• The Effect of Extracts from Native Species on Invasive English Ivy Applied via Stem Injection

      Alruwaili, Munayfah (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2017-05)
      Native plants are as competitive as invasive species but may require a new strategy persist. As humans spread invasive non-native species and continue to disturb the habitats of native species the non-natives will continue to outcompete the native species. In this study, I employ a new mechanism, stem injection, to investigate allelopathic effects. English ivy stems were injected with native seed (poison ivy, goldenrod, milkweed and snakeroot) extract and goldenrod leaf, roots and entire plant extract. Native extracts significantly inhibited English ivy growth, especially roots. Native seed extract also, inhibited radish and lettuce germination. Allelopathy is one hypothesis to explain this relationship between native and invasive species.
    • The Effect of Home Literacy Practices on Emergent Literacy Skills

      Gangi, Ashley (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2018-08)
      If we want students to succeed and reach high levels of achievement in their reading abilities, it is important to recognize the development of emergent literacy skills in young children and their effect on later reading success. It is also important to recognize one way to develop these emergent literacy skills is through home literacy practices. Home literacy practices have a positive impact on children's emergent literacy skills prior to starting kindergarten and therefore having a positive effect on later reading success. A free, user-friendly website was created to share this information and research-based strategies with parents and families of young children, in hopes that it will create a positive effect on children's later reading success.
    • Effective classroom environments for students with disabilities and those prenatally exposed to drugs and alcohol

      Manzella, Dawn (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2017-05)
      This study's aim was to investigate teachers' and parents' perceptions of characteristics of effective learning environments in a small rural county in Western New York for students in elementary school with disabilities or an individualized education plan (IEP), including children who have been prenatally exposed to drugs and alcohol. The second purpose is to investigate how these classroom environments contribute to students' social/emotional and sensory development. My main questions are, what are elementary teachers' and parents' perception of the characteristics of an effective learning environment for young children with disabilities or an individualized education plan (IEP), specifically children prenatally exposed to drugs and alcohol? The participants were Kindergarten and first grade students in a special education classroom from a rural elementary school in western New York. The study was comprised of qualitative research including interviews with my participant's teachers and families. The quantitative research including an observation scale of participant behavior and classroom environment. The results were then compared to the appropriate information found within the literature review. The results indicated a specific need for appropriate classroom environments with the use of sensory and social/emotional interventions. The students responded positively the routine, schedules, and classroom set up put forth by the classroom teacher. The classroom was arranged for optimal student success. [from author's abstract]
    • Effective strategies for speakers of a LOTE in an Elementary general education classroom

      Mcllwain, Courtney (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2016)
      This research focuses on effective strategies used for speakers of a language other than English (LOTE) in an elementary general education classroom. It also addresses the need for teacher preparation courses for English language learners (ELLs). During the research study qualitative data was used, such as observations and interviews, to collect results related to the study. The researcher observed a kindergarten and a second grade classroom to collect notes on effective strategies implemented for speakers of a LOTE. These teachers were also interviewed in order to get information on preparation courses taken during college, teaching, personal research, workshops, etc. The results show that the use of visuals and gestures are effective strategies to use for ESL students in a general education classroom. The results also demonstrate a need for more ESL preparation courses at colleges and universities.[ from author's abstract ]
    • Effective strategies for teaching content vocabulary to English Language Learners

      Brightman, Kerri A. (2015)
      The number of English language learners (ELLs) enrolled and being educated in schools in the United States is increasing. At the same time, there is greater accountability for the academic performance of ELLs, but they continue demonstrate poor performance in content areas such as Math and English Language Arts (ELA). This case study examined the preparedness for and the effectiveness of the instructional strategies being used by a group of 8th grade math and ELA teachers when teaching their content vocabulary to ELLs. It also investigated the challenges encountered by these teachers when working with ELLs, and examined their attitudes and beliefs about having ELLs in their classrooms. Data was obtained from teachers through the use of a observations. The results determined that this group of teachers had very little experience teaching ELLs and had received negligible professional training in preparation for teaching the ELLs. The results also showed some limited use of effective instructional strategies in their classrooms, and that these teachers view their instruction as not having a positive impact on the academic development of ELLs. Implications with regard to the need for additional training and a need for future research are discussed.
    • Effectiveness and challenges of ENL instructional practices for young English language-learners

