• Taking your time, or just wasting it?

      Raynor, Nick D. (2013-10-21)
      This research examines the connection between the amount of time a student takes to complete a test and the score that they receive on the test. It is hypothesized that students who take longer to complete their test will actually score lower on the test than the student that finish their tests more quickly. Furthermore, it is thought that female students will have stronger correlations between score and time than will male students. The main discovery that was made is that there was significance in the data regarding strictly time and score. It was shown that students who use less time to take their tests generally scored better than those who took longer to complete the test. However, there was no statistical significance found when breaking down the data into specific categories based on gender, grade level, age, or class.
    • Teacher and student morale and school board governance.

      Corlett, Kara M. (2015)
      School boards have been around since the 15th Century in the American Public Education System to help with the local governance of school districts. There has not been a lot of focus in research on how the governance of a school board effects the morale of teachers and students. With the increase in news media in the recent decade, there has been more attention on local governments and elected officials, such as a school board. With this increase, there has been more government scandals exposed, including those involving school board officials and school district administrators. While most of the attention has been the negative effect on the officials themselves, there has not been much attention on how the scandals affect teachers and students. The purpose of this Master’s Project was to see if a local school board scandal negatively impacted teacher and student morale at the local high school in the district. The question of the impact was researched with an online survey that was sent to high school teachers and guidance counselors. The results of the survey give new insight into teacher and student morale in public schools, when there is a lot of media focus on education today.
    • Teacher attitudes toward No Child Left Behind and part 154 in the English as a New language classroom

      Villafrank, Caroline (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2016-05)
      As the population of English Language Learners continues to grow, policymakers, legislators and courts alike have struggled with implementing educational policy. Virtually, since its inception, the United States has struggled with determining how to best educate its linguistically diverse students. From segregation cases in the 40s, 50s and 60s, to modern day English only movements, to present day policies such as No Child Left Behind, any educational victories that have been obtained have been intermittent and disjointed (Powers, 2014). As the United States continues to grow increasingly diverse are policymakers prepared to adequately meet the demands of educating English Language Learners? The purpose of this study is to examine how English as a New Language Teachers (ENL) in Chautauqua County New York perceive No Child Left Behind and Commissioner's Regulations Part 154 in the ENL classroom, and whether these laws have influenced their teaching. Data was obtained through face-to-face interviews, observation and recording and policy analysis. Results indicate that participants felt mostly negative towards No Child Left Behind, and viewed Part 154 favorably. Participants' negative perceptions towards No Child Left Behind did not appear to negatively affect their teaching. Implications for addressing the educational needs of ELLs and Policymaking, as well as future research are also discussed. [from author's abstract]
    • Teacher led exercise and its effect on student engagement.

      Nelson, Rhea T. (2014)
      This study’s aim was to identify whether or not teacher led exercise at the beginning of the school day had an effect on second grade students’ ability to be engaged during morning math lessons. The participants were second grade students from a rural elementary school in western New York. The study was comprised of an ABAB design and data was collected using observations and checklists. Comparisons were made between student engagement on days following exercise to engagement on days with exercise. Results were investigated based on the entire group, student gender, student education classification, and both gender and educational classification together. Results indicated that within those groups, the exercise increased student ability to remain engaged and on task throughout math lessons.
    • Teacher perception of a New English as a Foreign Language (EFL) curriculum in Saudi Arabia.

      Almalki, Mosa M. (2014)
      The purpose of this study was to explore Saudi EFL teachers’ perceptions of the quality of the new English as a Foreign Language (EFL) Flying High curriculum in selected secondary schools in the Sabia Educational Directorate. The researcher examined Saudi EFL teachers’ attitudes towards EFL, preparation programs, the quality of the new curriculum, teacher practices, and administrative support. The researcher used a 50-item survey with a five point Likert Scale. Participants were 42 Saudi EFL teachers. The findings revealed: a) Saudi EFL teachers think that English is important for academic and social purposes; and b) teachers had mixed feelings about the quality of the curriculum (Flying High), although they believed that the curriculum reflected high-quality in its layout and instructional design, yet, the results indicated that they encountered some difficulties in implementing the new methodologies and strategies; c) teachers felt moderately prepared, while some teachers thought that college courses prepared them to teach the new curriculum, others believed that college courses did not prepare them for teaching the new curriculum; d) the results of this study showed that teachers’ practices are not aligned with their beliefs about the quality of the Flying High curriculum. Moreover, the results of the study also indicated that teachers' role in the planning of the ELDP was minimal and that teachers and students were not ready for the implementation of the new reforms. Finally, the findings revealed that teachers felt they were inadequately trained on the new EFL curriculum.
    • Teacher perceptions of evidence based practices and strategies used to assist students with learning disabilities access core curriculum

