• Derivatives as a rate of change.

      Constantinou, Suzanne C. (2014)
      This study examines college students’ misconceptions regarding the concept of a derivative. During this study, students completed an eight-problem assessment on the topic of calculus, more specifically derivatives. Students were instructed to complete each problem to the best of their ability and to show work when necessary. The instrument was created with the APOS (Action, Process, Object, Schema) model in mind. The scores for each problem were recorded and compared to a survey that students answered reporting on which problems they felt were the easiest and the hardest to answer. The results of the study indicated that students had mastered some levels of APOS. Additional results acknowledged that there was no statistically significant difference among course, gender, and GPA.
    • Desiring discourse.

      Krenzer, Kimberly A. (2013-07-08)
      Until 1975, the American Psychological Association considered homosexuality a mental illness. Since then, the attitude toward LGBT citizens has been slowly shifting. We cannot deny the fact that there is still a struggle for basic, civil rights. Today, marriage equality is a hotly contested issue. Though American society has made several progressive steps, in a relatively short period of time, lingering inequalities infect our population’s attitude toward LGBT Americans. It can be argued that this issue stems from the social construction of gender and heterosexuality. Society adheres to certain cultural inscriptions that create binaries and implement guidelines for how men and women should act. This creates a heteronormative hegemony that severely affects the way LGBT individuals are treated. Society’s attitude places women and homosexuality into categories as social minorities, despite women’s numerical majority. Several forms of media constantly demonstrate these ideas, further engraining them into our minds. The media is a notorious perpetrator of this regulation. Television is a highly consumed commodity and its treatment of minority groups, especially women and LGBT citizens, has been far from true. As a self-identified lesbian, I assert that our voice is the most effective tool we have in activism. We must work toward creating a new discourse that challenges the current social script; one that affirms female same sex sexuality. My research is focused on how queer affirmative language should be distributed among a wide range of demographics, specifically within the context of American prime time broadcast network television.
    • Development of a theory of elder music therapy as integral aging.

      O'Reilly, Caitlin Marie (2013-03-27)
      As our elderly population increases, more music therapists will be providing services to the elderly in a variety of settings: community-based programs, skilled nursing facilities, and assisted living facilities. Our society takes a dim view of aging, attempting to perpetuate youthful activities and physical appearance. There is little in the literature connecting music therapy with the field of gerontology, and even less on the connection between music and spirituality. This thesis is an attempt to fill these gaps, and to provide a starting point for music therapists so they can begin to examine their own philosophies and theories of music therapy and the elderly. The purpose of this thesis is to describe the journey of one music therapist's process in developing a theory of elder music therapy. The researcher provides a survey of music therapy literature describing music therapy research with the well- and unwell-elderly; an examination of Erikson's theory of human development and the aging theories of activity, disengagement, continuity, successful aging, and gerotranscendence; and a discussion of aging and spirituality. The researcher discusses a model of integral aging and the role of music and spirituality in the context of developing a theory of elder music therapy. Implications for music therapists are discussed.
    • Disproportionate representation of English Language Learners in special education.

      Peterson, Sarah G. (2015)
      The disproportionate representation of English language learners (ELLs) in special education has been a persistent issue in the United States. This study examined Western New York teachers’ views of disproportionate representation, factors that influence disproportionate representation, and practices to help reduce the over representation of ELLs in special education. Eight teachers were interviewed in person at three different school districts. In addition, this study explored the extent of dis-proportionality in the identification and placement of ELLs in the learning disability, intellectual disability, and speech or language impairment categories in Chautauqua County, New York. The relative risk ratio was used to analyze the results. The results indicated that assessment practices, bilingual assessments, instructional factors, referral procedures, teachers’ beliefs and attitudes, teacher training, and low socioeconomic status are all factors that influence disproportionate representation. The results also indicated that there are a variety of strategies and practices that can help reduce disproportionate representation. Some of these practices include more training, more differentiated instruction, better bilingual programs and education, more positive attitudes and expectations when working with English language learners, and the use of various formal and informal assessments. Further, the results indicated that there is an over-representation of English language learners in the intellectual disability category, an under representation of English language learners in the speech or language impairment category, and a proportionate representation of English language learners in the learning disability category. Implications are discussed with regards to teachers and their classroom practices when administering assessments and providing instruction to English language learners.
    • Division Misconceptions in the Middle School Mathematics Classroom.

