Now showing items 195-214 of 234

• #### A study of students' misconceptions regarding variables in the pythagorean theorem and slope/intercept formula.

Understanding the concept of mathematical variables gives an opportunity to expand and work on high-level mathematics. This study examined college students' comprehension of variables as well as variable use in well-known mathematics formulas. These formulas consist of the Pythagorean Theorem, slope, as well as the y-intercept. Students were asked to complete a ten-problem quiz in a twenty minute time frame. Immediately following the quiz, students were asked to complete a five question survey in which they described their reactions to the quiz and their knowledge of variables. Similarly 15 high school mathematics teachers were given a survey on their reflection of their students' knowledge of variables. The results of the quiz and surveys were collected and analyzed to determine if any correlations existed. The data collected showed that there was a strong indication of variable misunderstanding by college level mathematics students.
• #### A study on solution techniques used by eighth grade mathematics students while solving systems of equations.

This research examines the effects of instructional order in regard to preference and achievement of solution techniques when solving systems of equations algebraically. It is hypothesized that students in an eighth grade mathematics classroom will have a preference for the technique they use for solving a system of equations. Additionally, that preference will be determined by which technique was introduced to the student first. To test this hypothesis students from four different classes were divided into two groups, students who would learn substitution first and students who would learn elimination first. Each group would be introduced to the alternate technique directly after the first. After both groups were familiar with the two techniques, an assessment was given tracking and comparing achievement and technique used on each problem between the students in the two groups. Additionally, a survey was given directly after the assessment to determine how the students felt about both techniques and trends from these surveys were also compared.
• #### A study revisited.

There are many advantages to becoming bilingual for students learning English as their new language. When English Language Learners (ELLs) begin to acquire a new language in public schools in the United States, they face many challenges that can negatively affect their academic achievement. In this thesis, the author chose to use the term Emergent Bilingual (EB) instead of English Language Learners (ELL), except in places referring to official legislation. EB was used as it emphasizes the students’ bilingualism rather than focusing on a proposed deficit in English language proficiency. The language practices and programs offered to EBs reflect upon the attitudes of the school personnel and broader community surrounding the school. The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes of middle school personnel toward heritage language maintenance (HLM) for EBs. This study is also a replica of Capullo (2007). More specifically, this study examined the attitudes of middle school personnel toward EB students and HLM, Bilingual education, English Only and school level policies. The research question was: What are the current attitudes of middle school personnel towards HLM for EB students? Using a fifteen item five-point Likert scale attitude survey, data was collected from personnel in three rural middle schools in Chautauqua County, New York. The results of the study demonstrated that middle school personnel tend to have a positive attitude towards HLM for EB students.
• #### The success of No Child Left Behind

The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), enacted into law in 2002, was the culmination of years of policy work and political posturing and represented the most sweeping changes to the American education system since the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1964 (McGuinn, 2006). The analysis of this policy is particularly important because it will help future generations identify the positives and negatives of federal intervention in education. Beginning with the National Defense Education Act in 1958, the federal government has gradually increased its role in the oversight and administration of public education (Kessinger, 2011). Following landmark reforms like those enacted during Lyndon Johnson's "Great Society" and Jimmy Carter's creation of the federal Department of Education, this intervention reached its apex in 2002 with the passage of NCLB and touched off a spirited debate across the country about how best to evaluate school performance (McGuinn, 2006). The act's provisions, including teacher evaluations; an emphasis on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM); and mandatory standardized testing, changed the landscape of public education. Whether these initiatives improved the quality of American education is the subject of intense debate (Moores, 2004), but there exists a measurable impact on test scores, which lends credence to the idea that it was a successful policy. While the stated goals of the policy were not met, evidence exists of significant progress towards American education improvement in the 21st century. [from author's abstract]
• #### A survey of Chautauqua county secondary teachers' perceptions of culturally and linguistically diverse students and teacher practices

The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceptions secondary education teachers had about students from culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) backgrounds, as well as their perceptions on culturally relevant practices (CRP) in their classrooms and curriculums. This study used an electronic survey which consisted of a total of 14 items and a Likert type scale that addressed teacher attitudes towards CALD students and CRP in the classroom. The participants included 61 middle and high school level teachers in Chautauqua County schools. Findings determined that teachers generally agreed that CALD home culture affects academic performance. However, teachers did not agree whether CALD students were disadvantaged specifically because of their home cultures. Based on these results, teachers understand that it is their responsibility for adapting curriculum to suit CALD student needs. [from author's abstract]
• #### A survey of Music Therapist' experiences as well as perceived effectiveness of education and training on sexual attraction to clients.