      Bromsted, Elizabeth (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2017-05)
      In recent years, the use of New York State Common Core Standards, Modules, and Frameworks have dictated the curriculum taught within the middle school social studies classroom where all students learn, including students with learning disabilities. This curriculum is rigorous and presents a problem for students with learning disabilities. The purpose of this research study was to understand teacher perspectives within the classroom when teaching students with learning disabilities and developing resource of useful evidence-based practices and strategies used in the classroom. Through a phenomenological qualitative design, I was able to connect with four middle school social studies teachers and interview them to gain their perspectives of the teaching methods and evidence-based practices that they have found useful in providing access to the core curriculum taught within the classroom. As a result of these interviews, I was able to identify four common themes and evidence-based practices within the interview data collected. These themes included: a) Peer-mediated instruction, b) Self-questioning and Self-reflection, c) One-on-One Teacher Student Conferencing, and d) Technology. From the participant's perspective, when they use these strategies within the classroom, students with learning disabilities are able to interact, comprehend, and develop connections with the social studies curriculum being taught within the middle school classroom. [from author's abstract]
    • Teacher success in technology integration.

      Greenan, Jessica (2015)
      The following study investigated how teachers successfully integrated technology into their classrooms by overcoming many barriers. Barriers included time, money, access, professional development, and understanding technology pedagogy. Teachers at the prekindergarten and elementary level completed a survey including multiple choice and constructed response questions. Professionals who responded to this survey used technology sometimes in their classrooms and discussed barriers they had to overcome, and are dealing with in order to successfully integrate technology. Teachers provided strategies and ideas on what they thought would be beneficial for helping the integration process. It was discovered that many teachers have not been taught ways of using technology effectively and need more professional development and guidance from administrators in order to use technology in a meaningful way. Most of these teachers dealt with issues with technology access, understanding technology pedagogy, and lack of support
    • Teachers' knowledge about bullying in elementary schools in Saudi Arabia.

      Nouran, Halah F. (2015)
      Many studies have been done about bullying in the Western world (Olweus, 1994; Attwood, 2004; Fekkes, Pijpers & Verloove-Vanhorick, 2005; Ansary, Elias, Greene, and Green, 2015). In contrast, not enough empirical studies have been done about bullying in Arabic countries (AlQahtani, 2008; Fitaihi, 2014; Alzahrani, 2012). This study aimed to identify the scope of bullying by examining how much teachers know and what types of bullying exist in Saudi elementary schools. A goal of this study was to increase Saudi teachers' awareness of bullying, help them find appropriate strategies to prevent bullying, and suggest the development of anti-bullying programs suited to Saudi Arabia. Using a convergent parallel mixed methods design (Creswell, 2013), a questionnaire was administered and follow-up interviews were conducted. The 11-item questionnaire was distributed among 100 female teachers working in five elementary schools in Jeddah. In addition, the researcher interviewed six female elementary teachers at one elementary school. Findings showed that fewer than half of teachers knew about bullying and that those who did know the word did not know how to treat students or to prevent bullying. Further, teachers do not use any type of anti-bullying program nor are they trained to handle bullying to keep the school environment safe and healthy. Implications will be discussed.
    • Teachers' perceptions of a Positive Behavior Intervention Support Program at a small rural school.

      Brushaber-Goulding, Melanie (2015)
      This study focuses on Positive Behavior Intervention Support (PBIS) and a particular implementation at a rural school district in Western New York. This study explores teachers’ perceptions of the PBIS system being implemented in the district. It focuses on time spent on PBIS duties, teachers’ opinions of the current implementation, and teachers’ views of changes in behavior due to the PBIS system. The participants in this survey were all faculty and staff at the school district, which includes grades pre-kindergarten through grade twelve, and support staff including specialty areas area teachers. The findings show teacher buy-in to the program, and opinions of success of the PBIS system.
    • Teachers' perspectives of classroom management issues and strategies

