• The Effect of Artificial Night Lighting on the Little Brown Bat (Myotis lucifungus).

      Alsheimer, Laura (2012-10-25)
      With increased human development, light pollution caused by artificial night lighting, has progressively become an ecological problem for a variety of species (Rich and Longcore, 2006). The concepts of light pollution and conservation are considered especially important for those species that are nocturnal. Bats, like other nocturnal species, could be at risk from the effects of artificial night lighting; however very few studies have investigated this. Depending on the surrounding environment, a bat changes it echolocation calls accordingly to avoid obstacles and also to forage for insect prey (Wund, 2006). We must consider that artificial night lighting may impact the use of echolocation in both in foraging and in orientation; changing the relative reliance on sonar and vision. We investigated the effects of light on echolocation and associated behaviors in this study. Sixteen Myotis lucifugus were captured from an attic of a resident of the Chautauqua Institution during the summer of 2010. Four randomized treatments were preformed for each bat by recording behavior and echolocation over 1 minute. Treatments were 1) 1 minute with the light off, 2) 1 minute with the light on, 3) 30 seconds light off and 30 seconds light on and 4) 30 seconds light on and 30 seconds light off. Behavioral results show significant difference in activity when the bats are exposed to a light on that then switches to lights off. This is in contrast to no significant difference in activity when the bats are exposed to a constant light treatment. We did not find differences in sonar call structure based on treatment. Our data demonstrate[s] that the little brown bat will have a slower response time to changing light conditions possibly because of the time [it] takes for light versus dark adaption, as well as their natural response to light and dark. We also suggest that the little brown bat has the ability to be plastic in their behavior as well as sonar in constant light conditions, enabling them to adjust accordingly and be successful in both sonar and behavior.
    • The Search for the BMPl Gene in a Salamander Gene Library and the identification of Several Genes from the Library.

      Feygin, Alex Z. (2013-01-11)
      Bone Morphogenetic Protein 1 (BMP 1) functions in normal embryological development. The goal of this research was to obtain the sequence of salamander BMPl. Following sequence determination, an in situ probe for BMPJ activity would be generated to ascertain if this gene plays similar roles in Salamander limb regeneration, a system that has been demonstrated as comparable to normal embryological limb development. A Salamander eDNA library was obtained as a potential source for salamander BMPl. No BMPI sequence from this eDNA library was detected. This led to the pursuit of alternative gene sequences that could be of potential interest in the study of salamander limb regeneration. Two library recombinants were generated containing genes of potential interest to the study of salamander limb regeneration as determined by their sequence similarity to established genetic sequences. Rec9 contained an insert most similar to the Gallus gallus chondroitin sulfate N-acetlygalacosylaminyltransferase 2 gene. Rec21 most closely resembled Xenopus (Silurana) tropicalis oncomodulin.
    • Does the quality of rival song affect the structure of cricket aggressive calls?

      Ladowski, Alexander (2013-01-11)
      Male crickets utilize calls prior to aggressive encounters with other males in order to gain a fitness advantage without resulting in costly physical altercation. In our study we looked at whether male house crickets (Acheta domesticus) changed specific call parameters in response to males that were perceived as being strong or weak through synthetic call playback. Our findings lend support to previous studies showing that there is a significant positive linear relationship between pulse duration and male linear size as well as condition. We also show that males do not change their call structures in response to males they perceived as strong or weak, and we offer evidence that male house crickets are actually physically constrained, and thus the signals produced are good indicators of resource holding potential (RHP).
    • The hitchhiker's guide to linear programming.

      Spencer, Allison (2013-01-11)
      No author abstract.
    • Information content of house cricket (Acheta domesticus) songs and the evolution of multiple signals.

      Covey, Andrea J. (2013-01-11)
      Despite the extensive literature on cricket bioacoustics, little collective understanding has been established that compares the structural and functional significance of the three distinct gryllid song types: calling song, courtship song, and aggressive song. Here, we compile recent work on all three song types that underscores the importance of song in communicating aspects of male phenotype to receivers (females and rival males). In doing so, we uncover similarities and differences between both the information content of each song type and the acoustic structures through which this content is communicated. By placing these comparisons into the context of multiple signaling theory, we can begin to understand how and why male gryllids make use of multiple acoustic signals. -- Author abstract (leaf 2) Despite the extensive literature on cricket bioacoustics, little collective understanding has been established that compares the structural and functional significance of the three distinct gryllid song types: calling song, courtship song, and aggressive song. Here, we measured all three song types from a cohort of male house crickets (Acheta domesticus) throughout their natural lifespan in order to make direct comparisons of song structure and phenotypic information content between the calling, courtship, and aggressive songs. Through statistical analysis of eight acoustic parameters of song, we established that there are significant structural differences between the three song types. By looking for correlations between phenotype and song structure, we also determined the phenotypic information content present in all three house cricket songs and that the distribution of information content may differ depending on song type. This suggests that the evolutionary persistence of three song types in the gryllid family may be due to the presence of multiple messages. -- Author abstract (leaf 45)
    • A study of middle school and college students' misconceptions about solving multi-step linear equations.

