reading is one of many important reading strategies, has a positive impact on students, and helps them to improve their reading comprehension.
    • The effects of response cards on 11th grade physics achievement and off-task behaviors.

      Bittinger, Daniel L. (2015)
      This study investigated how the use of response cards in an 11th grade Physics classroom impacted both students’ academic performance and off-task behaviors. This experimental quantitative study applied an A-B-A design, wherein traditional hand raising was used for student response during the first week of the study or the baseline (A), response cards were used for the second week or the intervention (B), and traditional hand raising was used again for the third week of the study or withdraw of intervention and return to baseline (A). The central questions being investigated were as follows: How does the use of response cards impact student academic performance? How does the use of response cards impact student off-task behaviors? With a quantitative approach short daily quizzes were used to measure the students’ academic performance and teacher observations recorded on a chart were used to measure the frequency of off-task behaviors over the three week period. The results showed that student academic performance increased while off-task behavior decreased.
    • The effects of the fan-n-pick cooperative learning strategy on young Saudi students

      Al Matrafi, Sameha (2016-03)
      Cooperative learning allows students to share ideas, ask questions and give feedback. The “Fan-N-Pick” strategy is a cooperative learning strategy developed by Spencer Kagan. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of using the Fan-N-Pick cooperative learning strategy with young Saudi girls, aged 6-7, in science class to improve performance and participation. The research was conducted over a period of two weeks in an elementary school in Makkah, Saudi Arabia. The participants in this study were 48 female students from two science classes in the first grade. One class was the experimental group, and the other was the control group. The experimental group was taught by using the Fan-N-Pick cooperative learning strategy while the control group was taught by using a traditional, lecture method. The researcher compared the posttest scores and students' participation rates, as measured by observations during four lessons, between the control group and the experimental group. The results of this study showed significant improvement of students’ performance and participation through using the cooperative learning Fan-N-Pick strategy.
    • The effects of the Good Behavior Game on first grade students' behaviors.

      Bartela, Ashley L. (2015)
      The positive reinforcement contingencies, particularly the Good Behavior Game, have been used by teachers to improve behaviors among students within the classroom. Prior research suggests that the Good Behavior Game saves educators time in constantly administering consequences to students, and promotes both positive social behaviors and academic performance among students involved simultaneously (Tankersley, 1995). This quantitative study investigated the effectiveness of the positive reinforcement contingency, the Good Behavior Game on increasing on-task behavior and decreasing disruptive behaviors among a group of five first grade students (three girls and two boys) enrolled in an Academic Intervention Services (AIS) classroom. The researcher collected data through an ABA design, which spanned over a cumulative period of four weeks. Findings demonstrated a direct correlation between the implementation of the Good Behavior Game and on-task behaviors, as well as a significant decrease in disruptive behaviors among each of the five first grade students involved in the study.
    • Effects of the Literature Circle Strategy on participation of English Language Learners.

      Balone, Erika M. (2015)
      A common issue in education classes comprised of English language learners is a lack of participation in the classroom. The purpose of this research was to determine if the use of literature circles would have an impact on the number of times students raised their hands to participate during a book discussion. The participants were 4th grade students in two ELA classrooms within an urban elementary school located in western New York. This study included six lessons based on chapters in a book, three of which utilized the literature circle strategy, and three that did not. The results of this study were measured based on the number of times students participated by raising their hand during the discussions to see if students participation increased when using the literature circle strategy. Results determined that in this study, participation was positively affected by the use of literature circles.
    • The effects of using interactive laboratory simulation in teaching Biology

      Almutrafi, Hannan (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2016-05)
      This study was designed to investigate interactive simulation in a high school biology class with a focus on whether interactive simulation technology had an effect on academic achievement, as measured by standardized assessment scores. Also, the study included a survey to measure by standardized assessment scores. [from author's abstract]
    • Eliminate the substitution or substitute the elimination?

      Hammond, Ricardo S. (2013-01-25)
      This research examines the different methods used for solving systems of equations, how those methods are taught, and how they can be applied to real world situations. More specifically, this research examines which of these methods student tend to favor, as well as whether or not students can properly apply the concept of systems of equations to real world situations. “It is hypothesized that high school algebra students will use substitution over elimination when solving systems of equations, and that students who have not been previously introduced to any method will naturally use “guess-and-check.” Furthermore, it is hypothesized that students’ general approach to solving systems of equations is “procedural,” causing them to score higher on algebraic-type problems than on word problems". It was determined that students who had already been instructed on solving systems of equations were likely to favor substitution over other methods. It was also concluded that students who had not yet been instructed on solving systems of equations had a tendency to favor guess-and-check over other methods. Furthermore, students performed better on the algebraic problems than the word problems. Many students approached the word problems differently than how they approached the algebraic problems. Regardless of the methods used in the algebraic problems, many students abandoned those methods when attempting the word problems.--
    • The emotional and social effects of having sibling with a disability

