• A study of students' misconceptions regarding variables in the pythagorean theorem and slope/intercept formula.

      Sutton, Kendelle (2013-01-17)
      Understanding the concept of mathematical variables gives an opportunity to expand and work on high-level mathematics. This study examined college students' comprehension of variables as well as variable use in well-known mathematics formulas. These formulas consist of the Pythagorean Theorem, slope, as well as the y-intercept. Students were asked to complete a ten-problem quiz in a twenty minute time frame. Immediately following the quiz, students were asked to complete a five question survey in which they described their reactions to the quiz and their knowledge of variables. Similarly 15 high school mathematics teachers were given a survey on their reflection of their students' knowledge of variables. The results of the quiz and surveys were collected and analyzed to determine if any correlations existed. The data collected showed that there was a strong indication of variable misunderstanding by college level mathematics students.
    • P² [:] Preference and Performance.

      Bockhahn, Kristi Jo (2013-01-17)
      No author abstract.
    • The importance of sound design and its affect on perception.

      Drake, Jessica Ryan (2013-01-17)
      The purpose of this research is to clearly define the importance of sound design in film, television, and movies, with emphasis on how the audience is affected by the use of sound. Sound design is the overall aural image of a production, from pre-production to post-production. Sound designing is a process that greatly influences the outcome of a production. Sound is the secret emotional messenger in narrative Western film making and without it a film falls flat. However, to fully influence the perception of the audience, sound and visuals need to work together in a symbiotic relationship, where each element benefits from each other. Sound and picture should never compete for dominance, but in our Western visual culture, sound often fights for its right to belong. Filmmakers need to realize and fully understand the importance of sound design and how it can greatly improve their production. Without sound, narrative Western Films, only have moving pictures that are absent of depth and lack connection with the audience.
    • Get your facts straight! : the relationship among self-efficacy, automaticity, and mathematics achievement of adult-learners.

      Jagoda, Joseph R. (2013-01-17)
      In this experiment, adult learners at an alternative education program were asked to complete a timed multiplication drill and a survey identifying their self-efficacy prior to taking the TABE Mathematics. Upon completion of the three instruments, an analysis was performed to identify the nature of any existing correlations between TABE scores and both the multiplication drill scores and self-efficacy survey scores, respectively. The analysis revealed that a significant positive correlation existed between the TABE and the multiplication drill, and that a significant positive correlation existed between the TABE and the self-efficacy survey.
    • Pyruvate Kinase regulates Gurken translation by reduced TOR activity in Drosophila Melanogaster.

      Blundon, Malachi Andrew (2013-01-23)
      Gurken (Grk) expression is required to specify the polarity of the developing oocyte during Drosophila oogenesis. Proper localization and translation of grk transcripts is required to achieve proper axis specification. Gkr translation initiation has been shown to be cap-dependent and require the activity of the DEAD-box RNA helicase, Vasa. Vasa activity can be repressed by the ATR/Chk2-dependent meiotic checkpoint when DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) persist in meiosis. Unrepaired DSBs in oocyte development of spindle-class mutants activate this checkpoint and result in inefficient grk translation and loss of dorsal fates. This inefficient grk translation is thought to be related to reduced Vasa activity. In a screen for suppressors of the ventralized eggshell phenotype seen in spindle-BBU mutants, we identified a mutation in the PyK gene. We show that PyK mutations suppress the eggshell phenotype independent of the DSB repair delay and Vasa phosphorylation seen in spn-B mutants. This suggests that the eggshell phenotype is corrected by overcoming the translational block of grk transcripts seen in spindle mutants. PyK has been identified as a member of the TOR signaling pathway. Direct inhibition of the TOR kinase with rapamyacin suppresses the ventralized eggshell phenotype in spn-B mutant females. PyK modulates TOR kinase activity through the TSC1/2 heterodimer. During dietary starvation, TOR activity promotes capdependent translation by restraining the activity of the translation inhibitor eIF4E binding protein (4EBP). We hypothesize that reduced TOR activity promotes grk translation independent of the ATR/Chk2 meiotic checkpoint pathway. Recent data indicates that this may be achieved by way of IRES-dependent translation initiation of grk when TOR activity is low. This discovery suggests flies are able to maintain the translation of developmentally important transcripts such as grk during periods of nutrient limitation.
    • Molecular and behavioral evidence suggest two distinct life histories are displayed in Smallmouth Bass (Micropterus dolomieu) in Lake Erie.