      Taylor, Sarah J. (2013-01-25)
      No author abstract.
    • Do extracurricular activities promote better academic performance and heightened sense of school connectedness in college athletes

      Champoux, Kristen (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2016)
      Extracurricular activities allow students to express themselves in a non-academic manner but oftentimes have a positive correlation to academic performance. Extracurricular activities can also provide the students with an added incentive to be in school and enjoy the school experience. This research study was conducted on 18 students between the ages of 18 and 22 from a small liberal arts institution in western New York. The 18 participants are all members of the universities swimming and diving program. Grade point averages were compared from the Spring 2015 semester (when the participants were not highly involved in extracurricular activities) to the Fall 2015 semester (when the participants were highly involved in extracurricular activities). A questionnaire was also administered using both a Likert scale and open ended questions. The results of the study showed a 0.22 increase on average for the participants' GPA from the Spring to the Fall semesters. This information along with the data from the questionnaires showed that students performed better during the semester that they were heavily involved in extracurricular activities. Also, as a result the participants felt more connected to the university though their participation in extracurricular activities. [from author's abstract]
    • Does improvement of multiplication fluency improve fifth graders' overall Math achievement?

      Jackson Jr., Ralph E. (2014)
      New federal common core standards adopted by New York State require students to master rigorous material at earlier grades than previously. It is a concern for teachers that without a strong foundation in math fact fluency students will not be able to master the demands of the new curriculum. A study involving 10 and 11-year-old students, at a rural elementary school district, was conducted to determine how students’ math fact multiplication fluency, for numbers 0-10, affected their overall math achievement. Students’ math achievement was based on pre and post intervention STAR test results. The acronym STAR originally stood for the Standardized Test for the Assessment of Reading, but the Renaissance Learning has since expanded into the area of math. The study combined multiple intervention strategies to re-mediate the students with the lowest scores on STAR and/or multiplication fluency testing. Results of this study indicated that the interventions used were successful and that the students who received these interventions also showed significant growth in their overall math achievement based on STAR test results.
    • Does the quality of rival song affect the structure of cricket aggressive calls?

      Ladowski, Alexander (2013-01-11)
      Male crickets utilize calls prior to aggressive encounters with other males in order to gain a fitness advantage without resulting in costly physical altercation. In our study we looked at whether male house crickets (Acheta domesticus) changed specific call parameters in response to males that were perceived as being strong or weak through synthetic call playback. Our findings lend support to previous studies showing that there is a significant positive linear relationship between pulse duration and male linear size as well as condition. We also show that males do not change their call structures in response to males they perceived as strong or weak, and we offer evidence that male house crickets are actually physically constrained, and thus the signals produced are good indicators of resource holding potential (RHP).
    • Does using the interactive whiteboard assist social studies teachers in increasing the comprehension of students and increase classroom participation of middle school students in Saudi Arabia?

