• Avifaunal Biodiversity and Land Use on Indonesia's Palau Penida Archipelago

      Abrantes, Ashlee (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2018-05)
      Understanding anthropogenic alterations to land use and their effects can inform conservation efforts in tropical biodiversity hotspots. In 2004 the Indonesian Palau Penida Archipelago, off the coast of Bali, was established as an unofficial bird reserve; however, studies of the islands’ land use and avian biodiversity were never conducted and have not been monitored. I surveyed birds across 32 transects in land use categories designated: agriculture, deforested, developed, and forest. Forest transects presented the greatest endemic species richness, but overall Shannon diversity different significantly among land use categories, particularly forested and deforested. ANOVA indicated exotic bird density was significantly higher than endemic bird density across all transects. Birds serve as a common biodiversity barometer and this study can serve to inform land use management decisions on the Archipelago and throughout reserves and protected areas throughout the tropics.
    • The Effect of Extracts from Native Species on Invasive English Ivy Applied via Stem Injection

      Alruwaili, Munayfah (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2017-05)
      Native plants are as competitive as invasive species but may require a new strategy persist. As humans spread invasive non-native species and continue to disturb the habitats of native species the non-natives will continue to outcompete the native species. In this study, I employ a new mechanism, stem injection, to investigate allelopathic effects. English ivy stems were injected with native seed (poison ivy, goldenrod, milkweed and snakeroot) extract and goldenrod leaf, roots and entire plant extract. Native extracts significantly inhibited English ivy growth, especially roots. Native seed extract also, inhibited radish and lettuce germination. Allelopathy is one hypothesis to explain this relationship between native and invasive species.