• Lack of student motivation within the ESL classroom.

      Drzymala, Marianne (2015)
      This paper discusses the lack of ESL student motivation within the classroom, teacher perceptions of student motivation, and effective strategies that teachers implement within an ESL classroom. Included within this thesis is a study that compiled data from teachers and middle school ESL students within a small city school district. The study resulted from an interest of the researcher in ESL student motivation and teacher perceptions of student motivation. The study focused on various factors within intrinsic and extrinsic motivations. Intrinsic motivation is motivation that comes from within an individual while extrinsic motivation is motivation that comes from outside an individual. The study was carried out by the researcher over a two month period of time. The researcher gave a motivational survey to a target group of eleven students, interviewed the two ESL teachers that worked with these students, and observed several class sessions making anecdotal notes while observing of motivational strategies being used and student responses to these strategies. The research showed that the students displayed higher levels of motivation within student led classrooms with home language materials made available. In addition the research found that students were equally intrinsically and extrinsically led. The teacher interviews gave insight to the teacher personalities and subsequent observations showed how the personality of the teacher led to the success or lack of success of a class session. These findings showed the importance of student motivation leading to academic success. This topic yielded a great deal of interesting data. The research showed that middle school students are equally intrinsically and extrinsically motivated and one type of motivational strategy is not efficient or effective.
    • Linguistic and cultural experiences of female Chinese International graduate students at State University of New York at Fredonia

      Irish, John (2015)
      The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of Chinese female graduate students about how their needs were met at State University of New York (SUNY) at Fredonia. A qualitative interview research design was used to investigate the cultural, linguistic, and academic needs and factors affecting of these students, as well as their views of the university, including its academic services. The participants interview responses were recorded, then summarized, minute by minute, by the author and presented for analysis. A number of themes developed through the interviews process. These themes were then identified and analyzed. Recommendations based on answers to questions in the interview process were provided, and came in general three categories: factors affecting cultural adjustment, Chinese international graduate students and American peer interactions, and help available in ESL and Writing. This study concludes wit a summary of these findings and recommendations for action that the university could consider, based on the suggestions given by participants.
    • Linguistic landscape

      Alfaifi, Ali (2015)
      Recently, the spread of English has been internationally noticed, putting a remarkable influence on other languages. The linguistic landscape (LL) is a new field where linguists can examine many linguistic aspects such as bilingualism, translation and language policy through photographing shop signs and street billboards of either small or big cities worldwide; and then analyzing the samples gathered to detect what type of influence or dominance a language has on another. This study investigated the linguistic landscape in the vital areas of Khamis Mushait, Saudi Arabia, tourist destination (TD), commercial zone (CZ) and their smaller districts to examine how English is used on the shop, street, road and billboard signs together with investigating which language, either Arabic or English outweighed the other in the two locations, the tourist destination (TD) and the commercial zone (CZ) and their districts. A total of more than two hundred photos were collected from the two locations, yet, only 150 of them were analyzed and used. The collected data about Khamis Mushait was quantitatively analyzed. These methods were similar to Ben-Raefel (2006) and Backhaus (2007). The findings revealed that the Arabic language was entirely dominant in the Tourist Destination and its smaller districts, while the commercial zone appeared to be affected by globalization which means that English was used more often in the CZ. Despite this, analysis showed that Arabic still dominated the commercial zone (CZ) .
    • Linguistic Landscape on Campus: Asian College Students' Perceptions of Multilingual Learning Environments.

      Mahemuti, Misidoula (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2018-07)
      The purpose of this study is twofold: (1) to investigate Asian international students' perceptions of linguistic landscape on campus, and (2) to enhance the classroom environment by creating a multilingual linguistic landscape for international students at the campus which is the research setting. The researcher designed a hands-on workshop to create a warm and welcoming environment for the students. (The final product of the workshop is displayed in the hallway in one of the campus buildings.) The researcher investigated how students' motivation, attitude and cultural awareness is affected by the linguistic landscape. The research for this study was conducted with Asian international students at a public, comprehensive state university campus in the northeast United States. The data collected through the survey is analyzed quantitatively, while the interview data used vivo and pattern coding (Saldaña, 2016). The main findings from the data indicated the importance of linguistic landscape for international students. It was found that international students are aware of the multilingual linguistic landscape around them, see it as important, and believe it can be used as a tool to increase their language awareness, improve social interaction, and represent their identities.
    • Linguistic profiling in the United States.