      Mangalathu, Aparna (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2017-05)
      In 2016, it was estimated by National Center for Education Statistics that there are about 4.5 million English language learners (ELLs) attending the U.S. schools. Improving the education of these students is a national educational priority. These students face many challenges when they have to learn a new language as a part of the academic requirements and policy. Seldom are teachers, who work with these students, invited to share their concerns and challenges with the decision-makers of the education policies. It is imperative to ascertain the perspectives of teachers who are such important figures in the educational lives of English language learners. This study examined the teachers' views on the effectiveness and challenges of instructional practices of ESL instruction in a school district in Chautauqua County and about the practices they employ to overcome those challenges. Seven teachers, that teach ELLs at different grade levels, were interviewed in person at the school district. In addition, the researcher also observed a few ESL (English as Second Language) classes and related assessments at the school district. The collective results in this study elaborate on the effectiveness, various challenges (social, academic, cultural, linguistic) that the teachers face while working with ELLs and how they try to overcome those challenges. [from author's abstract]
    • The effectiveness of a classroom wide incentive program to eliminate disruptive and negative behavior in the preschool setting

      Tuggle, Amanda (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2016-05)
      A classwide behavioral intervention was conducted in Lake Erie preschool to eliminate disruptive and negative behavior in the classroom. As a result of classroom dynamics constantly changing, the most important skill that a teacher must possess is effective classroom management. As a group, students were given an opportunity to earn 6 rewards throughout the day for maintaining positive behavior. Students who displayed disruptive, negative or distracted behaviors at any point during the day were given six opportunities to start over and correct their behaviors. Observational data was collected on the frequency of these behaviors during circle time and seat work time. Two independent observers recorded this data on students' behavior four separate times over a one month period. Anecdotal notes were also recorded to give the researcher insight on student behavior when a color change occurred due to undesired behaviors. In conclusion, it was determined that this intervention was an effective method in reducing disruptive, negative, and distracted behavior in the preschool classroom. [from abstract]
    • Effectiveness of the Chance Jars Game and Mystery Motivators to reduce disruptive behaviors in minority students living in poverty.

      Stephenson, Jillian K. (2015)
      Disruptive behaviors negatively affect the learning environment by taking time away from academic instruction (McKissick, 2012). Studies have indicated that these behaviors are prevalent in high risk schools, characterized by high rates of poverty among their students (Webster-Stratton, Reid, & Stoolmiller, 2008). Furthermore, 56% of students in high-poverty schools with large minority populations reported that disruptive behavior by other students get in the way of their learning (Webster et al., 2008). The current study examined the effectiveness of the “Chance Jars” game and Mystery Motivators on the disruptive behaviors of minority students living in poverty. The study was conducted in a second grade classroom in a small metropolitan school district in Western New York during afternoon mathematics and listening and learning instruction. Results of the study indicated a mean percent change of -2.6% from the first intervention phase to the second of target student disruptive behaviors during mathematics; only one target student showed a decrease of disruptive behaviors from the first intervention phase to the second during listening and learning (-23.66%). The present study was completed with a mean fidelity score of 94.05%.
    • Effectiveness of using Webquest to teach computer science to middle school students in Saudi Arabia.

      Alshammari, Adel Radhi (2015)
      This study investigated the effectiveness of using WebQuest to teach computer science to middle school students in Saudi Arabia. This research study aimed to answer the research question: How did the use of WebQuest impact first middle school Saudi students’ learning in computer science? This experimental study focused on first middle school students in two schools in Hail city in Saudi Arabia. In each of the two schools, the researcher chose 16 to 17 students by the use of a convenience sampling method. The total participants in this study were 65 boys aged between 12-13 years. The experimental group was taught computer using WebQuest while the control group was taught using traditional teaching methods. The results yielded that there was an increase in the scores when using the traditional approach and WebQuest approach. The students taught by the WebQuest had higher scores as compared to those in the group taught by the traditional approach, but the difference was not statistically significant.
    • The Effects of Conspecific Songs on the Aggression and Phonotaxic Behavior of House Crickets (Acheta Domesticus)

      Sendi, Kawthr (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2016-12)
      Mating in crickets has continued to be an especial topic because of the interesting phenomena of female mate preferences and male-male aggression. Most crickets produce three distinct song types, with each one produced under a different social circumstances. A clear understanding of the responses of crickets to different song types will help clarify the function of multiple song types. We carried out two experiments with related tests: the effect of the calling song, the courtship song, and the aggression song, on male-male aggression and on male and female phonotaxis. In the aggression experiment, we played back a single song during male-male contest, and the results showed low values of aggression intensity in the presence of calling and aggression songs. Playback songs significantly affected the duration of a fighting contest and the aggressive encounters were resolved at low intensity compared to muted treatment. In the phonotactic experiment, we played a single song and female crickets showed non-significant tendency to respond less to the courtship song compared to the aggression and calling songs. Overall, the results show no significant phonotactic preference for both male and female crickets.
    • Effects of cooperative learning on academic performance of college students in Saudi Arabia.