      Batarfi, Hanadi (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2018-05)
      In recent years, there has been increasing interest in integrating the latest technology tools into educational field with a view to improving teaching methods as well as activating the role of students as participants in the educational process in order to develop their intellectual, social and academic skills. Interactive Whiteboard is one of these latest educational tools. After reviewing the literature, the researcher found that there are few studies on this topic in the Saudi context. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of using the IWB to assist social studies teachers in Saudi Arabia to increase the comprehension of students to the curriculum and increase classroom participation in middle schools in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This study was conducted in an urban middle school in Western Saudi Arabia during the spring semester of 2018. The participants in this study were 8th grade students from the 33-middle school in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. This study's sample consisted of 30 female students all the aged of 14. The students were assigned at random with n=15 students in the experimental group in order to study the material by using interactive whiteboard technology and n=15 students in the control group in order to study the material in the traditional way. Also, the researcher designed a Likert-style survey to investigate students' opinions and attitudes towards of the using the IWB in the classroom. The researcher analyzed the results of her research question using direct observation and surveys. A comparison was made between the data of the two groups using statistical analysis. The mean and standard deviation were determined via the use of the SPSS program. The results from this study indicated that IWB technology has successfully contributed to increasing students' comprehension and to increasing classroom participation. In addition, the results indicated that there were positive attitudes towards the use of IWB in the classroom. The results also indicated the ability of IWB technology to raise the academic performance of students and to give students the opportunity to participate in the educational process through the presentation of activities, educational lessons, as well as to use some advantages of IWB such as writing on the board in order to increase students' motivation to learn and to encourage to acquire skills. [from abstract]
    • The Effect of Artificial Night Lighting on the Little Brown Bat (Myotis lucifungus).

      Alsheimer, Laura (2012-10-25)
      With increased human development, light pollution caused by artificial night lighting, has progressively become an ecological problem for a variety of species (Rich and Longcore, 2006). The concepts of light pollution and conservation are considered especially important for those species that are nocturnal. Bats, like other nocturnal species, could be at risk from the effects of artificial night lighting; however very few studies have investigated this. Depending on the surrounding environment, a bat changes it echolocation calls accordingly to avoid obstacles and also to forage for insect prey (Wund, 2006). We must consider that artificial night lighting may impact the use of echolocation in both in foraging and in orientation; changing the relative reliance on sonar and vision. We investigated the effects of light on echolocation and associated behaviors in this study. Sixteen Myotis lucifugus were captured from an attic of a resident of the Chautauqua Institution during the summer of 2010. Four randomized treatments were preformed for each bat by recording behavior and echolocation over 1 minute. Treatments were 1) 1 minute with the light off, 2) 1 minute with the light on, 3) 30 seconds light off and 30 seconds light on and 4) 30 seconds light on and 30 seconds light off. Behavioral results show significant difference in activity when the bats are exposed to a light on that then switches to lights off. This is in contrast to no significant difference in activity when the bats are exposed to a constant light treatment. We did not find differences in sonar call structure based on treatment. Our data demonstrate[s] that the little brown bat will have a slower response time to changing light conditions possibly because of the time [it] takes for light versus dark adaption, as well as their natural response to light and dark. We also suggest that the little brown bat has the ability to be plastic in their behavior as well as sonar in constant light conditions, enabling them to adjust accordingly and be successful in both sonar and behavior.
    • The effect of dialogic reading on second language acquisition, output, and literacy of migrant students in early childhood

      Barrow, Jasmine (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2018-05)
      This mixed research study addressed the research question: does dialogic reading influence migrant students' language output and literacy skills? The study was based in Western New York (WNY) and was conducted in an agriculture-based migrant center. The participants of the study were 4 years of age and were both female and male. The current literature indicated that the use of comprehensible input is beneficial to the language output of English language learners (ELLs) in both the home language and the target language. The data was collected through a series of interviews and observations using anecdotal notes and an interview protocol. The compiled data was analyzed and reported through themes and visual graphs which indicated that there was a positive correlation between the use of dialogic reading and the increased output of the target language, English. [from author's abstract]
    • The Effect of Extracts from Native Species on Invasive English Ivy Applied via Stem Injection