      McCaw, Amanda (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2018-05)
      Classroom management and behavior issues are problematic and prevalent in elementary schools today. The purpose of this study was to identify the management strategies that are effective in reducing or eliminating misbehavior among elementary students. This study was conducted in a rural elementary school with 8 teachers of Grades 1-5, 6 were currently teaching in schools and 2 were retired. A review of the scholarship indicated that there is a correlation between student gender and misbehavior and grade level and misbehavior. The scholarship also revealed various contributing factors of student misbehavior, effective strategies to use when handling misbehavior, and teachers' knowledge and training associated with classroom management. Teachers in this study revealed that misbehavior occurred frequently and ranged from verbal disturbance to occasional higher-level forms of misbehavior, such as physical aggression. Along with discussing the types of misbehavior prevalent in elementary schools today, teachers mentioned effective behavior management strategies, which included individual behavior plans and an interactive program, called "Class Dojo." [from author's abstract]
    • Technical readiness of pre-service teachers to navigate and use technology in the modern day classroom

      Greiner, Meghan (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2016)
      The proposed study was based on college students, specifically pre-service teachers, planning to enter the educational field within five years. The study examined technical readiness of these pre-service teachers attending a rural, public university in Western New York and their attitudes toward information and communication technologies (ICT) in the classroom. The investigation sought to answer the question: do small, liberal arts state institutions of higher learning produce pre-service teachers with an adequate amount of exposure and training to navigate and use technology in the modern day classroom? The result of the study revealed a greater need for higher learning programs to implement technology tools and resources that reflect what technologies are in the field. [from author's abstract]
    • Techniques to suppress invasive Oriental Bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculatus) on Presque Isle State Park in Erie, Pennsylvania.

      Wooten, Jessica (2013-07-10)
      Oriental bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculatus) is a deciduous, woody vine native to Southeast Asia. Currently this invasive is considered a major threat to native forests in the eastern United States. Some characteristics associated with its’ competitive ability include shade tolerance, ability to colonize a wide range of suitable environmental conditions, and prolific seed production, viability and germination. These factors contribute to difficulties related to the suppression and containment of this species. In order to preserve native plant communities at Presque Isle State Park in Erie, PA, a total of 5 treatments, each having 4 replicates was established to test various procedures to suppress this invasive species and restore native plant communities. Two control treatments involved either making cuts of all stems at chest height and ground level (window cut) with no subsequent treatment or no action at all. Additional treatments consisted of a basal stump herbicide application of a 100% solution of either triclopyr or glyphosate to every cut stem immediately after window cuts were made. The last treatment method consisted of making window cuts followed by a foliar herbicide application 5 weeks post cut with a backpack sprayer containing a solution of 6% glyphosate and 3% triclopyr. Data analysis show that the most effective method to suppress C. orbiculatus is by making a window cut of all stems followed by a foliar herbicide application 5 weeks post cut. Plots with this treatment had significantly fewer regrowth stems and these stems had a trend towards shorter length as opposed to other treatments. This knowledge has the potential to assist not only Presque Isle State Park but many other locations afflicted with the presence of this invasive species.
    • Translanguaging and emerging Bilingual's academic self-efficacy in Math and ELA

      Megan, Kane (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2016)
      The population of Emergent Bilinguals (EB) in schools continues to rise annually in the United States (García et al., 2008) and with this consistent increase comes the question of how to best educate these students. Currently EBs are reporting lower levels of academic self-efficacy than their native English speaking peers (LeClair et al., 2009), which can lead to lowered academic performance (Bandura, 1993; Fan et al., 2012; Raoofi et al., 2012). Translanguaging is a revolutionary concept that rejects the classic perception of languages as separate entities within the brain. Instead, TLG views a person's multiple languages as part of one united linguistic code (Celic & Seltzer, 2012; Otheguy et al., 2015; Velasco & García, 2013). The purpose of this study was to determine the level of academic self-efficacy in math and ELA of EBs enrolled in a bilingual program that uses translanguaging in class. Furthermore, this study investigated if there was a difference in the academic self-efficacy of EBs who use translanguaging in class and EBs who do not. The results indicated that EBs who use translanguaging in class have a high level of academic self-efficacy in math and ELA. This group of participants reported slightly higher academic self-efficacy than the participant group that does not use translanguaging. However, the results of a t-test found this difference to be statistically insignificant. The results of this study were intended to add to the small body of literature on the academic self-efficacy of EBs to inform best practices for this population of learners. [from abstract]
    • Typha Latifolia versus Phragmites Australis.

