• Improving reading comprehension for Saudi Students by using the Reading Aloud Strategy.

      Alshehri, Mohammed (2014)
      Reading is important to help students gain access to many different kinds of knowledge, information, and ideas. The reading aloud strategy can be used to reach effective outcomes and increase students’ reading comprehension. The purpose of this study is to provide support for the reading aloud strategy to improve reading comprehension. The study was conducted during the summer of 2014 in Saudi Arabia. The participants of this study were 41 male students in the 5th grade. The researcher explained the reading aloud strategy to the participants to increase their reading comprehension. Then the students employed the intended strategy during the reading lessons in order to increase their reading comprehension. This research study used the 5th grade textbook to determine if the use of the reading aloud strategy improved reading comprehension for students. This was measured by a comparison of pre and post intervention reading comprehension tests. In addition, a survey created and designed by the researcher for this study measured if students’ enjoyment of reading increased through the use of the read aloud strategy. Lastly, the researcher conducted observations and recorded field notes on students’ behavior during reading lessons. According to the results, the reading aloud strategy showed positive effects on the development and improvement of Saudi students’ comprehension. The participants were able to connect their own experiences and personal knowledge with the daily texts to share their opinions and demonstrate a high level of understanding.
    • Increasing students' participation by using cooperative learning in library and research course.

      Alhabeedi, Ezdehar (2015)
      The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of cooperative learning strategies on students' participation in a high school library and research course in Saudi Arabia. Increased student participation provides social, psychological and academic advantages to students. The review of the literature focuses on four primary frameworks. The first section addresses Vygotsky's theory of social constructivism. Second, previous studies completed in regards to cooperative learning are presented including definitions, benefits, potential drawbacks, elements and strategies, as well as the role of the teacher in cooperative learning. The third section focuses on student development while the last section focuses on curriculum of the library and research course. This research specifically targeted female first grade high school students who were 16 years old from an urban high school in Western Saudi Arabia during the fall semester of 2015. The experimental group was 15 students working in three cooperative groups while the other 15 students in the control group were taught in a traditional teacher centered method. Data was collected using quantitative techniques of participation tallies. The results showed students who were taught by the cooperative learning strategy increased their participation as compared to the students who were taught by a lecture approach. Therefore, the conclusion of this study is that cooperative learning had a positive impact on increasing students' participation in Saudi Arabia.
    • Influence of cooperative learning strategies for English Language Learners with disabilities

      Langworthy, Allison L. (2015)
      Research has shown the amounts of English Language Learners (ELLS) with disabilities are on the rise in the United States. Parallel to the rise of ELLs with disabilities, are the struggles these types of students endure in the classroom. This study investigated the use of specific Kagan cooperative learning structures in the classroom with ELLs with disabilities and if students’ engagement, motivation, and other positive outcomes were affected by these strategies. This study also investigated teacher perspectives in regards to Kagan cooperative learning strategies. Further, a case study was conducted evaluating the use of Kagan cooperative learning structures in the classroom, when implemented by two special education teachers. Overall, findings distinguished that when specific Kagan strategies were implemented in a classroom with ELLs with disabilities, these students experienced increased motivation, engagement, self-esteem, confidence, and peer-acceptance. Findings also determined the teacher perspectives were conclusive with previous literature and were affirmative. Implications for further research are discussed in regards to Kagan cooperative learning strategies use in the classroom.
    • The influence of society on the roles of African Americans, [and] Gays and Lesbians in film.

      Platt, Andrew J. (2013-01-14)
      Minorities, specifically African Americans, and gays and lesbians have been widely represented by negative stereotypes in film. These stereotypical roles have been strongly influenced by society. While these stereotypes may represent some individuals they do not represent the community as a whole. Films such as Birth of a Nation, Gone With the Wind, Imitation of Life, Foxy Brown, Chicago, Different from the Others, These Three, Victim, Making Love and Brokeback Mountain were researched and screened to determine how African Americans and the gay and lesbian individuals were portrayed. Throughout history, the roles played by these minorities have changed. How the majority of society views those minorities has been how they were represented in the films during their time. It should be the goal of Hollywood to represent minority characters with substance and not focus only on the stereotypical roles for financial profitability. More independent studios and filmmakers are needed to create positive images. These types of roles played by minorities may not change until the audiences are willing to pay to see films that have positive roles for minority characters.
    • The influence of students' perceptions of writing on academic writing performance

