• Calculator dependency and operations with exponents in an introductory college mathematics class.

      Karpie, Mabra B. (2013-10-21)
      This research explores students’ dependency on calculators particularly with exponents. Recently, students have become increasingly technology-dependent: cell phones, iPods, even calculators. It is hypothesized in this research that students will be reliant on calculators. In this study, two groups of students were given an assessment twice, once with and once without access to a calculator; the order of calculator access was changed with the groups. The students averaged better with access to the calculator, but not significantly better. In conclusion, calculators should be used limitedly in the classroom.
    • College Students' Exploration of Isomorphic Numerical and Word Percent Problems

      Tronolone, Emily (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2016-06)
      This study examines students' ability to solve percent problems when in word form versus numeric form. The work of University Pre-Calculus students was analyzed with two isomorphic assessments measuring the accuracy of the problem solution when given in word versus numerical form. It was hypothesized that college students would perform better on numerical percent problems, specifically working with discount, tax, and tip problems. Furthermore, it was hypothesized that the words would hinder the students' ability to accurately solve percent problems when in word form compared to numeric form. The results of this study prove the hypothesis to be inaccurate. In contrast to the hypothesis, students performed better on word problems versus numerical problems (p-value of 0.013) when the problem specifically dealt with discounts, tax, percent increase, and percent decrease.
    • College students' misconceptions of the order of operations.

      Joseph, Kristen N. (2014)
      This research examines the reasons why students struggle with manipulating mathematical expressions and equations when the order of operations process is necessary. It was hypothesized that students in a liberal arts mathematics course would have difficulty using the correct order of operations process when manipulating expressions and solving equations. It was also hypothesized that non-mathematics major college students would have equal difficulty solving for variables using the order of operations process. During this study, students completed a ten-problem assessment. The assessment was generated by polling professors of mathematics. Students were instructed to solve each problem, showing all work, without the use of a calculator. The score for each problem was recorded and compared to a survey that students answered reporting their confidence in using the order of operations process. The results of the study indicated that problems using different types of grouping symbols (not just parentheses) and problems involving fractions were incorrect most frequently. Additional results revealed that there was no difference in scores based on gender and year in college.
    • College Students' Performance on Isomorphic Visual vs Non-Visual Regents Level Geometry Problems

      Leitner, Dylan (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2017-09)
      This study explores students' misconceptions regarding pictorial geometry problems. Specifically, to investigate misunderstandings students experience when solving visual and nonvisual geometry problems. During this study, college students completed two identical 6-problem assessments on the topics of area, volume, and surface area. The instrument was administered several weeks apart and directly generated from past state tests: New York State Geometry Regents and Mathematics A Exams. It was hypothesized that given an assessment composed of visual and non-visual isomorphic geometry problems college students would score lower on non-visual problems. Furthermore, students would struggle most to complete volume problems compared to area and surface area problems. After analyzing the data the hypothesis was partially confirmed. The scores were compared to a survey students completed following each assessment recording their confidence on the overall exam and each problem. The results of this study indicated there was no significant difference on student scores when comparing visual and non-visual Regents geometry problems. Additional results revealed the topic that students struggled with most was volume.
    • Comparing academic achievement of students accelerated in Mathematics to their non-accelerated peers.

      Bongiovanni, Bryan (2014)
      This thesis investigated the mathematics acceleration policy of a suburban school district and its academic effects on students. This study was conducted using a comparative analysis of accelerated and non-accelerated students from two classes, and comparing and contrasting the teachers' and administrations’ beliefs about the acceleration policy. The study was performed using a mixed methodology. The quantitative portion of the study was carried out using De-identified historical data, and a teacher survey with a Likert scale. Qualitative data was collected in the form of face-to-face interviews with school administrators. The study yielded several results on the academic effects of the mathematics acceleration policy and beliefs about acceleration of the school district’s teachers and administration. Students who were accelerated in math were later able to take more advanced math courses than non-accelerated students. Accelerated students out performed non-accelerated students academically, but several non-accelerated students had similar academic achievement to their accelerated peers. Teachers and administrators reported mixed and contradicting data. Several advocated for an open acceleration policy for those few students who meet the established criteria, but also oppose the idea of expanding the current acceleration policy to include students who just missed meeting the acceleration criteria. Results indicated that the acceleration policy appeared to be executed based on the strength of tradition rather than promoting maximum access to challenging math coursework.
    • Count off by threes?

      Hamiliton, John D. (2014)
      No author abstract.
    • Creating effective homework policies in the secondary mathematics classroom.