      Cross, Michael A. (2014)
      Phragmites australis and Typha latifolia rhizomes were planted in a factorial experiment under a number of intra- and inter-specific competition scenarios, two salinities and three moisture levels. Typha rhizome mortality was 100% and Phragmites rhizome mortality was 64%. Phragmites plants were not significantly different in final height or biomass across density, salinity or moisture treatments. Typha rhizomes were planted into Phragmites patches with five and monitored for two seasons. At Bonita Swamp all of the Typha rhizomes survived and sprouted. There were no clear differences in Typha cover, density or height between treatments. At Presque Isle all of the rhizomes in the Phragmites removal treatments sprouted but the rhizomes did not sprout in the plots without Phragmites removal At Tifft none of the Typha rhizomes sprouted. Also, at these three wetlands plots were monitored at the boundary between Phragmites and Typha patches and monitored for two years. Over that time little spread of the species occurred. The short duration of field observations renders conclusions difficult to make but the results do support the possibility that Typha rhizomes can be planted into Phragmites patches as part of a restoration project.
    • Under the microscope

      Harper, Tyrus (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2016)
      During the past two decades, an alarming trend has emerged in American education. Students in the United States are consistently plummeting in the global standings on international standardized assessments. Research suggests that scores on one such assessment, the PISA (Program for International Student Assessment), especially illustrate that students in the United States are continually falling behind those in other nations. Globalization and its relationship with instruction in the United States have also proven to be an important inquiry in regard to attempting to understand the current national education landscape. [from author's abstract]
    • The Use of Musical and Visual Interventions for Transitions in Children with Autism.

      McGarry, Erin M. (2013-10-24)
      The purpose of this descriptive survey study was to describe teachers' and therapists' reported use and perceptions of musical and visual transition interventions they use to help children with autism at an early childhood special education program. The perceived effectiveness was defined as the educational support team's perceptions of the effects musical interventions and visual interventions have on transition behaviors. Participants (N=19) were certified special education teachers and therapists who were employed by the early childhood program. An online survey consisting of 16 questions was sent electronically to participants via the employee email system. The survey questions consisted of five sections based on demographic information and the following research questions: 1) How often do teachers and therapists report using music interventions, visual interventions, or a combination of musical and visual interventions to aide children who have autism? 2) Which intervention is perceived to be the most effective? 3) What is the perceived effectiveness of musical interventions, visual interventions, and a combination of musical and visual interventions on social and communicative responsiveness in children with autism? and 4)What strategies do teachers and therapist use when selecting a transition intervention (musical, visual, or a combination of musical and visual) for children who have autism? Data from this survey was also analyzed for variation in perceptions based on professional background. The results showed participants used more musical interventions than visual interventions or a combination of musical and visual interventions, with 50% (n=9) stating they almost always used music when addressing transition behaviors. The results of this study also indicated a combination of musical and visual interventions was perceived as the most effective transition intervention by the teachers and therapists at this early childhood program, as almost all of the participants (n=18, 85.74%) chose this method as the most effective. Nine of these participants reported the musical component should be emphasized when combining musical and visual interventions, while the other nine reported the visual component should be emphasized. In regards to promoting social responsiveness and communication in children with autism, an overwhelming majority of the teachers and therapists in this study (17 out of 19 participants for the social responsiveness category, and 18 out of 19 participants for the communication category) reported a combination of musical and visual interventions was the most effective method for promoting these two key areas of need. When using this combined intervention approach, the musical component was reported as the most important modality in promoting social responsiveness (52.63%, n=l 0), while the visual component was reported as the most important modality in promoting communication (52.63%, n=IO). The results of this study also suggested that the individual needs and preferences of the child were a major factor professionals consider when selecting a transition intervention, as all of the participants in the study (n=19) reported this as a factor. It is the researcher's hope that these results may be used to inform our understanding of which interventions are perceived to be the most effective for children with autism. This study, along with future research, may help to improve transitional performance for children with autism. Keywords and themes for this study include "autism," "music therapy," and "transitions."
    • Use of tablets with Saudi girls, ages 5-7 to improve reading skills