      Alruwaili, Munayfah (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2017-05)
      Native plants are as competitive as invasive species but may require a new strategy persist. As humans spread invasive non-native species and continue to disturb the habitats of native species the non-natives will continue to outcompete the native species. In this study, I employ a new mechanism, stem injection, to investigate allelopathic effects. English ivy stems were injected with native seed (poison ivy, goldenrod, milkweed and snakeroot) extract and goldenrod leaf, roots and entire plant extract. Native extracts significantly inhibited English ivy growth, especially roots. Native seed extract also, inhibited radish and lettuce germination. Allelopathy is one hypothesis to explain this relationship between native and invasive species.
    • The Effect of Home Literacy Practices on Emergent Literacy Skills

      Gangi, Ashley (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2018-08)
      If we want students to succeed and reach high levels of achievement in their reading abilities, it is important to recognize the development of emergent literacy skills in young children and their effect on later reading success. It is also important to recognize one way to develop these emergent literacy skills is through home literacy practices. Home literacy practices have a positive impact on children's emergent literacy skills prior to starting kindergarten and therefore having a positive effect on later reading success. A free, user-friendly website was created to share this information and research-based strategies with parents and families of young children, in hopes that it will create a positive effect on children's later reading success.
    • Effective classroom environments for students with disabilities and those prenatally exposed to drugs and alcohol

      Manzella, Dawn (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2017-05)
      This study's aim was to investigate teachers' and parents' perceptions of characteristics of effective learning environments in a small rural county in Western New York for students in elementary school with disabilities or an individualized education plan (IEP), including children who have been prenatally exposed to drugs and alcohol. The second purpose is to investigate how these classroom environments contribute to students' social/emotional and sensory development. My main questions are, what are elementary teachers' and parents' perception of the characteristics of an effective learning environment for young children with disabilities or an individualized education plan (IEP), specifically children prenatally exposed to drugs and alcohol? The participants were Kindergarten and first grade students in a special education classroom from a rural elementary school in western New York. The study was comprised of qualitative research including interviews with my participant's teachers and families. The quantitative research including an observation scale of participant behavior and classroom environment. The results were then compared to the appropriate information found within the literature review. The results indicated a specific need for appropriate classroom environments with the use of sensory and social/emotional interventions. The students responded positively the routine, schedules, and classroom set up put forth by the classroom teacher. The classroom was arranged for optimal student success. [from author's abstract]
    • Effective strategies for speakers of a LOTE in an Elementary general education classroom

      Mcllwain, Courtney (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2016)
      This research focuses on effective strategies used for speakers of a language other than English (LOTE) in an elementary general education classroom. It also addresses the need for teacher preparation courses for English language learners (ELLs). During the research study qualitative data was used, such as observations and interviews, to collect results related to the study. The researcher observed a kindergarten and a second grade classroom to collect notes on effective strategies implemented for speakers of a LOTE. These teachers were also interviewed in order to get information on preparation courses taken during college, teaching, personal research, workshops, etc. The results show that the use of visuals and gestures are effective strategies to use for ESL students in a general education classroom. The results also demonstrate a need for more ESL preparation courses at colleges and universities.[ from author's abstract ]
    • Effective strategies for teaching content vocabulary to English Language Learners

      Brightman, Kerri A. (2015)
      The number of English language learners (ELLs) enrolled and being educated in schools in the United States is increasing. At the same time, there is greater accountability for the academic performance of ELLs, but they continue demonstrate poor performance in content areas such as Math and English Language Arts (ELA). This case study examined the preparedness for and the effectiveness of the instructional strategies being used by a group of 8th grade math and ELA teachers when teaching their content vocabulary to ELLs. It also investigated the challenges encountered by these teachers when working with ELLs, and examined their attitudes and beliefs about having ELLs in their classrooms. Data was obtained from teachers through the use of a observations. The results determined that this group of teachers had very little experience teaching ELLs and had received negligible professional training in preparation for teaching the ELLs. The results also showed some limited use of effective instructional strategies in their classrooms, and that these teachers view their instruction as not having a positive impact on the academic development of ELLs. Implications with regard to the need for additional training and a need for future research are discussed.
    • Effectiveness and challenges of ENL instructional practices for young English language-learners

