• Parent and teacher attitudes toward bilingual education.

      Morgan, Evan N. (2015)
      The amount of English language learners (ELLs) in the United States has steadily increased over the past several decades and continues to grow (Nieto, 2004; Ovando, Collier, & Combs, 2006). This increase in ELLs has driven many to contemplate how to best address the learning needs of these growing numbers of students (Slavin & Cheung, 2005). While there are currently several existing models for teaching ELLs, many researchers have promoted the effectiveness of bilingual education as a means for teaching these students (Besel, Glass, Montoya-Tannatt, & Bachelor, 1982; Lindholm-Leary, 2001; Rolstad, Mahoney & Glass, 2005). However, there is still a need for more research regarding the attitudes and beliefs of the teachers and parents of these students regarding bilingual education, particularly in areas where bilingual education is not yet offered and yet is often required via a policy change. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine the attitudes and beliefs of parents and teachers regarding bilingual education being implemented in their school district, before a new law mandating it is enforced. The participants of this study included parents and teachers in four elementary and middle schools in a large, urban district in Western New York. A paper-based Likert-scale survey was used to collect data from teachers and parents. Results indicated that parents and teachers are generally supportive of bilingual education and its principles and that the creation of bilingual education programs is warranted in the future. This study intends to add to the existing literature and research in this area.
    • Parent and Teacher Perceptions of Students' Early Literacy Behaviors Within Various Pre-School Models.

      Simon, Barbara (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2018-08)
      Parents have many options when it comes to choosing a pre-K program for their child (full day, half day, or part time). Educators are also faced with questions from parents about which types of program are best or they find themselves with students who have varying degrees of knowledge. The goal of this research was to examine the perceptions of parents and teachers when it comes to the pre-K programs and the literacy development that they see within their child from these various pre-K programs. The major questions driving this research are What are parents' perceptions of their child's Pre-K program? How do they feel the program affects their child's literacy development? What are teachers' perceptions of the various pre-K programs? How do they feel the different program options impact students' learning of literacy? The participants completed a survey and the data was analyzed quantitatively through Google Forms and qualitatively using descriptive coding and pattern coding (Saldana, 2016). The main findings from the data were that parents found the curriculum and various activities that the children do throughout the day to be important, parents of full day children saw more literacy growth within their child, all teachers regardless of the program that they taught believed that full day would be the most beneficial, and that all children from various programs showed literacy growth.
    • The perceived benefits and difficulties students who participate in extracurricular activities experience

      Ortolano, Zachary (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2016-05)
      In early 2016, I conducted a study to examine how students felt they were impacted by their participation in extracurricular activities. An initial survey was conducted to examine what extracurricular activities students were participating in, from which 10 female students and 8 male students were purposefully selected to be interviewed. These 18 students were asked to describe their motivations for participation, positive and negative impacts from participation, post-secondary goals, and the impact of their participation on those post-secondary goals. The study found that students felt their participation in extracurricular activities had a positive impact on their grade point averages, school attendance and was helping them achieve their post-secondary goals. These findings support the conclusion that participation in extracurricular activities has a mostly positive impact on students, and that their participation is a contributing factor to those positive effects. [from abstract]
    • The Perception of Preservice Teachers Regarding the Impact of a Math Methods Course on Their Ability to Instruct Mathematics in Their Future Classroom

      Schmidt, Courtney (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2019-05)
      With the pressure of teachers to challenge and increase achievement in the area of mathematics, it has become imperative to effectively train teachers to have this mathematical knowledge. Research has shown that more teacher preparation programs are focusing on introducing the foundation of mathematics for preservice teachers knowing that they are generalist elementary educators. This study looks at the perceptions of mathematics based on the completion of a mathematics methods course in a small liberal arts college in Chautauqua County. A questionnaire was distributed and consisted of both qualitative and quantitative questions. The results show that undergraduate mathematics courses are crucial to the implementation of mathematics in the preservice teachers future classroom. Future research could pair the questionnaire with an observation to examine their delivery of mathematics instruction.
    • The perception of special teachers in Saudi Middle and High school about co-teaching