      Lord, Lindsey G. (2015)
      Language diversity is increasing significantly across the nation and this linguistic diversification will remain a constant in the future (Reeves, 2006; US Census, 2000). With this diversity often comes discrimination towards English language learners (ELLs) and other students who do not speak Standard American English (SAE) due to the influence of their native language or dialect (e.g., African American Vernacular English, Spanish). This discrimination is called linguistic profiling and it is commonly seen in school settings (Fisher, Wallace, & Fenton, 2000; Murillo & Smith, 2011; Pachter, Bernstein, Szalacha, & Coll, 2010). Past studies have found that teachers who linguistically profile are influenced by the following areas: general education experiences, specific English as a Second Language (ESL) training, contact with diverse cultures, prior contact with ELLs, and demographic characteristics (Youngs & Youngs, 2011). The goal of this study was to determine whether linguistic profiling is occurring towards ELLs and AAVE-speakers in Western New York. Teachers with multiple certification backgrounds from two schools in Western New York were surveyed using a five-point Likert-scale. Results indicate that an increase in teachers’ educational experience and multicultural experiences make them less likely to linguistically profile. In addition, Spanish-speaking ELLs may be profiled less than those students speaking AAVE. Implications will be discussed.
    • Little Brown Bats (Myotis lucifugus): ecology of a White-nosed syndrome affected population.

      First, Melissa Conrad (2013-01-24)
      White-nose syndrome (WNS) is currently classified as an emerging disease, caused by the fungus, Geomyces destructans, currently affecting hibernating bats across the Appalachian range, into Canada and locations in the Midwest (USGS, 2011). The effects of the disease have been devastating, with bats at infected sites showing 87-95% mortality and complete loss of populations in some caves (Blehert, 2009, Frick, 2010). One of the most significant findings to date is that WNS affected bats exhibit depleted white and brown fat reserves by mid-winter and, although this is not the causal factor for development of WNS, it has been found to be the ultimate cause of bat death in affected hibernacula (Blehert, et al. 2009). In addition, studies have found that bats in White-Nose syndrome areas may be entering hibernation with lower stores of body fat, predisposing them to starvation when affected by G. destructans (Kunz, 2009). The Chautauqua Institution (CI), Chautauqua, NY is home to approximately 5,000 little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) in maternity colonies occupying the attics and crawlspaces of the 750, lakeside seasonal homes and buildings there (Neilson, 1991, Syme, 2001, this study). The population is assumed to be affected by White-Nose syndrome since approximately 30% of the bats captured from two of the colonies during the summer of 2010 exhibited White-nose syndrome type wing damage and the fungus was identified in hibernacula approximately 75 km from the (CI) the preceding winter, 2009-2010 (USGS, 2011). However, this population appears to be stable, although affected by WNS. We studied the feeding-ecology of this population to determine if there were factors contributing to increased survival in WNS affected bats that reside at the CI. We found that preferred prey (Diptera) numbers were more than adequate for reproduction and pre-hibernation fat deposition and were not affected by either precipitation levels or ambient temperature. We also found that bats exhibiting WNS type wing damage did not have significantly different body mass indices (BMI's) than their unaffected conspecifics. Bats at the CI have maintained BMI in comparison to historical data. This combined with an abundance of roosts may contribute to the stability of a WNS affected population.-- (leaf 2) The capture of large numbers of bats from given populations has been a challenge since bat trapping schemes were first devised. The two most commonly employed devices are the harp trap, utilizing a series of parallel wires to disrupt bats in flight and mist nets, borrowed from avian research, that function to entangle bats that contact it while in flight. Modifications to both have been made to increase their efficiency but both still suffer from relatively low capture rates, and can be cumbersome to use. We have constructed and utilized a trap for bats that has capture rates of between 80 and 100% when deployed at the entrances to maternity roosts of little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus). Our trap incorporates a mechanism for detaching the bag holding captured bats and attaching a new bag so that trapping can continue uninterrupted while processing of captured bats can begin. Using this trap we were able to capture 456 bats in one evening using 4 holding bags in succession. The principles used in the angle trap could be applied to larger, megachiropteran species as well as more open environments, such as flyways and feeding sites. -- (leaf 36)
    • Local teachers' and parents' perceptions of the Common Core learning standards.