      LiPuma, Kelsey (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2016)
      Analysis of The Nation's Report Card (NAEP, 2011) indicates low performance by adolescent students in the area of academic writing, which in turn suggests that students in the elementary grades are not developing the writing skills that will enable them to write successfully as adolescents. Academic writing involves specific expectations for structure, content, and conventions. While students learn these expectations, students' perceptions of writing may also impact their academic writing performance. Therefore, to address this problem of students' low academic writing performance, an appropriate research question is, what are fourth grade students' perceptions of writing and what is the influence of those perceptions on their academic writing performance? This question of perception and influence is appropriately addressed by conducting an empirical study with fourth grade participants and a mixed methodology to determine specific perceptions and their relationship to writing performance. After measuring academic writing performance and collecting data on perception attitude, self-efficacy, and writing knowledge, analysis has produced three findings. First is that although these participants all had the same teachers and writing instruction throughout their elementary schooling, their perceptions of writing are not consistent with each other but range as do their academic writing performances. Second is that their knowledge of "writing" appears to be primarily focused on an academic concept of writing, and the third finding is that the relationship between perception and performance appears to have a linear correlation, with neutral attitude and neutral self-efficacy producing below average to average writing performance. [from abstract]
    • Information content of house cricket (Acheta domesticus) songs and the evolution of multiple signals.

      Covey, Andrea J. (2013-01-11)
      Despite the extensive literature on cricket bioacoustics, little collective understanding has been established that compares the structural and functional significance of the three distinct gryllid song types: calling song, courtship song, and aggressive song. Here, we compile recent work on all three song types that underscores the importance of song in communicating aspects of male phenotype to receivers (females and rival males). In doing so, we uncover similarities and differences between both the information content of each song type and the acoustic structures through which this content is communicated. By placing these comparisons into the context of multiple signaling theory, we can begin to understand how and why male gryllids make use of multiple acoustic signals. -- Author abstract (leaf 2) Despite the extensive literature on cricket bioacoustics, little collective understanding has been established that compares the structural and functional significance of the three distinct gryllid song types: calling song, courtship song, and aggressive song. Here, we measured all three song types from a cohort of male house crickets (Acheta domesticus) throughout their natural lifespan in order to make direct comparisons of song structure and phenotypic information content between the calling, courtship, and aggressive songs. Through statistical analysis of eight acoustic parameters of song, we established that there are significant structural differences between the three song types. By looking for correlations between phenotype and song structure, we also determined the phenotypic information content present in all three house cricket songs and that the distribution of information content may differ depending on song type. This suggests that the evolutionary persistence of three song types in the gryllid family may be due to the presence of multiple messages. -- Author abstract (leaf 45)
    • Introduction of native tree species in sites invaded by Japanese Knotweed Taxa and a study of its affect of the seedbank.

      Toews, Hans-Peter C. (2013-01-15)
      The invasion of three closely related taxa of knotweeds: (Japanese knotweed) Polygonum cuspidatum, (giant knotweed) Polygonum sachalinensis, and their hybrid Polygonum x bohemica in riparian corridors throughout the eastern U.S. has a negative impact on native plant communities. In the study the following research objectives were addressed: 1) To determine if forms of mechanical control (cutting and tilling) could be used to allow tree saplings to become established in knotweed invaded sites. 2) To compare height and leaf number of saplings of four native tree species inside and outside of Japanese knotweed stands. 3) To compare the soil seed bank density and composition in knotweed invaded versus noninvaded sites. No significant differences were found in the growth or survival among the saplings of four native tree species across treatments. Although treatments did not significantly affect sapling growth trends showed that saplings in the tilled treatment had the greatest growth across treatments over the growing season. A longer running experiment is needed to establish any emerging patterns in the data. Significantly greater densities of seedlings were observed in non-invaded than invaded sites and significantly greater densities of native seedlings were observed in non-invaded than invaded sites. Knotweed invasion does significantly affect the seedbank.
    • An investigation of the relationship between sleep and college achievement