      Sard, Nicholas M. (2013-01-24)
      In Lake Erie Smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) are an ecologically and economically important species. They are a top littoral predator as well as a popular sport fish. Previous genetic research suggests bass that live and spawn solely in the lake are genetically divergent compare to bass that live and spawn in tributaries to Lake Erie (Borden and Stepien 2006 ; Borden 2008). In this study we further validate this claim by analyzing 221 individuals from several lake and tributary sites using 7 microsatellite loci. We also provide evidence that suggests there may be two different types of tributary spawning bass based on an isolation by distance statistical test. Our data indicate that there are bass that spawn for multiple years in one stream and there are others that spawn opportunistically in small tributaries throughout the lake. Based on these genetic data it has been hypothesized that these genetic differences are the result of fidelity to different spawning sites (Borden and Stepien 2006; Borden 2008). To test this hypothesis we used radio telemetry to study bass movement patterns during two consecutive spawning seasons. Bass in our study displayed a high degree of fidelity to their spawning location during both spawning seasons with 50 to 85 percent return frequencies at each location. Our results corroborate well with the genetic data published in previous studies and cumulatively these data suggests there are at least two different life histories bass display in Lake Erie.
    • Name that function!

      Terranova, Michelle (2013-01-24)
      This study explores the ability of students to produce the algebraic representation of a function given in various other representations. It is hypothesized that when tested on function recognition, mathematics majors will perform better than non-mathematics majors; however, both will perform poorly, that is below 75%. Students in four classes, two lower-level mathematics courses composed of non-mathematics majors and two upper-level mathematics courses composed of only mathematics majors, were given an eight-problem test that asked them to determine the algebraic representation of functions shown pictorially, in tables, in sequences, and graphically. This study provided evidence that mathematics majors outscored non-mathematics majors as the mean scores were 2.93/8 and 0.49/8, respectively.
    • Simplifying structurally comparable expressions.

      Humbert, Michael P. (2013-01-24)
      This study explores the connection between student understanding of arithmetic and algebra through the evaluation of numeric expressions and the simplification of structurally comparable algebraic expressions. It is hypothesized that non-major college mathematics students are more likely to correctly simplify an algebraic expression than to correctly evaluate a numeric expression of comparable structure. One hundred students from four non major mathematics courses were given a six-problem assessment to test this hypothesis. The results suggest that students are more successful at evaluating numeric expressions than algebraic expressions. Possible correlations between the two subject areas are discussed in the findings.
    • Anxiety in action.

      Gulick, Mimi E. (2013-01-24)
      Math Anxiety is a term used to describe the anxious symptoms felt by those who suffer from it while confronted with mathematics. This study investigated the levels of math anxiety experienced by college students. It was hypothesized that students in non-major mathematics courses would score higher on the Gulick Math Anxiety Scale than their peers enrolled in mathematics courses for mostly mathematics majors. Furthermore, those students who identified themselves as having medium to high levels of math anxiety, would attribute that anxiety to a negative past experience in a mathematics classroom. Data collected was both qualitative and quantitative in nature, and revealed that students in the non-major classes scored higher on the Gulick Math Anxiety Scale than the students in the classes for mostly mathematics majors. The math anxiety that existed in students was highest when associated with testing anxiety, and the main reason students reported math anxiety was due to a lack of confidence.
    • The perfect review session.

      Spry, Nicholas J. (2013-01-24)
      This study examined the effectiveness of four types of review sessions given the day before a unit exam. Over a three week period, four Algebra 1 classes were taught the same unit by the principal investigator. At the end of the unit, each class was given a pre-test to gather base scores. Next, each class was given a different type of review lesson the day before their unit exams. The four review lessons include; a teacher-led review with short practice quiz, a review worksheet completed in groups, a review game, and an individual practice exam with answer key given afterward. Unit exams were administered the day following the review day and were analyzed based on students growth from the pre-test scores to the unit exam scores. Results favored practice exams as the most effective review method, followed by a group-based worksheet and a review game, with teacher-led instruction with a practice quiz being the least effective.
    • Little Brown Bats (Myotis lucifugus): ecology of a White-nosed syndrome affected population.

