• Advanced Models and Algorithms for Self–Similar IP Network Traffic Simulation and Performance Analysis

      Radev, Dimitar; Lokshina, Izabella V. (FEI STU Bratislava, 2010)
      The paper examines self-similar (or fractal) properties of real communication network traffic data over a wide range of time scales. These self-similar properties are very different from the properties of traditional models based on Poisson and Markov-modulated Poisson processes. Advanced fractal models of sequentional generators and fixed-length sequence generators, and efficient algorithms that are used to simulate self-similar behavior of IP network traffic data are developed and applied. Numerical examples are provided; and simulation results are obtained and analyzed.
    • Against all Odds: Experiential, Collaborative and Service Teaching during the Strange Days of Remote Instruction

      Stengler, A. Erik; Johnson, Mary (2021)
      The academic year 2020/21 presented serious challenges for teaching and learning. One of the major difficulties was to maintain the standards of experiential learning despite the switch to online/dual instruction modalities and the sudden withdrawal of funds that were already allocated, precisely when there was more need of them than ever in order to create alternative experiential learning opportunities. Despite these obstacles the Science Track courses of the Cooperstown Graduate Program managed to continue to provide the experiential learning projects that are part and parcel of their curriculum, with the added value of also maintaining and cultivating the collaborations with external institutions from our surrounding communities for whom these projects are an essential service, at a time when they most needed the support that CGP is well known to provide through service teaching. The projects include the design of activities for the Wings of Eagles Discovery Center in Horseheads, NY; research on public gardens on Otsego county for the Cornell Cooperative Extension in Cooperstown, NY; the creation of an audio guide to historic buildings and sites in Little Falls, NY for the Little Falls Historical Society; and the participation in an international educational collaboration to reproduce the measurement of the circumference of the Earth by the Greek polymath Erathostenes in the 3rd century BC. All these activities could be performed in compliance with all restrictions and limitations that were in effect at any given time; most of them were carried out outdoors. We present a brief summary of these projects and a status report of our plans to make the outputs of Science Track projects like these publicly available through a dedicated public online repository.
    • Analysis of Queueing Networks in Equilibrium: Numerical Steady-State Solutions of Markov Chains

      Lokshina, Izabella V.; Lanting, Cees J. M. (IGI Global, 2020)
      Equilibria of queueing networks are a means for performance analysis of real communication networks introduced as Markov chains. In this paper, the authors developed, evaluated, and compared computational procedures to obtain numerical solutions for queueing networks in equilibrium with the use of direct, iterative, and aggregative techniques in steady-state analysis of Markov chains. Advanced computational procedures are developed with the use of Gaussian elimination, power iteration, Courtois’ decomposition, and Takahashi’s iteration techniques. Numerical examples are provided together with comparative analysis of obtained results. The authors consider these procedures are also applicable to other domains where systems are described with comparable queuing models and stochastic techniques are sufficiently relevant. Several suitable domains of applicability are proposed.
    • Analysis of Turbo Code Behavior with Extrinsic Information Transfer Charts in High-Speed Wireless Data Services

      Lokshina, Izabella V.; Zhong, Hua (IGI Global, 2017)
      This paper examines turbo codes that are currently introduced in many international standards and implemented in numerous advanced communication systems, and evaluates the process of extrinsic information transfer (EXIT). The convergence properties of the iterative decoding process, associated with a given turbo-coding scheme, are estimated using the analysis technique based on so-called extrinsic information transfer (EXIT) charts. This approach provides a possibility to predict the bit-error rate (BER) of a turbo code system with only the extrinsic information transfer chart. It is shown that extrinsic information transfer charts are powerful tools to analyze and optimize the convergence behavior of iterative systems utilizing the turbo principle, i.e., systems exchanging and refining extrinsic information. The idea is to consider the associated soft-input soft-output (SISO) stages as information processors, which map input a priori log likelihood ratios (LLRs) onto output extrinsic LLRs, the information content being obviously assumed to increase from input to output, and introduce them to the design of turbo systems without the reliance on extensive simulation. Compared with the other methods for generating extrinsic information transfer functions, the suggested approach provides insight into the iterative behavior of linear turbo systems with substantial reduction in numerical complexity.
    • Application of Integrated Building Information Modeling, IoT and Blockchain Technologies in System Design of a Smart Building

