• Re-Visionist Women Writers.

      Tosun, Tulin Ece (2013-01-28)
      No author abstract.
    • Readability of the New York State Regents exam in United States history and government.

      Morton, Daniel E. (2015)
      This study investigated the readability of the multiple-choice section on the New York State Regents Exam in United States History and Government. Every June Regents Exam, from 2014-1990, was analyzed for readability. The Homan, Hewitt, & Linder (1994) formula was utilized because this formula measures grade level readability for multiple-choice questions. Readability was determined by randomly selecting three multiple-choice questions from each exam to analyze. Readability was calculated for each question and averaged to determine the mean score for each exam. This study revealed that over time the NYS Regent Exam in United States History and Government has become easier to read. There are far-reaching implications with regard to teacher evaluations and test reliability and validity, as a result of this study.
    • Reading anxiety among Arabic speaking students.

      Kress, Michelle T. (2015)
      Reading anxiety can become a great hindrance to an Arabic speaking student’s language acquisition. The anxiety acts as a barrier to the reading process making it difficult for the student to be able to decode or interact with the text (Krashen, 1983). There is still a limited amount of research with Arabic student participants and focus has been mostly given to other areas of language anxiety (Ahmad et al., 2013; Horwitz, 2010; Horwitz, Horwitz & Cope, 1986; Huang, 2012; Saito, Horwitz & Garza, 1999). Therefore, the present study investigated Arabic speaking high school students and teachers’ perceptions of the factors that correlate with reading anxiety. A five point Likert scale survey adapted from the research of Ahmad et al. (2013) was implemented to investigate student perceptions. Observations and interviews were conducted to investigate teacher perceptions. Strategy instruction was examined through observations to see whether or not teachers were incorporating strategies within the classroom to reduce reading anxiety. It was found that the Arabic students were suffering from reading anxiety and teachers were finding it difficult to generate effective strategies to alleviate their reading anxiety. Further research is necessary to determine effective strategies and methods for Arabic students to reduce reading anxiety.
    • Reading beyond the blood.

      Hebert, Jacqueline (2013-07-08)
      No Author abstract.
    • Realizing the socio-cultural and linguistic challenges that International college students have in their program study, and evidence that they can succeed

      Liu, Xiaomeng (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2016)
      In recent years, the number of international students studying in the United States has been rapidly increasing (Fass-Holmes & Vaughn, 2015; Kim, 2013; Lee, 2009; Martirosyam, Hwang, & Wanjohi, 2015; Seo & Ljungberg, 2005; Wu, Garza, & Guzman, 2015). Due to distinct linguistic and socio-cultural backgrounds in which this student group has, international students thus may encounter a lot of differences and challenges during their academic study in higher education in the United States. Furthermore, when they get involved with their different focus of academic study in terms of majors, disciplines, even different classroom settings, the challenges become more complex and unique for individuals. Therefore, there is a need for realization and illustration of these challenges. Today, there are a number of studies that have demonstrated the challenges that international students have. Very few studies, however, have focused specifically on the difficulties encountered in terms of disciplines, and majors, which could be more in depth for illustration. The goal of the study is to illustrate the challenges that international students have especially in consideration of the problems that might be encountered in different fields of study and to demonstrate the coping strategies to come to their needs. The participants of this study include international students from East Asian countries and professors from different departments in a comprehensive university in Western New York. An online survey, as well as individual interviews, were implemented to collect data from both international students and faculty. The result illustrated the significant challenges that international students have in two perspectives: language and socio-culture. Besides, practical and constructive coping strategies were suggested and recommended by both international students and professors. This study may serve as a basis for future research in this focus of the area. [from abstract]
    • Relationship between pre-operative Nasalance Scores, Velopharyngeal, Closure Patterns, and Pharyngeal Flap Revision rate in patients with Velopharyngeal Insufficiency.