      Lilga, Justin (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2016)
      An experiment was conducted at a small university to investigate the effects of sleep patterns on academic achievement of undergraduate students. Undergraduate students were given a self-reporting questionnaire and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index to help track their sleep habits during the academic semester. The sleep habits that were tracked include subjective sleep quality, sleep latency, sleep duration, habitual sleep efficiency, sleep disturbances, sleep medication, and daytime dysfunction. The participants were asked to return the self-reporting instruments, which were used to determine their eligibility for a second round of self-reporting. The students were asked to submit a second self-reporting questionnaire designed to target if their sleep patterns had played a role in their midterm grade point average. Participants were asked to turn in a copy of their spring 2016 midterm academic information. The sleep patterns and academic achievement of each participant were used for analysis. In conclusion, there was a slight decrease in grade point average for students who were reported to have a worse sleep quality according to the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. [from abstract]
    • Lack of student motivation within the ESL classroom.

      Drzymala, Marianne (2015)
      This paper discusses the lack of ESL student motivation within the classroom, teacher perceptions of student motivation, and effective strategies that teachers implement within an ESL classroom. Included within this thesis is a study that compiled data from teachers and middle school ESL students within a small city school district. The study resulted from an interest of the researcher in ESL student motivation and teacher perceptions of student motivation. The study focused on various factors within intrinsic and extrinsic motivations. Intrinsic motivation is motivation that comes from within an individual while extrinsic motivation is motivation that comes from outside an individual. The study was carried out by the researcher over a two month period of time. The researcher gave a motivational survey to a target group of eleven students, interviewed the two ESL teachers that worked with these students, and observed several class sessions making anecdotal notes while observing of motivational strategies being used and student responses to these strategies. The research showed that the students displayed higher levels of motivation within student led classrooms with home language materials made available. In addition the research found that students were equally intrinsically and extrinsically led. The teacher interviews gave insight to the teacher personalities and subsequent observations showed how the personality of the teacher led to the success or lack of success of a class session. These findings showed the importance of student motivation leading to academic success. This topic yielded a great deal of interesting data. The research showed that middle school students are equally intrinsically and extrinsically motivated and one type of motivational strategy is not efficient or effective.
    • Linguistic and cultural experiences of female Chinese International graduate students at State University of New York at Fredonia

      Irish, John (2015)
      The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of Chinese female graduate students about how their needs were met at State University of New York (SUNY) at Fredonia. A qualitative interview research design was used to investigate the cultural, linguistic, and academic needs and factors affecting of these students, as well as their views of the university, including its academic services. The participants interview responses were recorded, then summarized, minute by minute, by the author and presented for analysis. A number of themes developed through the interviews process. These themes were then identified and analyzed. Recommendations based on answers to questions in the interview process were provided, and came in general three categories: factors affecting cultural adjustment, Chinese international graduate students and American peer interactions, and help available in ESL and Writing. This study concludes wit a summary of these findings and recommendations for action that the university could consider, based on the suggestions given by participants.
    • Linguistic landscape

      Alfaifi, Ali (2015)
      Recently, the spread of English has been internationally noticed, putting a remarkable influence on other languages. The linguistic landscape (LL) is a new field where linguists can examine many linguistic aspects such as bilingualism, translation and language policy through photographing shop signs and street billboards of either small or big cities worldwide; and then analyzing the samples gathered to detect what type of influence or dominance a language has on another. This study investigated the linguistic landscape in the vital areas of Khamis Mushait, Saudi Arabia, tourist destination (TD), commercial zone (CZ) and their smaller districts to examine how English is used on the shop, street, road and billboard signs together with investigating which language, either Arabic or English outweighed the other in the two locations, the tourist destination (TD) and the commercial zone (CZ) and their districts. A total of more than two hundred photos were collected from the two locations, yet, only 150 of them were analyzed and used. The collected data about Khamis Mushait was quantitatively analyzed. These methods were similar to Ben-Raefel (2006) and Backhaus (2007). The findings revealed that the Arabic language was entirely dominant in the Tourist Destination and its smaller districts, while the commercial zone appeared to be affected by globalization which means that English was used more often in the CZ. Despite this, analysis showed that Arabic still dominated the commercial zone (CZ) .
    • Linguistic Landscape on Campus: Asian College Students' Perceptions of Multilingual Learning Environments.