The purpose of this descriptive study was to investigate music therapists’ experiences of sexual attraction to their clients and the music therapists’ perceived effectiveness of their education and training on therapist sexual attraction to clients. Based on previous studies with verbal therapists, it was hypothesized that music therapists frequently experienced sexual attraction to their clients and perceived their education and training on therapist sexual attraction to clients as ineffective or nonexistent. A survey questionnaire assessing related experiences and perceptions was sent to all professional members of the American Music Therapy Association (AMTA) with a music therapist designation (N = 1,569). Of the 1,491 participants with working email addresses, 304 agreed to participate (20.4% response rate). Significantly less music therapists (26.7%) reported they at least once experienced sexual attraction to their clients. Many music therapists (70.0%) reported that their education and training included little to no discussion about therapist sexual attraction to clients. Many of them (63.8%) also reported that their education and training about sexual attraction to clients was less than adequate. The need for improvement in educating and training music therapists about this phenomenon is evident, but it is still unclear whether music therapists are less likely to experience, become aware of, or admit to the attraction. Possible explanations and implications of these results are discussed.
• #### Taking your time, or just wasting it?

This research examines the connection between the amount of time a student takes to complete a test and the score that they receive on the test. It is hypothesized that students who take longer to complete their test will actually score lower on the test than the student that finish their tests more quickly. Furthermore, it is thought that female students will have stronger correlations between score and time than will male students. The main discovery that was made is that there was significance in the data regarding strictly time and score. It was shown that students who use less time to take their tests generally scored better than those who took longer to complete the test. However, there was no statistical significance found when breaking down the data into specific categories based on gender, grade level, age, or class.
• #### Teacher and student morale and school board governance.

School boards have been around since the 15th Century in the American Public Education System to help with the local governance of school districts. There has not been a lot of focus in research on how the governance of a school board effects the morale of teachers and students. With the increase in news media in the recent decade, there has been more attention on local governments and elected officials, such as a school board. With this increase, there has been more government scandals exposed, including those involving school board officials and school district administrators. While most of the attention has been the negative effect on the officials themselves, there has not been much attention on how the scandals affect teachers and students. The purpose of this Master’s Project was to see if a local school board scandal negatively impacted teacher and student morale at the local high school in the district. The question of the impact was researched with an online survey that was sent to high school teachers and guidance counselors. The results of the survey give new insight into teacher and student morale in public schools, when there is a lot of media focus on education today.
• #### Teacher attitudes toward No Child Left Behind and part 154 in the English as a New language classroom

As the population of English Language Learners continues to grow, policymakers, legislators and courts alike have struggled with implementing educational policy. Virtually, since its inception, the United States has struggled with determining how to best educate its linguistically diverse students. From segregation cases in the 40s, 50s and 60s, to modern day English only movements, to present day policies such as No Child Left Behind, any educational victories that have been obtained have been intermittent and disjointed (Powers, 2014). As the United States continues to grow increasingly diverse are policymakers prepared to adequately meet the demands of educating English Language Learners? The purpose of this study is to examine how English as a New Language Teachers (ENL) in Chautauqua County New York perceive No Child Left Behind and Commissioner's Regulations Part 154 in the ENL classroom, and whether these laws have influenced their teaching. Data was obtained through face-to-face interviews, observation and recording and policy analysis. Results indicate that participants felt mostly negative towards No Child Left Behind, and viewed Part 154 favorably. Participants' negative perceptions towards No Child Left Behind did not appear to negatively affect their teaching. Implications for addressing the educational needs of ELLs and Policymaking, as well as future research are also discussed. [from author's abstract]
• #### Teacher led exercise and its effect on student engagement.

This study’s aim was to identify whether or not teacher led exercise at the beginning of the school day had an effect on second grade students’ ability to be engaged during morning math lessons. The participants were second grade students from a rural elementary school in western New York. The study was comprised of an ABAB design and data was collected using observations and checklists. Comparisons were made between student engagement on days following exercise to engagement on days with exercise. Results were investigated based on the entire group, student gender, student education classification, and both gender and educational classification together. Results indicated that within those groups, the exercise increased student ability to remain engaged and on task throughout math lessons.
• #### Teacher perception of a New English as a Foreign Language (EFL) curriculum in Saudi Arabia.

The purpose of this study was to explore Saudi EFL teachers’ perceptions of the quality of the new English as a Foreign Language (EFL) Flying High curriculum in selected secondary schools in the Sabia Educational Directorate. The researcher examined Saudi EFL teachers’ attitudes towards EFL, preparation programs, the quality of the new curriculum, teacher practices, and administrative support. The researcher used a 50-item survey with a five point Likert Scale. Participants were 42 Saudi EFL teachers. The findings revealed: a) Saudi EFL teachers think that English is important for academic and social purposes; and b) teachers had mixed feelings about the quality of the curriculum (Flying High), although they believed that the curriculum reflected high-quality in its layout and instructional design, yet, the results indicated that they encountered some difficulties in implementing the new methodologies and strategies; c) teachers felt moderately prepared, while some teachers thought that college courses prepared them to teach the new curriculum, others believed that college courses did not prepare them for teaching the new curriculum; d) the results of this study showed that teachers’ practices are not aligned with their beliefs about the quality of the Flying High curriculum. Moreover, the results of the study also indicated that teachers' role in the planning of the ELDP was minimal and that teachers and students were not ready for the implementation of the new reforms. Finally, the findings revealed that teachers felt they were inadequately trained on the new EFL curriculum.
• #### Teacher perceptions of evidence based practices and strategies used to assist students with learning disabilities access core curriculum