      Mason, Kazlin N. (2013-07-09)
      Velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) is a disorder that results from the improper contact of the soft palate, lateral pharyngeal walls, and posterior pharyngeal wall. These muscle groups make up the velopharyngeal sphincter. This closure is necessary for the production of oral speech sounds. Improper closure leads to the production of nasal emissions during speech and an inability to produce pressure consonants. VPI is commonly treated surgically. A successful outcome of the surgery is determined by perceptual judgments of a Speech-Language Pathologist and with detailed objective instrumental evaluation (Losken, Williams, Burstein, Malick, & Riski, 2003). It is also necessary to examine the occurrence of surgical revision rates, as this directly relates to the success rate of a chosen surgical technique for a patient with VPI. Past studies have assessed the relationship between patient’s closure patterns with VPI and/or the type of revisions necessary when pharyngoplasty failed (Loksen, et. al, 2003 ; Kasten, Buchman, Stevenson, & Berger, 1997; Witt, Marsh, Marty-Grames, & Muntz, 1995; Amour, Fischbach, Klaiman, & Fisher, 2005; Schultz, Heller, Gens & Lewin, 1973). Fewer studies have systematically studied pre-surgical implications that exist, which could offer valuable information to patients and surgeons. This study investigated if pre-operative oral word and sentence nasometric values and velopharyngeal closure pattern identified patients requiring revision surgery after an initial pharyngeal flap. Fifty-nine patients who were diagnosed with VPI and underwent a pharyngeal flap surgery were included in this study. All patients underwent an evaluation of velopharyngeal function by the craniofacial team at Women's and Children's Hospital of Buffalo (WCHOB). The evaluation included perceptual and quantitative speech measures, clinical screening of velopharyngeal closure, and an oral peripheral examination. Perceptual ratings of speech were determined through live speech samples of the production of single words, sentences, and conversational speech. Resonance was categorized as hypernasal, hyponasal, mixed, or normal. Patients, who were categorized as having hypernasal speech, hyponasal speech, or nasal air emissions, were evaluated using nasometric instrumentation and multiview video fluoroscopy/nasoendoscopy. A regression analysis was performed at an alpha level of ρ ≤ 0.05; indicating pre-operative nasometry scores were significantly higher for those patients who eventually required a revision to the initial pharyngeal flap for alveolar, bilabial, and velar words and affricate sentences. Other comparisons of closure pattern, gap size, diagnosis, age, nasal utterances, low pressure context utterances, and high pressure utterances to revision rate resulted in no significant relationship. Post-operative results were not analyzed. When high nasometric values for oral word and sentence productions are noted pre-operatively, the likelihood of a revision surgery is increased. Nasometry can aid surgeons and Speech-Language Pathologists with preoperative patient counseling.
    • The relationship between self-concept and academic achievement.

      Alrehaili, Naseebah (2015)
      This study focuses on the relationship between academic achievement and self-concept in students with learning disabilities attending an elementary school in Western Saudi Arabia. It is an attempt to answer the research question, "What is the relationship between self-concept and academic achievement in Saudi girls age 8-10 with learning disabilities?" The previous studies suggest that because of the cognitive challenges that students with learning disabilities have, it is understandable if they have negative academic self-concept. The participants of this study were six elementary students with learning disabilities and a control group of 12 students without learning disabilities. Students' self-concept data was collected using the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale™, Second Edition (TSCS™:2), which measures self-concept in six content domains: Physical, moral, personal, family, social, academic. A measure of students' academic achievement was collected as well by examining students' final school marks. The findings suggest that academic self-concept is affected by learning disability status, but not general self-concept, which is a similar finding with Al Zyoudi (2010) study, and confirms, as Zeleke (2004) pointed out, that general self-concept is less understood as a factor to academic success than academic self-concept is.
    • The relationship between using technology classroom and the Social Studies teachers’ attitudes in Saudi Arabia.