      Alotaibi, Munirah (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2017-05)
      The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the perception of special education teachers about co-teaching in two areas that are teachers practice and effectiveness of co-teaching for students with learning disabilities at Saudi Arabian middle and high schools. The participants were 43 special education teachers who have experience in co-teaching class. The data was collected by online survey. The one result of this study concluded co-teachers at middle and high schools in the Riyadh region of Saudi Arabia did not implement the co-teaching approach as best practices of co-teaching are documented in the literature. One strong finding was that co-teachers did not share the planning and instruction responsibilities. Another finding showed that teachers perceived there were positive effects on academic performance and behavior for students with learning disabilities in a co-taught classroom. [from abstract]
    • Perceptions of Social Studies Teacher Roles in Literacy Instruction

      Hubbard, Justin (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2019-05)
      Research has found that Social Studies content teachers struggle implementing literacy into their content area. This study focused on the question, what are Secondary Social Studies teachers perceptions of their role in literacy instruction? The principal investigator of this study interviewed two experienced Secondary Social Studies teachers on their perceptions and implementation of literacy in the Social Studies content area. It was found by these interviews that these participants had been using higher level literacy instruction techniques as part of their daily instruction in the content area and that they perceive literacy instruction as the responsibility of the Social Studies teacher not only for the benefit of literacy ability, but for Social Studies content knowledge as well.
    • The perfect review session.

      Spry, Nicholas J. (2013-01-24)
      This study examined the effectiveness of four types of review sessions given the day before a unit exam. Over a three week period, four Algebra 1 classes were taught the same unit by the principal investigator. At the end of the unit, each class was given a pre-test to gather base scores. Next, each class was given a different type of review lesson the day before their unit exams. The four review lessons include; a teacher-led review with short practice quiz, a review worksheet completed in groups, a review game, and an individual practice exam with answer key given afterward. Unit exams were administered the day following the review day and were analyzed based on students growth from the pre-test scores to the unit exam scores. Results favored practice exams as the most effective review method, followed by a group-based worksheet and a review game, with teacher-led instruction with a practice quiz being the least effective.
    • Periods of United States Migration.

      Newell, Patrick Thomas (2013-01-25)
      No author abstract.
    • The perspective of students and faculty members regarding the use of technology in a constructivist learning environment

      Alharbi, Abeer (2015)
      The purpose of this study was to explore the different perspectives of students and faculty members of an all female, Saudi Arabian university art department regarding the use of technology in a constructivist-learning environment. This mixed method research study collected quantitative data from a survey of 70 faculty members and 70 students, and qualitative data from in-depth structured qualitative interviews of three faculty and three students. Results showed that both faculty and students had mostly positive attitudes towards using technology in the art curriculum, and were generally open towards receiving training and instructing into how to incorporate it into a constructivist learning environment, but did not feel that the technology used in Art classrooms was being utilized to its full potential. Respondents also stated that they wished that future training, guidelines and other supports be put in place to increase faculty and students knowledge of how to best use technology to enhance learning outcomes. The result of this study suggest that university faculty, administration, and researchers should consider technology-facilitated constructivist learning environments as a topic of future study and a great potential investment into the academic success and satisfaction of students.
    • Perspectives on heritage language and the U.S. and student language choices

      Papadimatos, Alexa (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2018-05)
      The purpose of this study was to examine what specific factors influence student linguistic choices and how those choices affect the rate of heritage/home language attrition and its subsequent maintenance. A qualitative research design consisting of interviews was used to examine how heritage language speaking college students felt about their heritage language proficiency, family connections and experiences in American public schools. The languages reflected in this research include Spanish, Haitian Creole, Romanian and Italian. The participants in this study are all students of a four-year comprehensive public university, but have grown up in areas all across New York state. The key objective for this research was to explore how the perceived attitudes of teachers, parents and members from the same minority language groups as the participants, affected the participants' own view of their home language and if the participants felt that maintaining their home languages was important. All of the participants noted that maintaining their heritage/ home language was an integral part in their success in social, economic and political contexts. This research concludes with recommendations on how school administrations and individual school teachers can come to better serve their heritage language speaking students, by checking their own assumptions about minority language communities. [from author's abstract]
    • Photomorphogenic effects of UV-B radiation and a-Tocopherol on Brassica rapa.