      Lokshina, Izabella V.; Greguš, Michal; Thomas, Wade L. (Elsevier, 2019)
      The Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry has not adopted digital transformation enthusiastically like other industries, for instance, manufacturing, aerospace or finance. Building Information Modeling (BIM) is an innovative technology that is considered as an opportunity for the AEC industry to move to the digital era and improve the collaboration among stakeholders by applying Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). BIM provides all required tools and automations to achieve end-to-end communication, data exchange and information sharing among collaborators. Accordingly, virtual 3D models, created by the BIM process, delivered as physical assets, monitored in real-time and managed using Building Management Systems (BMS), can adopt the Internet of Things (IoT) designs and services. However, the implementation of IoT in a highly modular environment with various moving parts and inter-dependencies between stakeholders leads to security concerns. Therefore, this paper proposes system design that employs the blockchain technology as a measure to secure and control the framework that involves integrated IoT and BIM technologies. Although this paper considers system design applied in a smart museum, the authors assume that design is generic and applicable in other building categories. For instance, this design can be implemented in the ongoing Alumni Hall renovation project at State University of New York College at Oneonta.
    • Biologically normal sleep in the mother-infant dyad

      Rudzik, Alanna E. F.; Ball, Helen L. (Wiley, 2021)
      Objectives: We examine infant sleep from evolutionary, historico‐cultural, and statistical/epidemiological perspectives and explore the distinct conceptions of “normal” produced by each. We use data from the “Sleeping Like a Baby” study to illustrate how these perspectives influence the ideals and practices of new parents. Methods: The “Sleeping Like a Baby” study investigated maternal–infant sleep in north‐east England. Sleep data for exclusively breastfeeding (EBF) and formula‐feeding (EFF) dyads were captured every 2 weeks from 4 to 18 weeks postpartum through actigraphy and maternal report. Mothers also reported their infant sleep ideals and practices. Results explore objective and maternally‐reported infant sleep parameters, and concordance of maternal ideals and practices with public health guidance. Results: Comparison of sleep measures showed that mothers overestimate infant sleep duration compared with actigraphy; EFF mothers' reports were significantly more inaccurate than those of EBF mothers. For infants moved to a separate bedroom, maternally‐reported sleep increases were not borne out by actigraphy. Across the study period, concordance of maternal ideal sleep location with public health recommendations occurred on average for 54% of mothers, while concordance in practice fell from 75% at 4–8 weeks to 67% at 14–18 weeks. Discordance for EBF dyads occurred due to bedsharing, and for EFF dyads due to infants sleeping in a room alone. Conclusions: Beliefs about “normal” infant sleep influence parents' perceptions and practices. Clinical and scientific infant sleep discourses reinforce dominant societal norms and perpetuate these beliefs, but biological and evolutionary views on infant sleep norms are beginning to gain traction with parents and health practitioners.
    • Bringing Social Studies alive for Elementary Education Majors

      Jakubowski, Casey (2021)
      NCSS, and other organizations concerned with civic education have announced, researched and reported that social studies is one of the least taught core four subjects in elementary school. As Elementary Education majors are weeded, screened, tested, and valued based upon literacy and numeracy skills, social studies is pushed by schools facing state accountability sanctions to the back of the priority list. Yet we have all gathered civics is crucial, and imperative in conjunction with the other four identified key social studies inquiry areas. The NCSS, and New York State have charged a new course, with the C3 (College, career and civics life) standards at the national level, and the new New York State Common Core Learning Standards aligned social studies frameworks, designed to refresh the New York State 2001 state learning standards frameworks. While the legislation, Commissioner’s regulations, and secondary testing elements of the Regents exams in Global History and Geography as well as the United States History and Geography exams weigh heavily on secondary teachers, elementary teachers found conflict with the demands of ELA and math, and limited time during the day. Further, Elementary Education majors, when surveyed, found social studies one of the least interesting subjects, and often were, in their own opinions, unprepared to teach classes after the General Education courses required for a bachelor's degree. This research is based on action research of my own instruction into the Inquiry Design Method (IDM), pioneered by the C3 teachers. Essentially, the practice asks teachers to engage their students in “big ideas” and “big questions” by deep diving into events and happenings which dramatically impact the narrative created for social studies. I take this a step further, and ask my students in methods classes to focus on the love of investigation. Over the course of the semester, we have examined how the social studies K-6 frameworks intersect with other disciplines, and their cross curricular integration and purpose. I describe this work in my now under contract work Engaging the Citizenry (Edumatch 2022). As a class we investigate centers, designed around the five senses. We examine how family histories are part of the “Grand narrative” of the past. We implemented a living history day comparing tools, cooking, and shelter of different time periods from the Paleolithic to the Civil War. As a class, we remember that subjects should not be isolated, and that the “core four” create the scaffold for every learning experience each student has. In this day and age of information overload, we stop, and we reflect on critical questions: Why do you think? What do you wonder? How can we investigate?
    • “The Carrels are Essential”: An Investigation of Faculty Study Spaces at a Mid-Size State College