      Alqhtani, Ebtssam (2015)
      Technology is an ever-changing tool for educators. This Masters project was designed to clarify if there are relationships between social studies teachers’ attitudes about technology and about using it in their classrooms. Findings suggest that the teachers’ gender, years of experience in teaching, and levels of education have an influence on their attitudes about using technology in the classroom. A questionnaire designed to measure teacher’s attitudes and practices was developed via the online tool Survey Monkey®. In addition, this research found that the gender did not impact attitudes about using technology in the classroom. Years of teaching experience was slightly related to teachers’ attitudes about technology, and there was a moderate correlation between classroom technology use and teachers’ attitudes about using technology. In addition, teachers with higher levels of education had more favorable attitudes about using technology in the classroom.
    • Response to intervention implemented with English language learners

      Forcucci, Kristen (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2016)
      In the past decade, Response to Intervention (RTI) has been adopted by many states and districts as a prereferral for special education. The purpose of RTI is to appropriately identify students who need special education services by intervening and providing extra support with the goal of students progressing back to grade level. There is little research on what benefits the use of RTI can have with English Language Learners (ELLs), but Vaughn, Mathes,Linan-Thompson, and Francis (2005) associate the lack of research to the fact that there has been no consideration that RTI programs "effectiveness" has only been studied with monolingual English speakers. The purpose of this study is to gain more information and understanding about Response to Intervention (RTI) and its use with ELLs. This study will expand on previous studies of RTI used with native English speakers and ELLs. Specifically, this study focuses on teacher perception of two RTI programs: Corrective Reading and Scientific Learning and if they provide any benefits or concerns to ELLs through semi-structured interviews. In addition, the study uses a checklist to analyze the linguistic complexity of both programs. Results indicated that almost all teachers believed one or both programs were beneficial to ELL learning. Research also found that the various levels of Corrective Reading and Scientific Learning programs could be used with ELLs throughout the levels of language acquisition. [from author's abstract]
    • Retangular fraction models.

      Kibler, Rachael H. (2015)
      The purpose of this mixed methods study was to explore how implementation of a new, researcher-developed simple improvised manipulative (SIM) impacted 5th graders in an urban, Common Core-aligned classroom. The Rectangular Fraction Model, a SIM created with two overlapping pieces of transparent plastic, was tested through performance of this experiment. This research sought to answer the following two central questions: How does implementation of a SIM, the Rectangular Fraction Model, impact 5th grade students’ math achievement in a mathematics class at an urban Chautauqua County elementary school in Western New York? How does use of a concrete representation affect students’ conceptual understanding of abstract material as taught through the Common-Core aligned EngageNY curriculum? The researcher was interested in two areas of possible impact on student learning; student achievement measured by a formal assessment and student understanding of abstract materials evaluated through use of an interview and questionnaire. Twelve students participated in the study; they were placed in heterogeneous control and experimental groups. The results indicate that although students in the experimental group scored better on the post test and appeared to have a better understanding of the concept taught, the difference between the control and the experimental group was not statistically significant. Thus, the use of SIM is not more effective than the traditional teaching approach. However, student responses indicate an interest in using this type of intervention material, and further research should be conducted on the impact of SIM in the mathematics classroom.
    • Rewriting the achievement gap through engagement and discourse analysis.

      Niemi, Kristen Irja (2013-07-09)
      No Author abstract.
    • The role of cursive writing on the curricular landscape of public schools today.

      Bova, Robert (2015)
      The advent of the word processor has led to the slow demise of cursive writing, including the decline in time spent teaching this form of writing in public schools today. The topic of the value and role of cursive writing in the public school has been surfacing frequently in the news media and social media of the last five years. Thus a research question forms for a literacy specialist as to what is the role of cursive writing on the curricular landscape of public schools today? The most appropriate way to address this question is with empirical research using thematic analysis of a collection of news media and social media documents as found on the internet. Results of this analysis find that most of the writings occur in news venues (major online newspapers and smaller news venues online) and in the form of articles and comments on articles, with while newspaper articles more than double any non-comment genre. The second finding is that teachers and educators comprise the largest identifiable writer type, accounting for nearly 55% of known writers; parents, news reporters, and students for second place. A third finding is that the data content supportive of retaining cursive writing in schools is at least 2 to 1, meaning that support for retaining cursive writing in schools is more than double the support for removing it from school curriculum.
    • The Search for the BMPl Gene in a Salamander Gene Library and the identification of Several Genes from the Library.