In recent years, the use of New York State Common Core Standards, Modules, and Frameworks have dictated the curriculum taught within the middle school social studies classroom where all students learn, including students with learning disabilities. This curriculum is rigorous and presents a problem for students with learning disabilities. The purpose of this research study was to understand teacher perspectives within the classroom when teaching students with learning disabilities and developing resource of useful evidence-based practices and strategies used in the classroom. Through a phenomenological qualitative design, I was able to connect with four middle school social studies teachers and interview them to gain their perspectives of the teaching methods and evidence-based practices that they have found useful in providing access to the core curriculum taught within the classroom. As a result of these interviews, I was able to identify four common themes and evidence-based practices within the interview data collected. These themes included: a) Peer-mediated instruction, b) Self-questioning and Self-reflection, c) One-on-One Teacher Student Conferencing, and d) Technology. From the participant's perspective, when they use these strategies within the classroom, students with learning disabilities are able to interact, comprehend, and develop connections with the social studies curriculum being taught within the middle school classroom. [from author's abstract]
• #### Teacher success in technology integration.

The following study investigated how teachers successfully integrated technology into their classrooms by overcoming many barriers. Barriers included time, money, access, professional development, and understanding technology pedagogy. Teachers at the prekindergarten and elementary level completed a survey including multiple choice and constructed response questions. Professionals who responded to this survey used technology sometimes in their classrooms and discussed barriers they had to overcome, and are dealing with in order to successfully integrate technology. Teachers provided strategies and ideas on what they thought would be beneficial for helping the integration process. It was discovered that many teachers have not been taught ways of using technology effectively and need more professional development and guidance from administrators in order to use technology in a meaningful way. Most of these teachers dealt with issues with technology access, understanding technology pedagogy, and lack of support
• #### Teachers' knowledge about bullying in elementary schools in Saudi Arabia.

Many studies have been done about bullying in the Western world (Olweus, 1994; Attwood, 2004; Fekkes, Pijpers & Verloove-Vanhorick, 2005; Ansary, Elias, Greene, and Green, 2015). In contrast, not enough empirical studies have been done about bullying in Arabic countries (AlQahtani, 2008; Fitaihi, 2014; Alzahrani, 2012). This study aimed to identify the scope of bullying by examining how much teachers know and what types of bullying exist in Saudi elementary schools. A goal of this study was to increase Saudi teachers' awareness of bullying, help them find appropriate strategies to prevent bullying, and suggest the development of anti-bullying programs suited to Saudi Arabia. Using a convergent parallel mixed methods design (Creswell, 2013), a questionnaire was administered and follow-up interviews were conducted. The 11-item questionnaire was distributed among 100 female teachers working in five elementary schools in Jeddah. In addition, the researcher interviewed six female elementary teachers at one elementary school. Findings showed that fewer than half of teachers knew about bullying and that those who did know the word did not know how to treat students or to prevent bullying. Further, teachers do not use any type of anti-bullying program nor are they trained to handle bullying to keep the school environment safe and healthy. Implications will be discussed.
• #### Teachers' perceptions of a Positive Behavior Intervention Support Program at a small rural school.

This study focuses on Positive Behavior Intervention Support (PBIS) and a particular implementation at a rural school district in Western New York. This study explores teachers’ perceptions of the PBIS system being implemented in the district. It focuses on time spent on PBIS duties, teachers’ opinions of the current implementation, and teachers’ views of changes in behavior due to the PBIS system. The participants in this survey were all faculty and staff at the school district, which includes grades pre-kindergarten through grade twelve, and support staff including specialty areas area teachers. The findings show teacher buy-in to the program, and opinions of success of the PBIS system.
• #### Teachers' perspectives of classroom management issues and strategies

Classroom management and behavior issues are problematic and prevalent in elementary schools today. The purpose of this study was to identify the management strategies that are effective in reducing or eliminating misbehavior among elementary students. This study was conducted in a rural elementary school with 8 teachers of Grades 1-5, 6 were currently teaching in schools and 2 were retired. A review of the scholarship indicated that there is a correlation between student gender and misbehavior and grade level and misbehavior. The scholarship also revealed various contributing factors of student misbehavior, effective strategies to use when handling misbehavior, and teachers' knowledge and training associated with classroom management. Teachers in this study revealed that misbehavior occurred frequently and ranged from verbal disturbance to occasional higher-level forms of misbehavior, such as physical aggression. Along with discussing the types of misbehavior prevalent in elementary schools today, teachers mentioned effective behavior management strategies, which included individual behavior plans and an interactive program, called "Class Dojo." [from author's abstract]
• #### Technical readiness of pre-service teachers to navigate and use technology in the modern day classroom

The proposed study was based on college students, specifically pre-service teachers, planning to enter the educational field within five years. The study examined technical readiness of these pre-service teachers attending a rural, public university in Western New York and their attitudes toward information and communication technologies (ICT) in the classroom. The investigation sought to answer the question: do small, liberal arts state institutions of higher learning produce pre-service teachers with an adequate amount of exposure and training to navigate and use technology in the modern day classroom? The result of the study revealed a greater need for higher learning programs to implement technology tools and resources that reflect what technologies are in the field. [from author's abstract]