      Mangalathu, Aparna (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2017-05)
      In 2016, it was estimated by National Center for Education Statistics that there are about 4.5 million English language learners (ELLs) attending the U.S. schools. Improving the education of these students is a national educational priority. These students face many challenges when they have to learn a new language as a part of the academic requirements and policy. Seldom are teachers, who work with these students, invited to share their concerns and challenges with the decision-makers of the education policies. It is imperative to ascertain the perspectives of teachers who are such important figures in the educational lives of English language learners. This study examined the teachers' views on the effectiveness and challenges of instructional practices of ESL instruction in a school district in Chautauqua County and about the practices they employ to overcome those challenges. Seven teachers, that teach ELLs at different grade levels, were interviewed in person at the school district. In addition, the researcher also observed a few ESL (English as Second Language) classes and related assessments at the school district. The collective results in this study elaborate on the effectiveness, various challenges (social, academic, cultural, linguistic) that the teachers face while working with ELLs and how they try to overcome those challenges. [from author's abstract]
    • The effectiveness of a classroom wide incentive program to eliminate disruptive and negative behavior in the preschool setting

      Tuggle, Amanda (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2016-05)
      A classwide behavioral intervention was conducted in Lake Erie preschool to eliminate disruptive and negative behavior in the classroom. As a result of classroom dynamics constantly changing, the most important skill that a teacher must possess is effective classroom management. As a group, students were given an opportunity to earn 6 rewards throughout the day for maintaining positive behavior. Students who displayed disruptive, negative or distracted behaviors at any point during the day were given six opportunities to start over and correct their behaviors. Observational data was collected on the frequency of these behaviors during circle time and seat work time. Two independent observers recorded this data on students' behavior four separate times over a one month period. Anecdotal notes were also recorded to give the researcher insight on student behavior when a color change occurred due to undesired behaviors. In conclusion, it was determined that this intervention was an effective method in reducing disruptive, negative, and distracted behavior in the preschool classroom. [from abstract]
    • Effectiveness of the Chance Jars Game and Mystery Motivators to reduce disruptive behaviors in minority students living in poverty.

      Stephenson, Jillian K. (2015)
      Disruptive behaviors negatively affect the learning environment by taking time away from academic instruction (McKissick, 2012). Studies have indicated that these behaviors are prevalent in high risk schools, characterized by high rates of poverty among their students (Webster-Stratton, Reid, & Stoolmiller, 2008). Furthermore, 56% of students in high-poverty schools with large minority populations reported that disruptive behavior by other students get in the way of their learning (Webster et al., 2008). The current study examined the effectiveness of the “Chance Jars” game and Mystery Motivators on the disruptive behaviors of minority students living in poverty. The study was conducted in a second grade classroom in a small metropolitan school district in Western New York during afternoon mathematics and listening and learning instruction. Results of the study indicated a mean percent change of -2.6% from the first intervention phase to the second of target student disruptive behaviors during mathematics; only one target student showed a decrease of disruptive behaviors from the first intervention phase to the second during listening and learning (-23.66%). The present study was completed with a mean fidelity score of 94.05%.
    • Effectiveness of using Webquest to teach computer science to middle school students in Saudi Arabia.

      Alshammari, Adel Radhi (2015)
      This study investigated the effectiveness of using WebQuest to teach computer science to middle school students in Saudi Arabia. This research study aimed to answer the research question: How did the use of WebQuest impact first middle school Saudi students’ learning in computer science? This experimental study focused on first middle school students in two schools in Hail city in Saudi Arabia. In each of the two schools, the researcher chose 16 to 17 students by the use of a convenience sampling method. The total participants in this study were 65 boys aged between 12-13 years. The experimental group was taught computer using WebQuest while the control group was taught using traditional teaching methods. The results yielded that there was an increase in the scores when using the traditional approach and WebQuest approach. The students taught by the WebQuest had higher scores as compared to those in the group taught by the traditional approach, but the difference was not statistically significant.