      Hendley, Michelle (Elsevier, 2019-01)
      Are dedicated study spaces for faculty still essential in academic libraries in the digital age? The results of a survey of faculty who use the library’s locked study carrels at a state college suggest two important discoveries. First, faculty continue to desire these spaces. Second, these spaces appear to facilitate faculty research. The college is a mid-size, liberal arts and sciences state institution located in rural New York State.
    • Casting the Bucket and the Ballot: African American Voters in the Booker T. Washington Era 1890-1910

      Ashford, Evan Howard; Bonilla, Maria Solis (2021)
      Although the suppression and disenfranchisement narrative has been well documented, one aspect of the story remains untold, the enfranchised minority. African Americans were not immediately eliminated from the voting booth and remained a presence in Southern politics. Voter suppression and disenfranchisement plagued African American voting during the 19th century’s last decade and the 20th century’s first decade. Mississippi’s 1890 constitutional convention specifically targeted the state’s African American voters instituting new voter registration and voting requirements that included a literacy test, understanding clause, and poll tax. Mississippi revolutionized Southern politics as several Southern states followed Mississippi’s model and drafted new state constitutions or amended existing constitutions to severely impair or remove African Americans from the voting arena. The question that historians have not explored is, how did the African American voting class survive the first voter suppression/disenfranchisement wave and how did Southern whites respond? African American gains in education and landownership positioned them to thwart voting hurdles that Southern legislatures designed based on assumptions pertaining to deficiencies in African American literacy, stability, and wealth accumulation. The continued African American presence in the political arena forced Southern whites to create new ways to maintain and cement their racial supremacy. Literacy test and poll taxes underestimated the African American education and land movements existing within the African American community during slavery and following emancipation. The rise of the rural working and middle class created an independent black proletariat capable of controlling their own financial destinies. Despite state constitutions reflecting anti-fourteenth and fifteenth amendment sentiments, there remained an African American voting class which Southern whites had to contend. Casting the Bucket and the Ballot: African American Voters in the Booker T. Washington Era 1890-1910 presents the African Americans who played a role in dictating late 19th century and early 20th century suffrage politics despite being in non-elected positions through biography and photography. Their continued voting presence exploited the weaknesses in the literacy test, poll tax, understanding clause, and residency requirements which Southern legislatures expended significant political capital justifying and implementing. Rather than providing a historical assessment, this work provides an encyclopedia of African American registered and actual voters during the disenfranchisement era. By demonstrating the quantity of voters, one is able to see the failed efforts of new Southern constitutions to effectively eliminate African American voters and the rebirth of African Americans in local, state, and national politics led to the creation of the white primary as the ultimate disenfranchising measure. Privatizing primary elections which dictated the terms of who could vote was the last, desperate, yet most effective, effort to achieve a white-dominated political system. The white primary represented the “second wave” of voter suppression and disenfranchisement that shaped 20th century suffrage politics culminating with the 1965 Voting Rights Act. To understanding this second wave, history must first address who were the African Americans that survived the first wave and how (in some instances) they defeated Southern racists attempts to strip African Americans of their political agency and citizenship.
    • Citation Behavior of Undergraduate Students: A Study of History, Political Science and Sociology Papers

      Hendley, Michelle (Taylor & Francis Online, 2012-08)
      The goal of this analysis was to obtain local citation behavior data on undergraduates researching history, political science, and sociology papers. The study found that students cited books and journals even with the availability of web sources; however, usage varied by subject. References to specific websites' domains also varied across subject area. Most of the top journal titles that students referenced were online and locally owned. Students cited a broader range of journal titles than predicted by the Law of Scattering and cited titles across a wide array of subject areas. This data helped identify potential gaps in the library's collection and services.
    • A classification scheme for identifying snowstorms affecting central New York State