      Cox, Lindsey (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2017-05)
      The purpose of this curriculum project was to create an instructional unit emphasizing awareness, consciousness, and intentional social justice teaching; for teachers, administrators and educators to implement in their educational setting. The goal of this project was to present a a high school curriculum unit full of social justice language, literature, and suggested activities that motivate leadership development, which in turn may create welcoming educational environments for the liberation of the oppressed ones. The project encourages users to implement educational advocacy practices, diversity/pluralism, needs and educational assessments, and create space for teacher, students, and parents' relationship. It is a curriculum project reflecting community organizing leadership examples as road map for teacher/student leadership development. Effective teaching. [from abstract]
    • Engaging practices in civics education

      McNeill, Daniel (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2017-05)
      High school civics education is often an overlooked part of the senior high curriculum. As students transition from school to the college campuses and the workplace setting they must be prepared for the key roles and responsibilities of citizenship. Citizenship in the United States, as it is in many nations around the world, is a special privilege that requires a functioning body of citizen contribution to maintain and succeed. As part of an effort to provide a well-rounded and wholesome education to our young adults, social studies educators are charged with the responsibilities to enlighten and encourage civics and civic participation. The purpose of this study is to examine traditional and contemporary practices in civics education to bring light to the most impactful strategies and activities that promote civic engagement. An in-depth examination of literature provides a glimpse into the success and shortcomings of civics education over the course of its history. A student to teacher comparative survey study and its findings are also presented to provide a bead on two schools in rural Western New York and how both parties feel about the Participation in Government (PIG) course and what it provides to them. The results dictate relative agreement between students and educators on the content of civics education, but reveal shortcomings in the preparation of Senior students for active participation as citizens. [from abstract]
    • English Language policy changes in China, Japan, and Korea and the effect on students studying in the United States.

      Tedesco, Daniel J. (2015)
      The growing need for proficient English speakers in China, Japan and Korea has spurred a shift in English language policy from the traditional model focusing on reading and writing to a model emphasizing communicative language teaching (CLT) (Hu & Lei, 2014; Hu & McKay, 2012). However, despite policy changes, CLT methods are not regularly used in the classroom because of constraints such as the university entrance exam system. Therefore, students remain unprepared for the English method instruction (EMI) demands at university. As such, the purpose of this study is to explore student perspectives regarding their experiences attending high school in their home countries and then EMI programs at U.S. universities. The following is a mixed-method study that focuses on students who attended high school in China, Japan or Korea and are currently studying at a U.S. university. This study further focuses on the perspectives of these students with regard to whether they believe they were prepared for the English demands of their current university. Data was obtained through an online 33-item survey from fourteen university students as well as from semi-structured interviews from six of those participants. Results are mixed, because although the interviews revealed unanimously that the participants did not feel prepared for university in the U.S., the survey revealed no conclusive evidence as the participants felt neutral about the majority of the items regardless of country of origin. Implications for addressing the English language needs of current Chinese, Japanese and Korean university students and future research are also discussed.
    • English teacher perception of the current English curriculum and instruction at a university in Saudia Arabia

      Almahmoud, Abdullah (2016-12)
      Task design allows teachers to organize and implement tasks according to the specific needs of the learners. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the teacher perception of curriculum and instruction in regards to English language development at a King Saud University, KSA. The study mainly used the quantitative questionnaire technique as a main data collection instrument. The participants are a total of 35 male and 25 female professors who are originally from Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Syria, India, United Kingdom and the United States aged from 25-55 years old. The results showed lack of development of English as a Foreign Language according to teachers’ perception in KSA. Teachers from Saudi Arabia and foreign countries advocate for evolution to the curriculum and its integral parts. Yet, the changes have not occurred in the system. This clearly shows that there is less involvement of the teachers in the development of the curriculum. The teachers have not also been able to provide inputs, help write and contribute their own material. This study showed valuable insights into the English Language Curriculum problems and various rectifications, which might help improve the quality of the curriculum and therefore, enhancement in increasing interest of students and developing their skills.
    • Environmental enrichment as a means of increasing male-female social interactions in a critically endangered species, Macaca nigra.

      Smith, Danielle Renee (2013-07-10)
      Environmental enrichment refers to any modification of the physical and social environment of an exhibit in an attempt to improve the animal’s quality of life in captivity. While prolonged levels of both high and low stress tend to result in a suppression of reproductive physiology, acute, yet moderate stress can potentially promote reproductive activity. Sulawesi Crested Macaques are critically endangered. The species exhibits a polygynandrous (multi-male/multi-female) mating system. The captive Macaca nigra population at the Buffalo Zoo was observed for 14 weeks, alternating between an enrichment item and lack of enrichment, and interactions between males and females were recorded. Analysis indicates a significant increase in the frequency of friendly behaviors in the presence of enrichment, accounting for 90.43% of behaviors compared to 71.24% of behaviors without enrichment. A decrease in frequency of unfriendly behaviors was also observed with enrichment, in which 9.57% of behaviors were unfriendly compared to 28.76% of behaviors without enrichment. An increase in duration of grooming behavior from a mean of 154.2 seconds to 279.8 seconds with enrichment was observed. If enrichment can be used to increase social interactions between males and females, then this research has the potential to improve captive breeding programs, particularly for threatened, endangered and/or slowly reproducing species.