      Johnston, Eric M. (2013-01-15)
      There has always been a great debate about whether or not homework is really needed in the classroom. Homework policies over the past 100 years have changed drastically. There is a constant battle between advocates for and opponents of homework. Together, they have created a list of positive and negative effects of homework. A review of the literature helps determine what the ideal homework policy would be in order to encourage higher student achievement, and minimize the negative impacts of homework. How do in service teachers' policies stand up against research based policies? Interviews with rural New York State teachers have determined the core components of a homework policy that most teachers have. Some not-so-common policies and researchers' key points to include in a homework policy have also been included. Homework is indeed effective, especially when it is based on research and contains the core components of an effective homework policy in the secondary mathematics classroom.
    • CSI: New York : a study of the effects of Crib Sheets on the Math Test Preparation of College Students.

      Cotton, Gregory C. (2013-01-15)
      This study examines the effects of a well thought-out crib sheet and how it influences test grades. A "Crib Sheet, " also known as a "Cheat Sheet, " is a test-taking aid in the form of a sheet of paper or note card. The students are allowed to place any information of their choice on the crib sheet, which can then be used on an exam or quiz. Students from three different classes were told by their respective teachers that they would be allowed to use a crib sheet on their next exam. The students were also informed that they could fill out an optional questionnaire following the exam on how they felt about crib sheets. The crib sheets were scored by a set rubric and compared with the test scores. On average, a crib sheet score did not have a high correlation to test score. However, for students who suffer from high anxiety, having a well thought-out crib sheet significantly contributed to a good test score.
    • Derivatives as a rate of change.

      Constantinou, Suzanne C. (2014)
      This study examines college students’ misconceptions regarding the concept of a derivative. During this study, students completed an eight-problem assessment on the topic of calculus, more specifically derivatives. Students were instructed to complete each problem to the best of their ability and to show work when necessary. The instrument was created with the APOS (Action, Process, Object, Schema) model in mind. The scores for each problem were recorded and compared to a survey that students answered reporting on which problems they felt were the easiest and the hardest to answer. The results of the study indicated that students had mastered some levels of APOS. Additional results acknowledged that there was no statistically significant difference among course, gender, and GPA.
    • Desiring discourse.

      Krenzer, Kimberly A. (2013-07-08)
      Until 1975, the American Psychological Association considered homosexuality a mental illness. Since then, the attitude toward LGBT citizens has been slowly shifting. We cannot deny the fact that there is still a struggle for basic, civil rights. Today, marriage equality is a hotly contested issue. Though American society has made several progressive steps, in a relatively short period of time, lingering inequalities infect our population’s attitude toward LGBT Americans. It can be argued that this issue stems from the social construction of gender and heterosexuality. Society adheres to certain cultural inscriptions that create binaries and implement guidelines for how men and women should act. This creates a heteronormative hegemony that severely affects the way LGBT individuals are treated. Society’s attitude places women and homosexuality into categories as social minorities, despite women’s numerical majority. Several forms of media constantly demonstrate these ideas, further engraining them into our minds. The media is a notorious perpetrator of this regulation. Television is a highly consumed commodity and its treatment of minority groups, especially women and LGBT citizens, has been far from true. As a self-identified lesbian, I assert that our voice is the most effective tool we have in activism. We must work toward creating a new discourse that challenges the current social script; one that affirms female same sex sexuality. My research is focused on how queer affirmative language should be distributed among a wide range of demographics, specifically within the context of American prime time broadcast network television.
    • Development of a theory of elder music therapy as integral aging.

      O'Reilly, Caitlin Marie (2013-03-27)
      As our elderly population increases, more music therapists will be providing services to the elderly in a variety of settings: community-based programs, skilled nursing facilities, and assisted living facilities. Our society takes a dim view of aging, attempting to perpetuate youthful activities and physical appearance. There is little in the literature connecting music therapy with the field of gerontology, and even less on the connection between music and spirituality. This thesis is an attempt to fill these gaps, and to provide a starting point for music therapists so they can begin to examine their own philosophies and theories of music therapy and the elderly. The purpose of this thesis is to describe the journey of one music therapist's process in developing a theory of elder music therapy. The researcher provides a survey of music therapy literature describing music therapy research with the well- and unwell-elderly; an examination of Erikson's theory of human development and the aging theories of activity, disengagement, continuity, successful aging, and gerotranscendence; and a discussion of aging and spirituality. The researcher discusses a model of integral aging and the role of music and spirituality in the context of developing a theory of elder music therapy. Implications for music therapists are discussed.
    • Disproportionate representation of English Language Learners in special education.