      Hartnett, Justin J. (Wiley, 2020-11)
      The Great Lakes region experiences anomalously high seasonal snowfall totals relative to similar latitudes. Although lake‐effect snowstorms are common in this region, snowfall occurs from a variety of storm types. This study examines snowstorms in a subsection of the Lake Ontario basin to develop a classification scheme to categorize the different types of snowstorms affecting the region. From 1985 to 2015, there were 11 different snowstorm types to affect the study area. The classification system was used to assess the frequency of, and snowfall produced by the different storm types within the eastern Great Lakes region. From the classification, snowstorms were categorized as either non‐direct cyclonic storms (NDCS) or direct cyclonic storms (DCS). Lake‐effect snowstorms, a type of NDCS, were the most frequent storm (35.1% of all storms) and accounted for approximately 39.4% of the snowfall. Most lake‐effect storms (37.7%) produced moderate snowfall totals (10.2–25.3 cm), yet heavy snowfall storms (≥25.4 cm) contributed significantly (ρ ≤ .05) more to seasonal snowfall totals than lighter snowfall storms. Direct cyclonic clippers forming over high latitudes of northwestern Canada, were the most frequent DCS in Central New York (11.3% of all storms), with nearly three quarters of the storms originating over Alberta. These storms only contributed 9.2% of the seasonal snowfall in the study area, compared to 12.7% from direct cyclonic Nor'easters forming near the east coast of North America. Although Nor'easters occur less frequently than clippers, when they do occur, they tend to produce heavy widespread snowfall across the region. The classification system proposed can be modified to accommodate snow basins across the globe. Classifying snowstorms will help determine the seasonal snowfall contribution from different storms and aid in future climate predictions, as individual snowstorm types may respond differently to a warming global climate.
    • The Darkest Themes: Perceptions of Teen-on-Teen Gun Violence in Schools as Portrayed in Teen Literature

      VanSlyke-Briggs, Kjersti; Rhodes, Sarah; Turner, Jenna (Young Adult Library Services Association, 2020)
      This qualitative study examines the perceptions of librarians and teachers on the use of teen literature (also known as young adult literature [YAL] or adolescent literature in education scholarship) that portrays school shootings with teens. The researchers conducted both focus group interviews and an online Qualtrics survey to collect data, as well as group discussions from an online class for education graduate students on teen literature with school shootings as central to the plot. Both professional populations investigated supported the use of this literature with teens but lacked direct experience using literature with this subject matter and voiced a hesitancy in knowing where to begin in the selection of texts and planning for implementation.
    • Depth Perception in 2D Images

      Madden, David; Vandenplas, Devon; Baum, Jessica; Flug, Natalie; Garcia, Jonathan; Schumer, Benjamin; Maurno, Katherine; Staropoli, Mark; Tadbiri, Dina; Santos, Elio M. (2021)
      When near and far objects in two-dimensional images, are carefully aligned so that they appear to be interacting with each other, misperceived distance can lead to misperception of object size. This technique is usually referred to as forced perspective. We studied the depth perception of a small sample of college students who viewed forced perspective images and were asked to make judgements of size or the distance of objects. Some of the factors we examined included: familiar size, relative size, distance, knowledge of the metric system, binocular vision related symptoms, and the action and reactions in the pictures. Preliminary analysis showed that most participants were able to make accurate judgements of absolute size and distance, but not when asked to make comparisons of the relative size of two objects. Relative size seems to be one of the most compelling cues creating forced perspective images. Future work will include correlational analysis that can capture the relationship and strength of the each of the factors in this study.
    • Designing High Structure Courses to Promote Student Engagement

      Beck, Edward J.; Roosa, Kristen A. (Human Anatomy and Physiology Society (HAPS), 2020-08)
      While there are many strategies for increasing the inclusiveness of anatomy and physiology courses, increasing course structure is a strategy that can not only close achievement gaps for first generation and underrepresented minority students, but also increase performance for all students. High structure courses are characterized by clear learning goals, regular in-class exercises that promote student participation, and frequent out-of-class assignments that promote practice and preparation. In this article we describe ways to increase the structure of your course design and the learning environment in both face-to-face and online courses.
    • Determinants of Tubal Ligation in Puebla, Mexico