      Musty, Katlynn N. (2015)
      The purpose of this phenomenological research study was to explore and understand how the Common Core Learning Standards (CCLS) affect teachers’ perceptions toward their career and parents’ perceptions toward their child’s education. This study sought to answer the following research questions: What are parents’ perceptions of the impact of the CCLS on their child’s learning? What are the teachers’ perceptions of the CCLS on their teaching? Data sources included six interviews of parents with a child in Kindergarten through seventh grade and five interviews of general education teachers of Kindergarten through fifth grade classrooms. This study concluded the Common Core Learning Standards are perceived in a generally negative manner by parents and teachers.
    • A Look into the Feelings and Perceptions of Parent-Teacher Conferences and the Effectiveness they Have

      Swank, Karen (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2018-07)
      Parent-teacher communication and relationships are an important component to student success. Parent-teacher conferences are a time for relationships to be built and to establish direct one-on-one communication. This study looks into teachers' and parents' feelings and perceptions of parent-teacher conferences in a rural school setting. The results show that there are similar feelings between both parties and suggests areas where improvements can be made. Future research could continue to examine the feelings and perceptions of parents and teachers in other areas, as well as examine the effects any improvements could have on parent-teacher conferences.
    • Mathematical estimation and its real-world application in the construction fields.

      Newcomb, David L. (2014)
      This research investigates the gap that exists between students’ skills with mathematical estimation and calculations in real-world applications, such as construction, carpentry, and masonry. The participants were asked to apply learned methods for solving area and volume problems, while expected to perform unit conversions. It was hypothesized that students with engineering backgrounds would perform better than all other college students, including mathematics and education majors. Furthermore, it was hypothesized that students would neglect to round up to estimate the amount of materials needed to complete a given project. The assessment problems were then graded on a scale from zero to five points each in order to classify the response of each student. The data generated had shown a range of eighteen points between the best and worst scores. These scores were used to evaluate students by major, age, gender, and their mathematics grades. These categories were used to predict and compute the scores which were obtained by different sub-groups of students. The study concluded that physics/Engineering students obtained the best scores. It was also noted that many participants lacked the basic mathematics skills needed to successfully compute the problems in the assessment.
    • Mentoring Program for Novice Teachers in Private Catholic School

      Sullivan, Candice (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2019-05)
      We invest in our children and young generation, as they will one day lead this country. Yet, we do not invest in our teachers. Through research it was concluded that mentoring programs for novice teachers can have a major impact on the result of high quality teachers. I report on the features of, challenges, and highlights that emerged during research and formation of the mentoring program for novice teachers. These findings conclude the vital significance of mentoring novice teachers. With the concluding points, a detailed guide was created to assist with mentoring in districts with no mentoring in place for novice teachers. There is a desperate need to provide active mentoring for novice teachers to develop into a high quality educator.
    • Microbial Source Tracking of Escherichia coli in Cassadaga Lake.

      Salerno, Damian Walter (2013-01-14)
      Beaches on Cassadaga Lake in western New York State have needed to be closed numerous times by the local health department due to high fecal coliform levels measured in water samples taken from the lake. There were beach closures in the summers of 2004 and 2006, but no closures in 2005. These closures may be due to fecal pollution from wildlife or domestic animals living near the lake or to an aging sewage treatment system used by a nearby Job Corps facility. To investigate the origins of the bacteria, a microbial source tracking project was initiated on Escherichia coli isolated from the lake. During the summers of 2005 and 2006, water samples were collected five times each season from eight different lake sites. E. coli in the water samples were isolated on selective and differential media. E. coli were also isolated from goose, dog, deer, cat, duck, cow, and human fecal samples. Genomic DNA was purified from isolated E. coli strains for analysis. Repetitive element PCR (REP-PCR) using the BOX AIR Primer and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) were performed on all isolated DNA samples. For AFLP analysis, DNA samples were digested with the restriction enzymes EcoRI and Msel. Fragments were ligated to nucleotide adapters, and the ligation products were used as templates for PCR. Preselective amplification was performed using primers for the RcoRI and Msel adapters. Selective amplification was performed using an Mse+C primer and infrared dye labeled Eco+A and Eco+C primers. The PCR products were run on a poly acrylamide gel in aLI-COR DNA analyzer which facilitated the creation of images based on detection of theIR fluorescence of the dye. Data was analyzed using GelCompar II software. A library of E. coli isolates from known sources was created in the software and unknown isolates were compared against this library using Pearson product moment correlation for identification. A total of 525 E. coli samples were isolated and analyzed in the study, of these 271 were isolated from the lake and classified as unknown and 254 were isolated from known sources. The data from both summers indicate that the geese are most likely responsible for the majority of the fecal pollution in Cassadaga Lake.
    • Middle School Reading Comprehension Strategies and Metacognition.