      Peterson, Sarah G. (2015)
      The disproportionate representation of English language learners (ELLs) in special education has been a persistent issue in the United States. This study examined Western New York teachers’ views of disproportionate representation, factors that influence disproportionate representation, and practices to help reduce the over representation of ELLs in special education. Eight teachers were interviewed in person at three different school districts. In addition, this study explored the extent of dis-proportionality in the identification and placement of ELLs in the learning disability, intellectual disability, and speech or language impairment categories in Chautauqua County, New York. The relative risk ratio was used to analyze the results. The results indicated that assessment practices, bilingual assessments, instructional factors, referral procedures, teachers’ beliefs and attitudes, teacher training, and low socioeconomic status are all factors that influence disproportionate representation. The results also indicated that there are a variety of strategies and practices that can help reduce disproportionate representation. Some of these practices include more training, more differentiated instruction, better bilingual programs and education, more positive attitudes and expectations when working with English language learners, and the use of various formal and informal assessments. Further, the results indicated that there is an over-representation of English language learners in the intellectual disability category, an under representation of English language learners in the speech or language impairment category, and a proportionate representation of English language learners in the learning disability category. Implications are discussed with regards to teachers and their classroom practices when administering assessments and providing instruction to English language learners.
    • Division Misconceptions in the Middle School Mathematics Classroom.

      Taylor, Sarah J. (2013-01-25)
      No author abstract.
    • Do extracurricular activities promote better academic performance and heightened sense of school connectedness in college athletes

      Champoux, Kristen (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2016)
      Extracurricular activities allow students to express themselves in a non-academic manner but oftentimes have a positive correlation to academic performance. Extracurricular activities can also provide the students with an added incentive to be in school and enjoy the school experience. This research study was conducted on 18 students between the ages of 18 and 22 from a small liberal arts institution in western New York. The 18 participants are all members of the universities swimming and diving program. Grade point averages were compared from the Spring 2015 semester (when the participants were not highly involved in extracurricular activities) to the Fall 2015 semester (when the participants were highly involved in extracurricular activities). A questionnaire was also administered using both a Likert scale and open ended questions. The results of the study showed a 0.22 increase on average for the participants' GPA from the Spring to the Fall semesters. This information along with the data from the questionnaires showed that students performed better during the semester that they were heavily involved in extracurricular activities. Also, as a result the participants felt more connected to the university though their participation in extracurricular activities. [from author's abstract]
    • Does improvement of multiplication fluency improve fifth graders' overall Math achievement?

      Jackson Jr., Ralph E. (2014)
      New federal common core standards adopted by New York State require students to master rigorous material at earlier grades than previously. It is a concern for teachers that without a strong foundation in math fact fluency students will not be able to master the demands of the new curriculum. A study involving 10 and 11-year-old students, at a rural elementary school district, was conducted to determine how students’ math fact multiplication fluency, for numbers 0-10, affected their overall math achievement. Students’ math achievement was based on pre and post intervention STAR test results. The acronym STAR originally stood for the Standardized Test for the Assessment of Reading, but the Renaissance Learning has since expanded into the area of math. The study combined multiple intervention strategies to re-mediate the students with the lowest scores on STAR and/or multiplication fluency testing. Results of this study indicated that the interventions used were successful and that the students who received these interventions also showed significant growth in their overall math achievement based on STAR test results.
    • Does the quality of rival song affect the structure of cricket aggressive calls?

      Ladowski, Alexander (2013-01-11)
      Male crickets utilize calls prior to aggressive encounters with other males in order to gain a fitness advantage without resulting in costly physical altercation. In our study we looked at whether male house crickets (Acheta domesticus) changed specific call parameters in response to males that were perceived as being strong or weak through synthetic call playback. Our findings lend support to previous studies showing that there is a significant positive linear relationship between pulse duration and male linear size as well as condition. We also show that males do not change their call structures in response to males they perceived as strong or weak, and we offer evidence that male house crickets are actually physically constrained, and thus the signals produced are good indicators of resource holding potential (RHP).
    • Does using the interactive whiteboard assist social studies teachers in increasing the comprehension of students and increase classroom participation of middle school students in Saudi Arabia?