      Bin saran, Ohud (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2016)
      Reading is a fundamental literacy skill that must be taught to children at early ages for them to master. The integration of technology in reading skills helps to make the learning process easier and fun. Tablets have the ability to enhance the literacy skills of young children. This study was designed to answer the following research question : Does the use of tablets with Saudi girls, ages 5-7 improve reading skills? A review of the literature on the use of tablets and and e-books as educational tools is included as a foundation to this study. Also, literature on specific reading skills and the first grade reading level is included. The study was conducted in summer 2015 in Saudi Arabia. The participants of this study were 12 female students in the first grade at three public primary schools. The students were divided into two groups consisting of six students. For the first group, the experimental group, each student used a tablet with downloaded educational applications. Lessons on the same letters and sounds were given to the second group, the control group, by the traditional way of education. The study investigated if the use of tablets with children learning to read improved their literacy skills through a comparison of pre and post intervention reading comprehension tests. The results of this study showed that the use of tablets with students helped to improve reading skills for the students. Also, the use of tablets with students is a helpful way to encourage an increase in students' reading and learning. [from author's abstract]
    • Using cooperative learning strategies to increase students' participation and positive learning outcomes

      Aldosari, Abdulmajeed (2016-05)
      There is a need for high-quality education in Saudi Arabia for the next generation to equip them for facing the challenges of the developed world, and traditional learning techniques are unable to perform well. One of the most powerful ways to increase student participation in class is through the creation of a cooperative learning environment. Research into the general effectiveness of cooperative learning techniques suggests that cooperative learning is superior to traditional learning in terms of academic achievement. Many schools in the United States and other developed countries are effectively implementing cooperative learning techniques to increase students’ classroom participation and positive learning outcomes. This study was conducted during the summer of 2015 in Saudi Arabia. The participants of this study were 24 students in the fifth-grade. The research was at a school in Sulail City of the Riyadh. The selected model consisted of pre-test and post-test activities. A quantitative approach was used in this study to gather empirical evidence on the effectiveness of cooperative learning strategies in math class. The students were divided into two groups, the experimental group and the control group. Each student's participation was analyzed individually. All students were tested by the same pre-test and post-test. According to the results, there was an increase in the student participation and learning outcomes by the experimental group as compared to the control group. This research indicates the need for further development of teachers’ pedagogical skills in Saudi Arabia.
    • Using cooperative learning to improve reading comprehension skills for Saudi intermediate students

      Aljadoa, Ashraq (2016-03)
      This research study investigated the effect of cooperative learning strategies to improve reading comprehension skills. It sought to determine whether the use of cooperative learning strategies in teaching Saudi 13-15-year-old female students reading comprehension skills in Arabic improved their academic achievement as measured by a teacher-made comprehension assessment. Many adolescents struggle with reading comprehension skills. Therefore, the use of effective strategies such as cooperative learning may motivate students to learn, raise their academic abilities and enhance their skills thus leading them to academic success. For the purpose of the study, it was important to read about cooperative learning strategies and the age group of the participants in the study. The literature on reading comprehension skills was also reviewed. The study was conducted in Saudi Arabia. Fifty female students participated in the study, divided into an experimental group and a control group. The experimental group received instruction using cooperative learning strategies while the control group received traditional instruction. The participants were tested at the end of the instruction period. The assessment scores were collected and compared to determine the effect of the use of cooperative learning. In addition, the researcher conducted observations and recorded field notes on students’ behavior during reading lessons. The cooperative learning strategies showed positive effects on the improvement of Saudi students’ reading comprehension. The participants in the experimental group were able to connect their own experiences and knowledge with the daily texts to share their opinions and demonstrate a high level of understanding.
    • Using Think-Aloud Strategy to improve English reading comprehension for 9th grade students in Saudi Arabia.

      Alaraj, Mohammed (2015)
      This study was designed to investigate what effect the incorporation of the Think-Aloud reading strategy into a Saudi Arabian middle school curriculum would have on the reading ability of students, in terms of both information retention and comprehension of material. Two groups of 23 students were studied. One group was designated as the control group, receiving traditional instruction, and the other was the treatment group, which received explicit instruction using the Think-Aloud strategy. A total of four assessments were administered to obtain data, and were then graded on a rubric scale for analysis. The results showed that the students in the treatment group had, in the majority of cases, improved their reading comprehension; as measured by the assessments, while the control group’s scores remained the same. These results lead the researcher to conclude that the incorporation of the Think-Aloud strategy has much potential as a topic of research for incorporation into future curriculum in Saudi Arabia.