      Kochanski, Kiri (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2018-08)
      By the end of each school year it is the expectation that students meet the Common Core State Standards. With this expectation, students must use reading comprehension skills in order to meet these standards. The goal of this research was to understand more about the strategies students are or are not using before, during and after reading, how they are selecting these strategies and how they are using these strategies to support their reading. The research for this study was conducted with three middle school students (Grades 6-8) who were recruited from a single classroom. The participants completed a QRI-6 assessment, reading of a passage and an interview. The data collected was analyzed qualitatively using descriptive coding and thematic coding (Saldaña, 2016). The main findings of this research were that the participants were using current reading strategies used in their classrooms, using strategies to track their reading progress and that they were unable to remember prior reading experience using reading strategies.
    • Molecular and behavioral evidence suggest two distinct life histories are displayed in Smallmouth Bass (Micropterus dolomieu) in Lake Erie.

      Sard, Nicholas M. (2013-01-24)
      In Lake Erie Smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) are an ecologically and economically important species. They are a top littoral predator as well as a popular sport fish. Previous genetic research suggests bass that live and spawn solely in the lake are genetically divergent compare to bass that live and spawn in tributaries to Lake Erie (Borden and Stepien 2006 ; Borden 2008). In this study we further validate this claim by analyzing 221 individuals from several lake and tributary sites using 7 microsatellite loci. We also provide evidence that suggests there may be two different types of tributary spawning bass based on an isolation by distance statistical test. Our data indicate that there are bass that spawn for multiple years in one stream and there are others that spawn opportunistically in small tributaries throughout the lake. Based on these genetic data it has been hypothesized that these genetic differences are the result of fidelity to different spawning sites (Borden and Stepien 2006; Borden 2008). To test this hypothesis we used radio telemetry to study bass movement patterns during two consecutive spawning seasons. Bass in our study displayed a high degree of fidelity to their spawning location during both spawning seasons with 50 to 85 percent return frequencies at each location. Our results corroborate well with the genetic data published in previous studies and cumulatively these data suggests there are at least two different life histories bass display in Lake Erie.
    • Motivation of female students learning English as a foreign language at Qassim University.

      Alresheedi, Hanan (2014)
      The researcher investigated, through quantitative surveys, the types of motivation influencing 75 Female Saudi undergraduate university students to learn English in the Physical Therapy program of Qassim University, Saudi Arabia. Knowing what motivates these students would have important implications for how they are taught. The types of motivation discussed and measured were based on RC Gardner’s (1985) integrative/instrumental and Deci and Ryan’s (2000) intrinsic/extrinsic theories. The surveys incorporated Likert-style, 5 point scale, to gain insight into how much students were motivated by different types of motivation. Participants were seventy-five female students, aged 19 to 23, studying Physical Therapy in the medical department of Qassim University. Although the average scores for each type of motivation being tested were similar, the results showed that these students were primarily motivated by instrumental and intrinsic types of motivation. A discussion of the most motivating reasons to study English for each type of motivation are included, as well as the single least motivating. A description of the implications on the results for teachers of these students was included. Recommendations to increase instrumental motivations included designing classes that would be useful for students’ future lives and careers, and implementing technology into the classroom. Recommendations to increase intrinsic motivation included using student-centered learning strategies, learning more about student interests, and using a variety of teaching methods to engage students.
    • Music therapists' perceptions of the effects of environmental sound on skilled nursing facility residents with dementia.

      Bapst, Renee E. (2013-07-02)
      The purpose of this descriptive survey study was to investigate music therapists’ perceptions of environmental sound on skilled nursing facility residents with dementia. Participants (N=43) were Board-Certified Music Therapists who work, or have worked, in skilled nursing facilities, and members of the American Music Therapy Association. A total of 15 questions were devised and electronically mailed to participants. Survey questions were categorized as follows: (i) demographic information of participants; (ii) music therapists’ awareness of environmental sound (iii) what type of facility the participants currently work or have worked in with adults with dementia; (iv) environmental sounds heard regularly in facility; (v) what time of day/during what period these sounds are heard; (vi) typical behaviors of adults with dementia; (vii) perceived opinion on relationship between increase of environmental sounds and increase in resident behavior; (viii) the music therapists’ role in reducing environmental sound and the facility’s policies on this matter, or lack thereof. Results revealed that an overwhelming 81.4% (n=35) were “Very aware” of environmental sounds in their facility, while 16.3 % (n=7) were “Somewhat aware”, and only 1 (2.3%) respondent was “Not aware”. In regards to the perceived relationship of increased environmental sound and increased negative behavior, the study found that (n=1) respondent is "highly unlikely" while 14% (n=6) said the relationship is "somewhat likely", 37.2% (n=16) said likely, 44.2% (n=19) highly likely, and (n=1) respondent chose "no answer". Overall,the results favored a likely relationship between perceived increased environmental sound and increased negative behavior. This study also indicated that 83% (n=36) of participants work or have worked at facilities where there is no enforced policy on regulating the sound environment. Participants were asked to provide music therapy interventions that they use with addressing negative behaviors in adults with dementia. Limitations and implications for further research are noted.
    • Name that function!