      Rudzik, Alanna E. F.; Leonard, Susan H.; Sievert, Lynnette L. (Taylor & Francis Online, 2011)
      Tubal ligation provides an effective and reliable method by which women can choose to limit the number of children they will bear. However, because of the irreversibility of the procedure and other potential disadvantages, it is important to understand factors associated with women's choice of this method of birth control. Between May 1999 and August 2000, data were collected from 755 women aged 40 to 60 years from a cross-section of neighborhoods of varying socio-economic make-up in Puebla, Mexico, finding a tubal ligation rate of 42.2%. Multiple logistic regression models were utilized to examine demographic, socio-economic, and reproductive history characteristics in relation to women's choice of tubal ligation. Regression analyses were repeated with participants grouped by age to determine how the timing of availability of tubal ligation related to the decision to undergo the procedure. The results of this study suggest that younger age, more education, use of some forms of birth control, and increased parity were associated with women's decisions to undergo tubal ligation. The statistically significant difference of greater tubal ligation and lower hysterectomy rates across age groups reflect increased access to tubal ligation in Mexico from the early 1970s, supporting the idea that women's choice of tubal ligation was related to access.
    • Dextral and Extensional Faults in the Iron Mountains, Southwest Virginia; Strain Variation in an Over-thickened Salient Wedge During Late Stage Alleghanian Collision

      Scharman, Mitchell (2021)
      Along strike strain variation related to the Alleghanian Orogeny are observed in the Iron Mountains, southwest Virginia, located in the transition between the Virginia salient and Tennessee recess. A regional scale dextral transpression fault—the E-W striking Byllesby-Falls fault system (BFFS)—is present across the Iron Mountains. Tectonic convergence direction during the later stages of the Alleghanian orogeny transitioned from an initial NW-directed transport phase to a WNW-directed transport phase (e.g. Wise, 2004). This change in tectonic transport direction introduced a lateral kinematic component into the structural corner of the orogen and was accommodated by formation of the BFFS during the later Alleghanian stage. Additionally, there are 2 populations of mesoscale normal faults observed in Iron Mountains: 1) faults orthogonal to BFFS with purely normal slip motion, and 2) faults parallel to the BFFS with either oblique normal slip or alternating between normal and dextral slip motion. The first normal slip fault population is appropriately oriented to accommodate tangential extension along the BFFS during oblique convergence in the structural corner. The second normal fault population may have formed to accommodate extension in response to an over-steepening orogenic wedge as it exceeded critical taper angle. However, this normal fault population also accommodated dextral motion within the salient wedge. These fault populations in the Iron Mountains indicate that extension and dextral transpression motion were simultaneously active components and record three-dimensional structural processes in the salient wedge during the last stage of Alleghanian collision.
    • Dietary Differences among Light vs. Heavy Smokers from the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer (ATBC) Prevention Study Cohort

      Virk-Baker, Mandeep; Weinstein, Stephanie; Parascandola, Mark; Albanes, Demetrius (2021)
      Background: Smokers tend to have a poorer diet as compared to non-smokers. Less is known about dietary differences between light vs. heavy smokers. The purpose of this study is to evaluate reported dietary intake by the level of smoking and its link to cancer mortality. Methods: Using data from the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study, we evaluated dietary intake among light vs. heavy smokers in Finnish male smokers, aged 50 - 69 years. We analyzed the association of these dietary intakes with cancer mortality and survival for the cohort participants. Out of 27,111 participants, 17,300 (63.8%) reported smoking ≥ 20 cigarettes/day and were classified as heavy-smokers, and 9,811 (36.2%) reported smoking ˂ 20 cigarettes/day and were classified as light-smokers. Dietary data were collected at the baseline using a detailed Food Frequency Questionnaire. Cancer deaths were ascertained until 2016 using the Finland Cancer Registry. Results: Reported intakes of cereal (212.13 ± 0.67 vs. 221.78 ± 0.84 g/day; p ˂ 0.00001), vegetables (110.91 ± 0.54 vs. 118.29 ± 0.71 g/day; p ˂ 0.00001), fruits (209.91 ± 1.48 vs. 232.44 ± 1.98 g/day; p ˂ 0.00001), and total dietary fiber (18.44 ± 19.29 g/day; p ˂ 0.00001) were significantly lower among heavy-smokers as compared to light-smokers. Reported intakes of red meat (73.14 ± 0.27 vs. 68.04 ± 0.32 g/day; p ˂0.00001), processed meat (78.10 ± 0.47 vs. 69.44 ± 0.54 g/day; p ˂ 0.00001), dairy products (737.23 ± 3.06 vs. 719.42 ± 3.74 g/day; p ˂ 0.0001), coffee (640.56 ± 2.80 vs. 549.23 ± 3.13 g/day; p ˂ 0.00001), and alcohol (20.55 ± 0.18 vs. 13.50 g/day; p ˂ 0.00001) were significantly higher among heavy-smokers as compared to light-smokers. Conclusions: Dietary intake varies significantly by the level of smoking and heavy-smokers have poorer intakes as compared to light-smokers. The observed dietary differences have important implications for cancer prevention and control efforts, suggesting a need to incorporate dietary components into tobacco cessation interventions. Funding: This research was supported in part by the Intramural Research Program of the NIH and the National Cancer Institute. Additionally, this research was supported by U.S. Public Health Service contracts N01-CN-45165, N01-RC-45035, N01-RC-37004, HHSN261201000006C, and HHSN261201500005C from the National Cancer Institute, Department of Health and Human Services. Disclaimer: The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
    • Discovering data discrepancies during deselection: a study of GreenGlass, Aleph, and due date slips circulation data