      Mahemuti, Misidoula (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2018-07)
      The purpose of this study is twofold: (1) to investigate Asian international students' perceptions of linguistic landscape on campus, and (2) to enhance the classroom environment by creating a multilingual linguistic landscape for international students at the campus which is the research setting. The researcher designed a hands-on workshop to create a warm and welcoming environment for the students. (The final product of the workshop is displayed in the hallway in one of the campus buildings.) The researcher investigated how students' motivation, attitude and cultural awareness is affected by the linguistic landscape. The research for this study was conducted with Asian international students at a public, comprehensive state university campus in the northeast United States. The data collected through the survey is analyzed quantitatively, while the interview data used vivo and pattern coding (Saldaña, 2016). The main findings from the data indicated the importance of linguistic landscape for international students. It was found that international students are aware of the multilingual linguistic landscape around them, see it as important, and believe it can be used as a tool to increase their language awareness, improve social interaction, and represent their identities.
    • Linguistic profiling in the United States.

      Lord, Lindsey G. (2015)
      Language diversity is increasing significantly across the nation and this linguistic diversification will remain a constant in the future (Reeves, 2006; US Census, 2000). With this diversity often comes discrimination towards English language learners (ELLs) and other students who do not speak Standard American English (SAE) due to the influence of their native language or dialect (e.g., African American Vernacular English, Spanish). This discrimination is called linguistic profiling and it is commonly seen in school settings (Fisher, Wallace, & Fenton, 2000; Murillo & Smith, 2011; Pachter, Bernstein, Szalacha, & Coll, 2010). Past studies have found that teachers who linguistically profile are influenced by the following areas: general education experiences, specific English as a Second Language (ESL) training, contact with diverse cultures, prior contact with ELLs, and demographic characteristics (Youngs & Youngs, 2011). The goal of this study was to determine whether linguistic profiling is occurring towards ELLs and AAVE-speakers in Western New York. Teachers with multiple certification backgrounds from two schools in Western New York were surveyed using a five-point Likert-scale. Results indicate that an increase in teachers’ educational experience and multicultural experiences make them less likely to linguistically profile. In addition, Spanish-speaking ELLs may be profiled less than those students speaking AAVE. Implications will be discussed.
    • Little Brown Bats (Myotis lucifugus): ecology of a White-nosed syndrome affected population.

      First, Melissa Conrad (2013-01-24)
      White-nose syndrome (WNS) is currently classified as an emerging disease, caused by the fungus, Geomyces destructans, currently affecting hibernating bats across the Appalachian range, into Canada and locations in the Midwest (USGS, 2011). The effects of the disease have been devastating, with bats at infected sites showing 87-95% mortality and complete loss of populations in some caves (Blehert, 2009, Frick, 2010). One of the most significant findings to date is that WNS affected bats exhibit depleted white and brown fat reserves by mid-winter and, although this is not the causal factor for development of WNS, it has been found to be the ultimate cause of bat death in affected hibernacula (Blehert, et al. 2009). In addition, studies have found that bats in White-Nose syndrome areas may be entering hibernation with lower stores of body fat, predisposing them to starvation when affected by G. destructans (Kunz, 2009). The Chautauqua Institution (CI), Chautauqua, NY is home to approximately 5,000 little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) in maternity colonies occupying the attics and crawlspaces of the 750, lakeside seasonal homes and buildings there (Neilson, 1991, Syme, 2001, this study). The population is assumed to be affected by White-Nose syndrome since approximately 30% of the bats captured from two of the colonies during the summer of 2010 exhibited White-nose syndrome type wing damage and the fungus was identified in hibernacula approximately 75 km from the (CI) the preceding winter, 2009-2010 (USGS, 2011). However, this population appears to be stable, although affected by WNS. We studied the feeding-ecology of this population to determine if there were factors contributing to increased survival in WNS affected bats that reside at the CI. We found that preferred prey (Diptera) numbers were more than adequate for reproduction and pre-hibernation fat deposition and were not affected by either precipitation levels or ambient temperature. We also found that bats exhibiting WNS type wing damage did not have significantly different body mass indices (BMI's) than their unaffected conspecifics. Bats at the CI have maintained BMI in comparison to historical data. This combined with an abundance of roosts may contribute to the stability of a WNS affected population.-- (leaf 2) The capture of large numbers of bats from given populations has been a challenge since bat trapping schemes were first devised. The two most commonly employed devices are the harp trap, utilizing a series of parallel wires to disrupt bats in flight and mist nets, borrowed from avian research, that function to entangle bats that contact it while in flight. Modifications to both have been made to increase their efficiency but both still suffer from relatively low capture rates, and can be cumbersome to use. We have constructed and utilized a trap for bats that has capture rates of between 80 and 100% when deployed at the entrances to maternity roosts of little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus). Our trap incorporates a mechanism for detaching the bag holding captured bats and attaching a new bag so that trapping can continue uninterrupted while processing of captured bats can begin. Using this trap we were able to capture 456 bats in one evening using 4 holding bags in succession. The principles used in the angle trap could be applied to larger, megachiropteran species as well as more open environments, such as flyways and feeding sites. -- (leaf 36)
    • Local teachers' and parents' perceptions of the Common Core learning standards.