      Terranova, Michelle (2013-01-24)
      This study explores the ability of students to produce the algebraic representation of a function given in various other representations. It is hypothesized that when tested on function recognition, mathematics majors will perform better than non-mathematics majors; however, both will perform poorly, that is below 75%. Students in four classes, two lower-level mathematics courses composed of non-mathematics majors and two upper-level mathematics courses composed of only mathematics majors, were given an eight-problem test that asked them to determine the algebraic representation of functions shown pictorially, in tables, in sequences, and graphically. This study provided evidence that mathematics majors outscored non-mathematics majors as the mean scores were 2.93/8 and 0.49/8, respectively.
    • Neurologic music therapy techniques : a systematic review of current research.

      Cowen, Brianna (2014)
      The purpose of this systematic review was to identify clinical research studying neurologic music therapy (NMT) and non-NMT techniques and identify which techniques are more commonly researched. Thaut (2008) describes NMT as the use of standardized treatment techniques as interventions that are founded on scientific research. The success of NMT is evidenced by clinical research. The techniques of NMT provide the therapeutic application of music to cognitive, sensory, and motor dysfunctions used as a method to treat neurologic disease. This systematic review identifies studies related to music therapy to support the various NMT techniques. For the purposes of this study, non-NMT music therapy articles follow similar protocol to NMT with no mention of NMT. Study questions are: (1) Which techniques are more commonly researched? (2) Is there a difference between NMT research and non-NMT research that studies the clinical effects of NMT techniques? (3) Which NMT techniques are more researched and developed after NMT was founded? And, (4) Which studies predate NMT? Conclusions revealed that several NMT techniques are minimally researched, and the author could find no clinical research using Symbolic Communication Training through Music (SYCOM). Also identified were several studies that predate the founding year (1999) of NMT. Recommendations include ongoing NMT research to further justify its effectiveness in medical settings, with attention to the least researched techniques.
    • Next Generation Sequencing Guided SNP Mapping

      Hasper, John (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2018-05)
      Oogenesis is dependent on precise translational control and localization of numerous morphogens within the oocyte to achieve faithful patterning. Gurken, (Grk) is one such protein and is responsible for specification of the dorsal/ ventral axis. Mutations in the spindle-B gene results in inefficient gurken translation due to activation of a meiotic DNA damage checkpoint. This checkpoint activation inhibits the Vasa RNA helicase, an essential grk translation factor. Without proper Gurken levels, the egg chambers develop defects, the most severe being complete ventralization. A 2004 forward genetic screen targeting the 3rd chromosome identified thirty nine unique mutants in a spn-BBU mutant background. Two of these lines had already been mapped, the other lines were screened for their ability to suppress the ventralized spn-BBU phenotype and therefore stimulate grk translation. Eggs laid by homozygotes from each of the isogenized lines were scored for their dorsal/ventral polarity and compared to those of the control group of spn-BBU homozygotes. We have taken advantage of a next-generation sequencing approach to identify candidate mutations in 10 independent lines from a forward genetic screen for regulators of dorsal ventral patterning during Drosophila oogenesis. Through a partnership with Roswell Park Cancer Institute in Buffalo, NY, the best suppressor lines were subject to whole-genome re-sequencing using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. A large scale mapping experiment was started, creating recombinant flies for six of the lines. After multiple universal markers were developed to distinguish these chromosomes from the mapping line, a focus was placed on one of the suppressor lines, CA231. A previous mapping experiment on this line placed the mutation toward the end of the right arm. A higher density map was made for this area. The screen was limited by the number of recombinants that showed variation in this area. While the causative mutation has yet to be found, the pool of candidate mutations has been vastly diminished. Furthermore, additional focused mapping projects have been started from the recombinants made in this experiment, using a subset of the markers that are shared with CA231 as a starting point.