      Alshammari, Norah Mashouj (2015)
      The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of cooperative learning on academic performance of college students in Saudi Arabia. This experimental quantitative study sought to answer the research question: How would jigsaw cooperative learning strategy affect college students' academic performance in Saudi Arabia compared to the traditional teacher- centered approach? The study involved 40 females ranging in age from 20 to 25, in an education course in Hail City. Over a period of four weeks, the researcher conducted the study in two classes: one class was the control group, and the other was the experimental group. The experimental group was taught by using a jigsaw strategy while the control group was taught by using a traditional teacher-centered lecture. The results showed students who were taught by the jigsaw strategy had a better understanding of the content as compared to the students who were taught by lecture. Therefore, the conclusion of this study is that the cooperative learning had a positive impact on students' academic performances in Saudi Arabia.
    • Effects of female quality on mate choice tradeoffs under predation risk in house crickets (Acheta Domesticus L.).

      Watro, Rebecca A. (2014)
      There are a myriad of factors that can affect how a female makes mating decisions including male quality, environmental variables, and factors intrinsic to the female. We examined the effects of female quality within the contexts of predation and mate choice. To do this, we performed two-choice tests using a rectangular experimental arena with one side containing protective cover and the other side open. A speaker at either end of the arena played out artificially created low quality or high quality male calls. The low quality call was always associated with the covered side of the arena. This design forces the female to make a tradeoff between level of risk and the quality of a potential mate. We tested high and low quality females three times. A repeated measures logistic regression revealed no significance in the relationship between female quality and tradeoff preferences. Instead, there was a significant preference overall for females to move through open space towards the high quality male. Females took significantly longer to reach the high quality male through open space compared to females moving through cover towards the low quality male. Additionally, females were not consistent in exhibiting tradeoff preferences, supporting the idea that there is no variation in mating preferences among females.
    • Effects of flipping the classroom on suburban middle school math students.

      Alswat, Mohammad (2014)
      The purpose of this research is to examine the effects of using the strategy “flipping the classroom" with students. One eighth grade math class was selected to be used from a school in Western New York. The teacher of this classroom taught seven math units using traditional homework and classwork, while four of the units were taught with a flipped classroom. Data was collected through a Likert survey for the students, an interview with the teacher, and the analysis of the students’ grades. Results of the data show that the students generally like the strategy of flipping the classroom. The students also scored 3.11 points higher on average on their tests with a flipped classroom. The teacher also said mostly positive comments about this strategy. She and her students were more comfortable using it in the classroom because their class time was more productive for them. Some suggestions for future research and limitations are discussed in this paper to provide evidence that flipping the classroom can be an effective strategy in certain classes.
    • The effects of homework Derby on the completion and accuracy of mathematics homework of 1st grade students

      Dryndas, Katherine (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2016)
      The purpose of this study will be to examine the effects of a relatively new and underresearched, team-based intervention called Homework Derby - an intra-class team competition program - on the homework completion and accuracy rates in mathematics of 1st grade students. Homework Derby (HD) infuses powerful components derived from the Class Wide Peer Tutoring Model (e.g., weekly team competition, daily posting of student scores, and contingent rewards) and applies them to daily homework completion and accuracy rates. This investigation will answer the following questions: (a) what effect will homework derby have on 1st graders' daily math completion rates, and (b) what effects will it have on their daily math homework accuracy? When the intervention was implemented, the percentage of students completing math homework increased from 73% to 95% in the final intervention stage. Homework accuracy also improved using homework derby as an intervention. The class' overall homework average before the intervention was put into place was failing, with a mean of only 52% and rose to 72% during the final intervention phase. Findings of the present study will be reviewed in detail and practical implications of the study will be discussed. [from author's abstract]
    • The Effects of Literature Circles on Non-fiction Reading Comprehension and Self-Perception of Reading Skills.

      Miranda, Ashley (2015)
      The purpose of this research was to determine if the use of literature circles, a discussion strategy, would have an impact on the comprehension of non-fiction texts as well as student self perception of their reading comprehension skills in one Academic Intervention Services (AIS) classroom. The participants were 9th grade students in one AIS classroom within a rural high school located in western New York. This study included pre- and post- intervention comprehension and self-perception data, an intervention that introduced literature circles and their roles, a period of student practice, and a lesson on generalizing the skills learned to all literature. The results of this study were measured based on comparing the pre-and post-intervention data for individual students as well as the group as a whole. Results determined that in this study student comprehension was not positively affected by the use of literature circles, while student self-perception of reading skills was positively impacted slightly throughout the study.
    • The effects of literature stations on literacy proficiency, interest, and engagement among middle school students receiving academic instruction services