      Wong, Tiffany (2014)
      UV-B radiation may cause morphological, physiological, and genetic damage to living organisms. Prolonged exposure to UV-B radiation causes photooxidative damage to DNA and proteins. Sessile organisms, such as plants, are unable to escape relentless UV-B exposure. However, plants can protect themselves from UV-B by the production of antioxidants. Plants also respond to UV-B irradiance by inhibiting hypocotyl elongation, reducing number of leaves and developing fewer flowers. In this study, Brassica rapa was subjected to varying degrees of UV-B radiation and treated with a lipid-soluble antioxidant, α-tocopherol. Harmful reactive oxygen species, formed by UV-B radiation, may be stabilized by α-tocopherol. The hypothesis are that B. rapa will develop differently under UV-B treatment and B. rapa treated with UV-B and α-tocopherol will develop differently compared to B. rapa exposed to UV-B without α-tocopherol. In the experiment, two strains (RBr – standard rapid-cycling and ygr – yellow-green mutation) of B. rapa received no UV-B, ambient UV-B, or high UV-B exposure. Plants received a treatment of either α-tocopherol or water. UV-B fluorescent light (280-320 nm) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) sources were suspended above the plants. Measurements were taken to determine chlorophyll content, stem height, leaf surface area, and total biomass. Brassica rapa was found to be susceptible to UV-B radiation which resulted in shortened height, and fewer leaves and flowers. Ygr that received α-tocopherol produced more flowers under ambient UV-B exposure when compared to RBr. The external application of α-tocopherol on plants may have promoted repair mechanisms in the presence of UV-B radiation.
    • The positives about negatives : a study of errors and misconceptions with integer operations in adult education.

      Sadler, Joshua T. (2013-01-17)
      In this experiment two classes received instruction on integer operations. The first received instruction with the use of technology and the second class was instructed through a traditional approach. The study progressed over a one week span where students began with a five question survey to assess previous knowledge of positive and negative numbers. Following the survey, four days of instruction were provided discussing each operation as its own lesson. After the instruction, students were given a twenty question multiple choice exam that was graded for correctness. Data from the post assessment was also collected to determine if there were any persistent errors. The hypothesis pertaining to the technology enhanced teaching style out performing the traditional teaching style demonstrates there was not enough evidence, as it is clear that there is no definitive difference when comparing mean scores and p-values.
    • Practicing continuity of education in early childcare.

      Bridge, Jessica M. (2015)
      This narrative explored a director’s and six caregivers’ perspectives on looping or continuity of education with young children. This study sought to answer the following questions: What perspectives do caregivers have on looping and its’ benefits? What perspective does the center’s director have on looping and its’ benefits? What are the relationships like between the caregivers and children in a looping classroom? The purpose of this research study was to 1.) explore how teachers and a supervisor describe their perspectives on looping with children through an early childcare center in a rural town of Western New York; 2.) explore how looping impacts children academically, socially, emotionally, physically, and linguistically. Qualitative data were collected through non-participant observations and interviews. Results revealed positive perspectives on the practice of looping for early childcare education. Participants expressed their joy of working closely with the children at the center for three consecutive years. The study concludes with considerations for the future to compare this childcare center with a non-looping early childhood childcare center in hopes to discover which type of early childcare education would be possibly considered as best practice.
    • Pyruvate Kinase regulates Gurken translation by reduced TOR activity in Drosophila Melanogaster.

      Blundon, Malachi Andrew (2013-01-23)
      Gurken (Grk) expression is required to specify the polarity of the developing oocyte during Drosophila oogenesis. Proper localization and translation of grk transcripts is required to achieve proper axis specification. Gkr translation initiation has been shown to be cap-dependent and require the activity of the DEAD-box RNA helicase, Vasa. Vasa activity can be repressed by the ATR/Chk2-dependent meiotic checkpoint when DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) persist in meiosis. Unrepaired DSBs in oocyte development of spindle-class mutants activate this checkpoint and result in inefficient grk translation and loss of dorsal fates. This inefficient grk translation is thought to be related to reduced Vasa activity. In a screen for suppressors of the ventralized eggshell phenotype seen in spindle-BBU mutants, we identified a mutation in the PyK gene. We show that PyK mutations suppress the eggshell phenotype independent of the DSB repair delay and Vasa phosphorylation seen in spn-B mutants. This suggests that the eggshell phenotype is corrected by overcoming the translational block of grk transcripts seen in spindle mutants. PyK has been identified as a member of the TOR signaling pathway. Direct inhibition of the TOR kinase with rapamyacin suppresses the ventralized eggshell phenotype in spn-B mutant females. PyK modulates TOR kinase activity through the TSC1/2 heterodimer. During dietary starvation, TOR activity promotes capdependent translation by restraining the activity of the translation inhibitor eIF4E binding protein (4EBP). We hypothesize that reduced TOR activity promotes grk translation independent of the ATR/Chk2 meiotic checkpoint pathway. Recent data indicates that this may be achieved by way of IRES-dependent translation initiation of grk when TOR activity is low. This discovery suggests flies are able to maintain the translation of developmentally important transcripts such as grk during periods of nutrient limitation.
    • P² [:] Preference and Performance.