      Batarfi, Hanadi (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2018-05)
      In recent years, there has been increasing interest in integrating the latest technology tools into educational field with a view to improving teaching methods as well as activating the role of students as participants in the educational process in order to develop their intellectual, social and academic skills. Interactive Whiteboard is one of these latest educational tools. After reviewing the literature, the researcher found that there are few studies on this topic in the Saudi context. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of using the IWB to assist social studies teachers in Saudi Arabia to increase the comprehension of students to the curriculum and increase classroom participation in middle schools in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This study was conducted in an urban middle school in Western Saudi Arabia during the spring semester of 2018. The participants in this study were 8th grade students from the 33-middle school in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. This study's sample consisted of 30 female students all the aged of 14. The students were assigned at random with n=15 students in the experimental group in order to study the material by using interactive whiteboard technology and n=15 students in the control group in order to study the material in the traditional way. Also, the researcher designed a Likert-style survey to investigate students' opinions and attitudes towards of the using the IWB in the classroom. The researcher analyzed the results of her research question using direct observation and surveys. A comparison was made between the data of the two groups using statistical analysis. The mean and standard deviation were determined via the use of the SPSS program. The results from this study indicated that IWB technology has successfully contributed to increasing students' comprehension and to increasing classroom participation. In addition, the results indicated that there were positive attitudes towards the use of IWB in the classroom. The results also indicated the ability of IWB technology to raise the academic performance of students and to give students the opportunity to participate in the educational process through the presentation of activities, educational lessons, as well as to use some advantages of IWB such as writing on the board in order to increase students' motivation to learn and to encourage to acquire skills. [from abstract]
    • The Effect of Artificial Night Lighting on the Little Brown Bat (Myotis lucifungus).

      Alsheimer, Laura (2012-10-25)
      With increased human development, light pollution caused by artificial night lighting, has progressively become an ecological problem for a variety of species (Rich and Longcore, 2006). The concepts of light pollution and conservation are considered especially important for those species that are nocturnal. Bats, like other nocturnal species, could be at risk from the effects of artificial night lighting; however very few studies have investigated this. Depending on the surrounding environment, a bat changes it echolocation calls accordingly to avoid obstacles and also to forage for insect prey (Wund, 2006). We must consider that artificial night lighting may impact the use of echolocation in both in foraging and in orientation; changing the relative reliance on sonar and vision. We investigated the effects of light on echolocation and associated behaviors in this study. Sixteen Myotis lucifugus were captured from an attic of a resident of the Chautauqua Institution during the summer of 2010. Four randomized treatments were preformed for each bat by recording behavior and echolocation over 1 minute. Treatments were 1) 1 minute with the light off, 2) 1 minute with the light on, 3) 30 seconds light off and 30 seconds light on and 4) 30 seconds light on and 30 seconds light off. Behavioral results show significant difference in activity when the bats are exposed to a light on that then switches to lights off. This is in contrast to no significant difference in activity when the bats are exposed to a constant light treatment. We did not find differences in sonar call structure based on treatment. Our data demonstrate[s] that the little brown bat will have a slower response time to changing light conditions possibly because of the time [it] takes for light versus dark adaption, as well as their natural response to light and dark. We also suggest that the little brown bat has the ability to be plastic in their behavior as well as sonar in constant light conditions, enabling them to adjust accordingly and be successful in both sonar and behavior.
    • The effect of dialogic reading on second language acquisition, output, and literacy of migrant students in early childhood

      Barrow, Jasmine (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2018-05)
      This mixed research study addressed the research question: does dialogic reading influence migrant students' language output and literacy skills? The study was based in Western New York (WNY) and was conducted in an agriculture-based migrant center. The participants of the study were 4 years of age and were both female and male. The current literature indicated that the use of comprehensible input is beneficial to the language output of English language learners (ELLs) in both the home language and the target language. The data was collected through a series of interviews and observations using anecdotal notes and an interview protocol. The compiled data was analyzed and reported through themes and visual graphs which indicated that there was a positive correlation between the use of dialogic reading and the increased output of the target language, English. [from author's abstract]
    • The Effect of Extracts from Native Species on Invasive English Ivy Applied via Stem Injection

      Alruwaili, Munayfah (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2017-05)
      Native plants are as competitive as invasive species but may require a new strategy persist. As humans spread invasive non-native species and continue to disturb the habitats of native species the non-natives will continue to outcompete the native species. In this study, I employ a new mechanism, stem injection, to investigate allelopathic effects. English ivy stems were injected with native seed (poison ivy, goldenrod, milkweed and snakeroot) extract and goldenrod leaf, roots and entire plant extract. Native extracts significantly inhibited English ivy growth, especially roots. Native seed extract also, inhibited radish and lettuce germination. Allelopathy is one hypothesis to explain this relationship between native and invasive species.