      Powell, Amber N. (2013-01-11)
      This study examines the types of mistakes that students make solving multi-step linear equations. During this study, students completed a 15-problem test containing different types of multi-step linear equations appropriate for 8th graders according to the state and national mathematics standards. Students were not allowed to use a calculator. The instrument was generated by using past state tests and by polling professors of mathematics. The number of mistakes made for each mathematical property was recorded. The scores were compared to a survey that students answered reporting their confidence in solving these types of problems. The results of the study indicated that problems containing negative numbers and moving terms to the opposite side of the equal sign were incorrect most frequently among all student participants. Additional results revealed that eighth graders made more mistakes than college-level students, the types of mistakes made were different based on the grade level of the participants, males made fewer mistakes than females and there was a difference in the types of mistakes made based on gender.
    • Are you smarter than a high-schooler?

      Martin, Ashley R. (2013-01-14)
      This research examines the ability of students in introductory level college mathematics courses to recall fundamental information they learned in high school mathematics courses. During the first week of the Spring 2012 semester, students from three college mathematics classes were given a nineteen-problem quiz that consisted of problems on high school mathematics topics. Immediately following the quiz, the students were asked to complete a six question survey which was used to measure students’ prior mathematical knowledge, their outlook on mathematics, and how easily the students felt they could complete the quiz based on their ability to recall previously learned material. Results from the quiz and survey were compared and analyzed to draw conclusions. At the conclusion of this research study, it was determined that a significant difference existed in the students’ scores on individual questions based on the type of mathematics problem and a significant difference existed in the students’ total quiz scores based on their previous mathematics experience.
    • Microbial Source Tracking of Escherichia coli in Cassadaga Lake.

      Salerno, Damian Walter (2013-01-14)
      Beaches on Cassadaga Lake in western New York State have needed to be closed numerous times by the local health department due to high fecal coliform levels measured in water samples taken from the lake. There were beach closures in the summers of 2004 and 2006, but no closures in 2005. These closures may be due to fecal pollution from wildlife or domestic animals living near the lake or to an aging sewage treatment system used by a nearby Job Corps facility. To investigate the origins of the bacteria, a microbial source tracking project was initiated on Escherichia coli isolated from the lake. During the summers of 2005 and 2006, water samples were collected five times each season from eight different lake sites. E. coli in the water samples were isolated on selective and differential media. E. coli were also isolated from goose, dog, deer, cat, duck, cow, and human fecal samples. Genomic DNA was purified from isolated E. coli strains for analysis. Repetitive element PCR (REP-PCR) using the BOX AIR Primer and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) were performed on all isolated DNA samples. For AFLP analysis, DNA samples were digested with the restriction enzymes EcoRI and Msel. Fragments were ligated to nucleotide adapters, and the ligation products were used as templates for PCR. Preselective amplification was performed using primers for the RcoRI and Msel adapters. Selective amplification was performed using an Mse+C primer and infrared dye labeled Eco+A and Eco+C primers. The PCR products were run on a poly acrylamide gel in aLI-COR DNA analyzer which facilitated the creation of images based on detection of theIR fluorescence of the dye. Data was analyzed using GelCompar II software. A library of E. coli isolates from known sources was created in the software and unknown isolates were compared against this library using Pearson product moment correlation for identification. A total of 525 E. coli samples were isolated and analyzed in the study, of these 271 were isolated from the lake and classified as unknown and 254 were isolated from known sources. The data from both summers indicate that the geese are most likely responsible for the majority of the fecal pollution in Cassadaga Lake.
    • A volume conundrum : a study of high school geometry students misconceptions of volume of cylinders.

      Beck, Angela (2013-01-14)
      This research explores misconceptions of high school geometry students related to the volume of cylinders. Previous research has shown that students often have difficulties remembering the formula and visualizing the figures. This experiment asked high school students to answer problems regarding the volume of cylinders and to take a short survey on how they thought they did on the problems. These problems were then analyzed which showed that the majority of students did not remember the correct formula and that students who did not remember the formula used the circumference formula for a circle instead of the area formula or they created their own formula. From these results, it can be concluded that teachers need to emphasize remembering the basic volume formula and to read problems carefully.
    • The influence of society on the roles of African Americans, [and] Gays and Lesbians in film.