      Klubek, Simone (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2017-05)
      With the amplified rigor of the Common Core state standards, the number of students who qualify for academic intervention services (AIS) is increasing. According to the New York State Education Department in 2015, 69% of students who participated in the New York State assessments in 2015 are not proficient. In the school setting of this study, almost 40% of the 7th graders receive academic intervention services. It is imperative to find an effective strategy that will increase these students' literacy skills and transition them out of intervention programs. This study examined how instruction through literacy stations affects the proficiency, reading interest, and engagement of middle school students in a rural AIS classroom in Western New York. Six students took part in this study at one school district in Chautauqua County. The data for this study was collected through a pre and post assessment test, pre and post reading survey, engagement tracker, and 1:1 interviews with the participants. Results were varied and showed that the integration of literacy stations did increase students' proficiency scores and kept them engaged in the lessons, yet they also indicated that reading interest is difficult to teach and or change and the instructional tool did not change the students' negative feelings about reading. Implications are discussed with regards to teachers and their classroom practices in the Academic Intervention classroom. [from abstract]
    • Effects of reciprocal peer tutoring for students in a 6th grade mathematics class

      Graf, Samantha (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2016)
      The current mathematics curriculum intertwined with the Common Core State Standards has created a struggle for teachers and struggling students in the classroom to find time and successful ways for interventions. Research has shown for decades that tutoring has been a useful strategy employed with students and over time has been altered through trial and error to create different types of tutoring based upon student needs. Extensive previous research using Reciprocal Peer Tutoring (RPT) has occurred at the elementary and high school level. The purpose of this study is to select the specific research based tutoring program RPT and to use the historical research to create a study to explore its impact on struggling 6th grade mathematic students views of their math skills and show academic gains or losses. In the study described, students took a survey of their views of their individual math skills before and after the implementation as well as a pre and post-test for Quarter 1. Twelve students were selected to participate in the study that occurred 5 days per week for 3 weeks. After 3 weeks data was collected and analyzed to show the effects of RPT on academics and math viewpoint. At the completion of the study students were shown to have made growth in their math skills from quarter one.[from author's abstract]
    • The effects of repeated reading strategies on Saudi Arabian 5th graders

      Alamri, Sarah Dhafer (2016-05)
      The repeated reading strategy can be used to reach effective results and increase students’ reading comprehension. The purpose of this study is to explore the effects of the repeated reading strategy in Saudi Arabia on 5th grade students’ reading comprehension. Repeated reading is a strategy that consists of rereading a short and relevant passage until an acceptable level of fluency is attained. The research question answered by this study is: Compared to the traditional teaching strategy, how does the repeated reading strategy impact reading comprehension of fifth grade students in Saudi Arabia? The study began in December, 2014 and continued until January, 2015. The participants of this study were twenty female students in the fifth grade in a girl’s elementary school. The study was done in two groups using two classes. The experimental group used the repeated reading strategy, while the control group was taught using a traditional teaching method. The questions on the test were taken from a fifth grade text book. The researcher used the repeated reading strategy with these students to investigate the impact of the repeated reading strategy on students’ reading comprehension. According to the results, the repeated reading strategy showed positive effects on the development and improvement of these Saudi students’ comprehension. In conclusion, repeated reading is one of many important reading strategies, has a positive impact on students, and helps them to improve their reading comprehension.
    • The effects of response cards on 11th grade physics achievement and off-task behaviors.

      Bittinger, Daniel L. (2015)
      This study investigated how the use of response cards in an 11th grade Physics classroom impacted both students’ academic performance and off-task behaviors. This experimental quantitative study applied an A-B-A design, wherein traditional hand raising was used for student response during the first week of the study or the baseline (A), response cards were used for the second week or the intervention (B), and traditional hand raising was used again for the third week of the study or withdraw of intervention and return to baseline (A). The central questions being investigated were as follows: How does the use of response cards impact student academic performance? How does the use of response cards impact student off-task behaviors? With a quantitative approach short daily quizzes were used to measure the students’ academic performance and teacher observations recorded on a chart were used to measure the frequency of off-task behaviors over the three week period. The results showed that student academic performance increased while off-task behavior decreased.
    • The effects of the fan-n-pick cooperative learning strategy on young Saudi students

      Al Matrafi, Sameha (2016-03)
      Cooperative learning allows students to share ideas, ask questions and give feedback. The “Fan-N-Pick” strategy is a cooperative learning strategy developed by Spencer Kagan. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of using the Fan-N-Pick cooperative learning strategy with young Saudi girls, aged 6-7, in science class to improve performance and participation. The research was conducted over a period of two weeks in an elementary school in Makkah, Saudi Arabia. The participants in this study were 48 female students from two science classes in the first grade. One class was the experimental group, and the other was the control group. The experimental group was taught by using the Fan-N-Pick cooperative learning strategy while the control group was taught by using a traditional, lecture method. The researcher compared the posttest scores and students' participation rates, as measured by observations during four lessons, between the control group and the experimental group. The results of this study showed significant improvement of students’ performance and participation through using the cooperative learning Fan-N-Pick strategy.