      Feygin, Alex Z. (2013-01-11)
      Bone Morphogenetic Protein 1 (BMP 1) functions in normal embryological development. The goal of this research was to obtain the sequence of salamander BMPl. Following sequence determination, an in situ probe for BMPJ activity would be generated to ascertain if this gene plays similar roles in Salamander limb regeneration, a system that has been demonstrated as comparable to normal embryological limb development. A Salamander eDNA library was obtained as a potential source for salamander BMPl. No BMPI sequence from this eDNA library was detected. This led to the pursuit of alternative gene sequences that could be of potential interest in the study of salamander limb regeneration. Two library recombinants were generated containing genes of potential interest to the study of salamander limb regeneration as determined by their sequence similarity to established genetic sequences. Rec9 contained an insert most similar to the Gallus gallus chondroitin sulfate N-acetlygalacosylaminyltransferase 2 gene. Rec21 most closely resembled Xenopus (Silurana) tropicalis oncomodulin.
    • Seasonal movements of Paddlefish (Polyadon spathula) in the Allegheny Reservoir.

      Budnik, Richard Raymond (2013-01-25)
      We used radio telemetry to determine the distribution and movements of paddlefish Polyadon spathula in the Allegheny Reservoir. Thirty-one adult and subadult paddlefish collected from spring congregation areas in the Allegheny Reservoir, New York and Pennsylvania, were implanted with radio transmitters and relocated from 29 May to 29 October 2008 and 10 March to 29 September 2009. Paddlefish showed a significant increase in average size and little variation in condition from 2008 to 2009. In both pre-spawning and spawning periods, paddlefish moved upstream and congregated near predicted spawning areas where the Allegheny River widens and becomes the Allegheny Reservoir. During the post-spawning period paddlefish moved downstream into lower reservoir regions. Forty-five percent of individuals tracked ended up below the dam of the Reservoir by the end of the study. Restoration and stocking efforts may now need to focus on determining if natural spawning is taking place and how individuals traveling through the dam may be affecting the paddlefish population.
    • Seeing Oneself: A Contextual Analysis of Diversity in Commonly Read Young Adult Literature

      Carson-Davis, Jessica (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2018-07)
      The purpose of this study is to observe the quality and variance of the representations of culturally and linguistically diverse populations within commonly read young adult literature. This study was conducted through the use of qualitative and quantitative contextual analysis methodologies, and consisted of a sample of nine commonly read young adult novels. The literature were analyzed through the theoretical lenses of critical race theory, the transactional theory of reading, and multicultural pedagogy. The literature were coded for representations of race, ethnicity, language, gender, sexuality, disability and illness, and socioeconomic status. These themes were then coded and analyzed based on varying emerging sub-themes, such as tokenized race representations, the use of accents to represent language, and various other subthemes. The main findings included the frequency of the representations of the previously stated populations. Out of the 1,195 coded representation samples found within the literature, race was present in 48 samples, ethnicity in 128 samples, language in 149 samples, gender in 282 samples, sexuality in 279 samples, disability and/or illness in 201 samples, and socioeconomic status in 108. The quality of the samples were also analyzed, and are contained within this study.
    • Selecting Instruments for beginners.

      Dangler, Anthony G. (2014)
      This study investigated how music teachers in Western New York State prepare beginning instrumental music students to select a musical instrument. Participants comprised music teachers in Cattaraugus, Chautauqua, Erie, and Niagara Counties. Eighty-one participants completed an online questionnaire or adaption of the online questionnaire relating to their instrumental selection process. The purpose of the study was to explore the factors that determine the instrument selection process for beginning band students. Additional explored areas included educational setting, professional background, specific instrument selection procedures, the effects of gender on instrument choice, the role of testing in the instrument selection process, and influences of the instrument selection process. Most participants in the study earned their master’s degrees and had an average of 16 years of teaching experience. Participants reported that the instrument selection process was briefly mentioned in their pre-service education and that personal experience had the most influence in their selection procedure. Participants also reported that students preferred instruments that coincided with traditional gender roles. The findings of this study indicate that more emphasis on the instrument selection process is needed by music teachers and pre-service programs to address important issues such as gender bias.
    • The SHAPE of an IRES: Secondary Structure Determination of the Internal Ribosomal Entry Site in the 5’UTR of the gurken mRNA Using SHAPE Chemistry