      Hendley, Michelle (Taylor & Francis Online, 2019-07)
      Amid a weeding project, librarians at a state college suspected GreenGlass’s circulation data was inaccurate. This study compared GreenGlass’s and Aleph’s circulation statistics for a random sample of books. It also determined if GreenGlass’s list of books with zero uses included curriculum related works using keyword searching. The study compared GreenGlass’s and due date slips’ circulation data for curriculum related titles. Some GreenGlass circulation data was erroneous. Additionally, curriculum related books that circulated were on GreenGlass’s zero use list. The study’s results helped retain pertinent titles and highlighted the inadequacy of relying exclusively on circulation data to weed monographs.
    • Discrepancies in maternal reports of infant sleep vs. actigraphy by mode of feeding

      Rudzik, Alanna E. F.; Robinson-Smith, Lyn; Ball, Helen L. (Elsevier, 2018-09)
      Objectives: Many studies of infant sleep rely solely on parentally-reported data, assuming that parents accurately report their infant's sleep parameters. The objective of this paper is to examine whether night-time sleep parameters of exclusively breastfed or exclusively formula-fed infants differ, and whether correspondence between parental reports and objective measures varies by feeding type. Methods: Mother-infant dyads intending to breastfeed or formula-feed exclusively for 18 weeks were recruited. Mothers were multiparas and primiparas, aged between 18 and 45 years. Infants were full-term, normal birthweight singletons. Maternal report and actigraphic data on infant sleep were collected fortnightly, from four to 18 weeks postpartum. Data were analysed cross-sectionally using t-tests and GLM analysis to control for interaction between feed-type and sleep location. Results: Actigraphy-assessed infant sleep parameters did not vary by feed-type but parentally reported sleep parameters did. Maternal report and actigraphy data diverged at 10 weeks postpartum and discrepancies were associated with infant feeding type. Compared to actigraphy, maternal reports by formula-feeding mothers (controlling for infant sleep location) over-estimated infant's Total Sleep Time (TST) at 10 weeks and Longest Sleep Period (LSP) at 10, 12 and 18 weeks. Conclusions: These results raise questions about the outcomes of previous infant sleep studies where accuracy of parentally-reported infant sleep data is assumed. That parental reports of infant sleep vary by feeding type is particularly important for reconsidering previous studies of infant sleep development and intervention studies designed to influence sleep outcomes, especially where feed-type was heterogeneous, but was not considered as an independent variable.
    • Doublespeak: Louisa Jacobs, the American Equal Rights Association, and Complicating Racism in the Early US Women’s Suffrage Movement

      Goodier, Susan (Cornell Press, 2021)
      Members of the U.S. women’s suffrage movement, usually noted as being from the 1840s to the Nineteenth Amendment in 1920, faced many struggles related to race from the outset. Periods of close collaboration between Black and white activists have been punctuated by longer periods with virtually no cooperation between them. Turning our attention to Lou- isa Jacobs, the daughter of the once-enslaved Harriet Jacobs (author of Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl), helps us unpack racial cooperation—and the lack thereof—in the years immediately following the Civil War.