      Musty, Katlynn N. (2015)
      The purpose of this phenomenological research study was to explore and understand how the Common Core Learning Standards (CCLS) affect teachers’ perceptions toward their career and parents’ perceptions toward their child’s education. This study sought to answer the following research questions: What are parents’ perceptions of the impact of the CCLS on their child’s learning? What are the teachers’ perceptions of the CCLS on their teaching? Data sources included six interviews of parents with a child in Kindergarten through seventh grade and five interviews of general education teachers of Kindergarten through fifth grade classrooms. This study concluded the Common Core Learning Standards are perceived in a generally negative manner by parents and teachers.
    • A Look into the Feelings and Perceptions of Parent-Teacher Conferences and the Effectiveness they Have

      Swank, Karen (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2018-07)
      Parent-teacher communication and relationships are an important component to student success. Parent-teacher conferences are a time for relationships to be built and to establish direct one-on-one communication. This study looks into teachers' and parents' feelings and perceptions of parent-teacher conferences in a rural school setting. The results show that there are similar feelings between both parties and suggests areas where improvements can be made. Future research could continue to examine the feelings and perceptions of parents and teachers in other areas, as well as examine the effects any improvements could have on parent-teacher conferences.
    • Mathematical estimation and its real-world application in the construction fields.

      Newcomb, David L. (2014)
      This research investigates the gap that exists between students’ skills with mathematical estimation and calculations in real-world applications, such as construction, carpentry, and masonry. The participants were asked to apply learned methods for solving area and volume problems, while expected to perform unit conversions. It was hypothesized that students with engineering backgrounds would perform better than all other college students, including mathematics and education majors. Furthermore, it was hypothesized that students would neglect to round up to estimate the amount of materials needed to complete a given project. The assessment problems were then graded on a scale from zero to five points each in order to classify the response of each student. The data generated had shown a range of eighteen points between the best and worst scores. These scores were used to evaluate students by major, age, gender, and their mathematics grades. These categories were used to predict and compute the scores which were obtained by different sub-groups of students. The study concluded that physics/Engineering students obtained the best scores. It was also noted that many participants lacked the basic mathematics skills needed to successfully compute the problems in the assessment.
    • Mentoring Program for Novice Teachers in Private Catholic School

      Sullivan, Candice (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2019-05)
      We invest in our children and young generation, as they will one day lead this country. Yet, we do not invest in our teachers. Through research it was concluded that mentoring programs for novice teachers can have a major impact on the result of high quality teachers. I report on the features of, challenges, and highlights that emerged during research and formation of the mentoring program for novice teachers. These findings conclude the vital significance of mentoring novice teachers. With the concluding points, a detailed guide was created to assist with mentoring in districts with no mentoring in place for novice teachers. There is a desperate need to provide active mentoring for novice teachers to develop into a high quality educator.