      Bockhahn, Kristi Jo (2013-01-17)
      No author abstract.
    • Re-Visionist Women Writers.

      Tosun, Tulin Ece (2013-01-28)
      No author abstract.
    • Readability of the New York State Regents exam in United States history and government.

      Morton, Daniel E. (2015)
      This study investigated the readability of the multiple-choice section on the New York State Regents Exam in United States History and Government. Every June Regents Exam, from 2014-1990, was analyzed for readability. The Homan, Hewitt, & Linder (1994) formula was utilized because this formula measures grade level readability for multiple-choice questions. Readability was determined by randomly selecting three multiple-choice questions from each exam to analyze. Readability was calculated for each question and averaged to determine the mean score for each exam. This study revealed that over time the NYS Regent Exam in United States History and Government has become easier to read. There are far-reaching implications with regard to teacher evaluations and test reliability and validity, as a result of this study.
    • Reading anxiety among Arabic speaking students.

      Kress, Michelle T. (2015)
      Reading anxiety can become a great hindrance to an Arabic speaking student’s language acquisition. The anxiety acts as a barrier to the reading process making it difficult for the student to be able to decode or interact with the text (Krashen, 1983). There is still a limited amount of research with Arabic student participants and focus has been mostly given to other areas of language anxiety (Ahmad et al., 2013; Horwitz, 2010; Horwitz, Horwitz & Cope, 1986; Huang, 2012; Saito, Horwitz & Garza, 1999). Therefore, the present study investigated Arabic speaking high school students and teachers’ perceptions of the factors that correlate with reading anxiety. A five point Likert scale survey adapted from the research of Ahmad et al. (2013) was implemented to investigate student perceptions. Observations and interviews were conducted to investigate teacher perceptions. Strategy instruction was examined through observations to see whether or not teachers were incorporating strategies within the classroom to reduce reading anxiety. It was found that the Arabic students were suffering from reading anxiety and teachers were finding it difficult to generate effective strategies to alleviate their reading anxiety. Further research is necessary to determine effective strategies and methods for Arabic students to reduce reading anxiety.
    • Reading beyond the blood.

      Hebert, Jacqueline (2013-07-08)
      No Author abstract.
    • Realizing the socio-cultural and linguistic challenges that International college students have in their program study, and evidence that they can succeed

      Liu, Xiaomeng (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2016)
      In recent years, the number of international students studying in the United States has been rapidly increasing (Fass-Holmes & Vaughn, 2015; Kim, 2013; Lee, 2009; Martirosyam, Hwang, & Wanjohi, 2015; Seo & Ljungberg, 2005; Wu, Garza, & Guzman, 2015). Due to distinct linguistic and socio-cultural backgrounds in which this student group has, international students thus may encounter a lot of differences and challenges during their academic study in higher education in the United States. Furthermore, when they get involved with their different focus of academic study in terms of majors, disciplines, even different classroom settings, the challenges become more complex and unique for individuals. Therefore, there is a need for realization and illustration of these challenges. Today, there are a number of studies that have demonstrated the challenges that international students have. Very few studies, however, have focused specifically on the difficulties encountered in terms of disciplines, and majors, which could be more in depth for illustration. The goal of the study is to illustrate the challenges that international students have especially in consideration of the problems that might be encountered in different fields of study and to demonstrate the coping strategies to come to their needs. The participants of this study include international students from East Asian countries and professors from different departments in a comprehensive university in Western New York. An online survey, as well as individual interviews, were implemented to collect data from both international students and faculty. The result illustrated the significant challenges that international students have in two perspectives: language and socio-culture. Besides, practical and constructive coping strategies were suggested and recommended by both international students and professors. This study may serve as a basis for future research in this focus of the area. [from abstract]