      Martin, Allison (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2017-05)
      Internal Ribosomal Entry Sites (IRESs) are conserved secondary structural elements present in the 5’ untranslated regions (UTR) of some essential eukaryotic mRNAs and many viral RNA genomes. IRESs allow the mRNA or viral RNA to bypass canonical cap-dependent translation initiation and entice the ribosome to assemble directly onto the RNA strand and initiate translation. Viruses utilize this method of translation initiation to hijack cellular translation machinery and eukaryotes utilize this to maintain levels of critical proteins when most translation is shut down due to cellular stress. Gurken (Grk) protein is an EGFR ligand essential for determining polarity and eggshell patterning in Drosophila melanogaster development. The gurken mRNA is believed to have an IRES for several reasons, including steady regulation of grk translation under nutrient limited conditions when canonical cap-dependent translation is repressed and the necessity of a RNA helicase for cap-dependent translation to occur under non-starvation conditions. Here we are interested in finding structural features corresponding to a potential internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) in the 5’ UTR of the gurken mRNA from D. melanogaster. Selective 2’-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension (SHAPE) chemistry is a powerful tool used to investigate secondary structure in RNA molecules. We used this procedure to probe the grk 5’ UTR secondary structure and then compare the predicted structure to known IRES structural motifs. In collaboration with in vitro translation Luciferase assays and selective deletion or mutation of structural features, individual secondary structural features can be selectively analyzed and included or excluded as a potential IRES. Here I present the wild-type structure of the gurken 5’ UTR and correlations between the structural elements present there and known IRES structural features.
    • ‘Sign’ing the Nation’s Contract: Constructing the Walls of American Citizenship

      Drzewiecki, Margaret (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2017-08)
      This paper investigates the way language constructs and reinforces national identity. In other words, I am examining how the role of the “citizen” is defined within the confines of language. Using a primarily sociolinguistic lens, my thesis analyzes the language used in political speeches and legal documents (including U.S. legislation; judicial opinions of Associate Supreme Court Justice Robert H. Jackson; and speeches of former Lieutenant Governor of New York Stanley N. Lundine). In doing so, I explain how the American “citizen” has been constructed through language utilized in various formats and contexts. Overall, my thesis is a reflection on what it has meant and currently means to be “American” alongside an examination of how citizenship status is attained.
    • Simplifying structurally comparable expressions.

      Humbert, Michael P. (2013-01-24)
      This study explores the connection between student understanding of arithmetic and algebra through the evaluation of numeric expressions and the simplification of structurally comparable algebraic expressions. It is hypothesized that non-major college mathematics students are more likely to correctly simplify an algebraic expression than to correctly evaluate a numeric expression of comparable structure. One hundred students from four non major mathematics courses were given a six-problem assessment to test this hypothesis. The results suggest that students are more successful at evaluating numeric expressions than algebraic expressions. Possible correlations between the two subject areas are discussed in the findings.
    • SPEEDY 3-D.

      Maiorana, Sara A. (2014)
      This research investigates how college students’ spatial skills vary by age, gender, college major and additional factors. Specifically, it explores students’ abilities to visualize two-dimensional air nets corresponding to two-dimensional illustrations of three-dimensional cubes. Also, this study examines how the use of a tangible air net manipulative affects performance. During this study, students answered a five-problem quiz involving matching and creating two-dimensional air nets for a given cube and vice versa. The results of the assessment were compared to those from a survey on the students’ age, gender, college major, ethnicity, and students’ perceptions of which problems were the most difficult and least difficult. It was hypothesized that male mathematics majors with access to a manipulative would perform best on the given spatial skills problems. The results of this study indicated that gender and college major had no statistical significance in spatial ability test score. Additional results revealed that there was a significant difference in test score by class, particularly with the use of a manipulative, and that the most difficult problem and least difficult problem on the assessment were both of the unfolding-type spatial ability task. These findings have noteworthy implications for in-service and pre-service mathematics teachers, particularly at the secondary level, regarding lesson planning and implementation when teaching spatial reasoning.