      Platt, Andrew J. (2013-01-14)
      Minorities, specifically African Americans, and gays and lesbians have been widely represented by negative stereotypes in film. These stereotypical roles have been strongly influenced by society. While these stereotypes may represent some individuals they do not represent the community as a whole. Films such as Birth of a Nation, Gone With the Wind, Imitation of Life, Foxy Brown, Chicago, Different from the Others, These Three, Victim, Making Love and Brokeback Mountain were researched and screened to determine how African Americans and the gay and lesbian individuals were portrayed. Throughout history, the roles played by these minorities have changed. How the majority of society views those minorities has been how they were represented in the films during their time. It should be the goal of Hollywood to represent minority characters with substance and not focus only on the stereotypical roles for financial profitability. More independent studios and filmmakers are needed to create positive images. These types of roles played by minorities may not change until the audiences are willing to pay to see films that have positive roles for minority characters.
    • Introduction of native tree species in sites invaded by Japanese Knotweed Taxa and a study of its affect of the seedbank.

      Toews, Hans-Peter C. (2013-01-15)
      The invasion of three closely related taxa of knotweeds: (Japanese knotweed) Polygonum cuspidatum, (giant knotweed) Polygonum sachalinensis, and their hybrid Polygonum x bohemica in riparian corridors throughout the eastern U.S. has a negative impact on native plant communities. In the study the following research objectives were addressed: 1) To determine if forms of mechanical control (cutting and tilling) could be used to allow tree saplings to become established in knotweed invaded sites. 2) To compare height and leaf number of saplings of four native tree species inside and outside of Japanese knotweed stands. 3) To compare the soil seed bank density and composition in knotweed invaded versus noninvaded sites. No significant differences were found in the growth or survival among the saplings of four native tree species across treatments. Although treatments did not significantly affect sapling growth trends showed that saplings in the tilled treatment had the greatest growth across treatments over the growing season. A longer running experiment is needed to establish any emerging patterns in the data. Significantly greater densities of seedlings were observed in non-invaded than invaded sites and significantly greater densities of native seedlings were observed in non-invaded than invaded sites. Knotweed invasion does significantly affect the seedbank.
    • Creating effective homework policies in the secondary mathematics classroom.

      Johnston, Eric M. (2013-01-15)
      There has always been a great debate about whether or not homework is really needed in the classroom. Homework policies over the past 100 years have changed drastically. There is a constant battle between advocates for and opponents of homework. Together, they have created a list of positive and negative effects of homework. A review of the literature helps determine what the ideal homework policy would be in order to encourage higher student achievement, and minimize the negative impacts of homework. How do in service teachers' policies stand up against research based policies? Interviews with rural New York State teachers have determined the core components of a homework policy that most teachers have. Some not-so-common policies and researchers' key points to include in a homework policy have also been included. Homework is indeed effective, especially when it is based on research and contains the core components of an effective homework policy in the secondary mathematics classroom.
    • CSI: New York : a study of the effects of Crib Sheets on the Math Test Preparation of College Students.

      Cotton, Gregory C. (2013-01-15)
      This study examines the effects of a well thought-out crib sheet and how it influences test grades. A "Crib Sheet, " also known as a "Cheat Sheet, " is a test-taking aid in the form of a sheet of paper or note card. The students are allowed to place any information of their choice on the crib sheet, which can then be used on an exam or quiz. Students from three different classes were told by their respective teachers that they would be allowed to use a crib sheet on their next exam. The students were also informed that they could fill out an optional questionnaire following the exam on how they felt about crib sheets. The crib sheets were scored by a set rubric and compared with the test scores. On average, a crib sheet score did not have a high correlation to test score. However, for students who suffer from high anxiety, having a well thought-out crib sheet significantly contributed to a good test score.
    • FOIL: Fencing Tool or Math Skill?

      Maloney, Daniel S. (2013-01-15)
      No author abstract.
    • The importance of sound design and its affect on perception.

      Drake, Jessica Ryan (2013-01-17)
      The purpose of this research is to clearly define the importance of sound design in film, television, and movies, with emphasis on how the audience is affected by the use of sound. Sound design is the overall aural image of a production, from pre-production to post-production. Sound designing is a process that greatly influences the outcome of a production. Sound is the secret emotional messenger in narrative Western film making and without it a film falls flat. However, to fully influence the perception of the audience, sound and visuals need to work together in a symbiotic relationship, where each element benefits from each other. Sound and picture should never compete for dominance, but in our Western visual culture, sound often fights for its right to belong. Filmmakers need to realize and fully understand the importance of sound design and how it can greatly improve their production. Without sound, narrative Western Films, only have moving pictures that are absent of depth and lack connection with the audience.
    • The positives about negatives : a study of errors and misconceptions with integer operations in adult education.

      Sadler, Joshua T. (2013-01-17)
      In this experiment two classes received instruction on integer operations. The first received instruction with the use of technology and the second class was instructed through a traditional approach. The study progressed over a one week span where students began with a five question survey to assess previous knowledge of positive and negative numbers. Following the survey, four days of instruction were provided discussing each operation as its own lesson. After the instruction, students were given a twenty question multiple choice exam that was graded for correctness. Data from the post assessment was also collected to determine if there were any persistent errors. The hypothesis pertaining to the technology enhanced teaching style out performing the traditional teaching style demonstrates there was not enough evidence, as it is clear that there is no definitive difference when comparing mean scores and p-values.