      First, Melissa Conrad (2013-01-24)
      White-nose syndrome (WNS) is currently classified as an emerging disease, caused by the fungus, Geomyces destructans, currently affecting hibernating bats across the Appalachian range, into Canada and locations in the Midwest (USGS, 2011). The effects of the disease have been devastating, with bats at infected sites showing 87-95% mortality and complete loss of populations in some caves (Blehert, 2009, Frick, 2010). One of the most significant findings to date is that WNS affected bats exhibit depleted white and brown fat reserves by mid-winter and, although this is not the causal factor for development of WNS, it has been found to be the ultimate cause of bat death in affected hibernacula (Blehert, et al. 2009). In addition, studies have found that bats in White-Nose syndrome areas may be entering hibernation with lower stores of body fat, predisposing them to starvation when affected by G. destructans (Kunz, 2009). The Chautauqua Institution (CI), Chautauqua, NY is home to approximately 5,000 little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) in maternity colonies occupying the attics and crawlspaces of the 750, lakeside seasonal homes and buildings there (Neilson, 1991, Syme, 2001, this study). The population is assumed to be affected by White-Nose syndrome since approximately 30% of the bats captured from two of the colonies during the summer of 2010 exhibited White-nose syndrome type wing damage and the fungus was identified in hibernacula approximately 75 km from the (CI) the preceding winter, 2009-2010 (USGS, 2011). However, this population appears to be stable, although affected by WNS. We studied the feeding-ecology of this population to determine if there were factors contributing to increased survival in WNS affected bats that reside at the CI. We found that preferred prey (Diptera) numbers were more than adequate for reproduction and pre-hibernation fat deposition and were not affected by either precipitation levels or ambient temperature. We also found that bats exhibiting WNS type wing damage did not have significantly different body mass indices (BMI's) than their unaffected conspecifics. Bats at the CI have maintained BMI in comparison to historical data. This combined with an abundance of roosts may contribute to the stability of a WNS affected population.-- (leaf 2) The capture of large numbers of bats from given populations has been a challenge since bat trapping schemes were first devised. The two most commonly employed devices are the harp trap, utilizing a series of parallel wires to disrupt bats in flight and mist nets, borrowed from avian research, that function to entangle bats that contact it while in flight. Modifications to both have been made to increase their efficiency but both still suffer from relatively low capture rates, and can be cumbersome to use. We have constructed and utilized a trap for bats that has capture rates of between 80 and 100% when deployed at the entrances to maternity roosts of little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus). Our trap incorporates a mechanism for detaching the bag holding captured bats and attaching a new bag so that trapping can continue uninterrupted while processing of captured bats can begin. Using this trap we were able to capture 456 bats in one evening using 4 holding bags in succession. The principles used in the angle trap could be applied to larger, megachiropteran species as well as more open environments, such as flyways and feeding sites. -- (leaf 36)
    • Harmony, Mode and Meaning in Olivier Messiaen's La Nativite du Seigneur.

      Hoedle, Michael Joseph (2013-01-24)
      No Author abstract.
    • Eliminate the substitution or substitute the elimination?

      Hammond, Ricardo S. (2013-01-25)
      This research examines the different methods used for solving systems of equations, how those methods are taught, and how they can be applied to real world situations. More specifically, this research examines which of these methods student tend to favor, as well as whether or not students can properly apply the concept of systems of equations to real world situations. “It is hypothesized that high school algebra students will use substitution over elimination when solving systems of equations, and that students who have not been previously introduced to any method will naturally use “guess-and-check.” Furthermore, it is hypothesized that students’ general approach to solving systems of equations is “procedural,” causing them to score higher on algebraic-type problems than on word problems". It was determined that students who had already been instructed on solving systems of equations were likely to favor substitution over other methods. It was also concluded that students who had not yet been instructed on solving systems of equations had a tendency to favor guess-and-check over other methods. Furthermore, students performed better on the algebraic problems than the word problems. Many students approached the word problems differently than how they approached the algebraic problems. Regardless of the methods used in the algebraic problems, many students abandoned those methods when attempting the word problems.--
    • Area Awareness : a preadolescent perspective.

      Bland, Reid (2013-01-25)
      No author abstract.
    • Beyond technology.

      Sue, Stephen C. (2013-01-25)
      No author abstract.
    • Seasonal movements of Paddlefish (Polyadon spathula) in the Allegheny Reservoir.

      Budnik, Richard Raymond (2013-01-25)
      We used radio telemetry to determine the distribution and movements of paddlefish Polyadon spathula in the Allegheny Reservoir. Thirty-one adult and subadult paddlefish collected from spring congregation areas in the Allegheny Reservoir, New York and Pennsylvania, were implanted with radio transmitters and relocated from 29 May to 29 October 2008 and 10 March to 29 September 2009. Paddlefish showed a significant increase in average size and little variation in condition from 2008 to 2009. In both pre-spawning and spawning periods, paddlefish moved upstream and congregated near predicted spawning areas where the Allegheny River widens and becomes the Allegheny Reservoir. During the post-spawning period paddlefish moved downstream into lower reservoir regions. Forty-five percent of individuals tracked ended up below the dam of the Reservoir by the end of the study. Restoration and stocking efforts may now need to focus on determining if natural spawning is taking place and how individuals traveling through the dam may be affecting the paddlefish population.
    • Division Misconceptions in the Middle School Mathematics Classroom.

      Taylor, Sarah J. (2013-01-25)
      No author abstract.
    • Periods of United States Migration.

      Newell, Patrick Thomas (2013-01-25)
      No author abstract.