The School of Education, Human Ecology, and Sports Studies offers vibrant, nationally accredited programs with an emphasis on practical experience. In addition to our many undergraduate programs, we offer over a dozen graduate programs, including the M.S. in Nutrition and Dietetics, offered entirely online; and M.S. degrees in School Counseling, Special Education and Literacy Education, Educational Technology Specialist (K-12) (online).

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  • Is Gamification a Curse or a Blessing? Teacher and Student Perspectives About the Use of Blooket in a High School Classroom

    Nappe, Olivia (2023)
    The action research study was conducted to understand how the use of Blooket in high school science classrooms impacts the learning environment. After implementing the specific software into my classroom, I have questioned the value of the integration of such a program as a result of student behavior. In other words, I was looking to investigate whether this gamification detracts from the lesson objective or supports it. This was completed among seventeen, ninth-grade Earth Science students at a suburban New York high school. A total of five science teachers participated in the study as well. After collecting data, three themes were established with the research questions in mind. These themes focused on the various opinions derived from perspectives of both the students and the teachers. Based on the findings and developed themes, I have come to the recommendation of avoiding certain game modes that instigate competitive nature and are found to lead to negative behavior that further disrupts the learning environment.
  • Perspectives of Teachers Working in a Virtual School Environment in Upstate New York

    Waters, Valerie (2023)
    The COVID-19 pandemic caused many changes for schools and students. Many schools had to make temporary accommodations to continue instruction virtually during periods of quarantine. Despite the return to in-person learning for many schools, options for virtual learning are becoming more popular. However, there is a lack of professional training for virtual teaching. In addition, there is very little literature on virtual schools, which is needed as virtual K-12 schools become more popular. The purpose of this study was to understand the perspectives of teachers working at the New York Public Virtual Learning Academy (PVLA). This study utilized open-ended questionnaires and interviews of 16 teachers working at the PVLA. Data was organized via reduction into codes and themes. This study found that while many participants described virtual teaching as a positive experience, yet there are a few areas in need of more preparation. This study suggests that with the right support and preparation, virtual teaching can be a viable option for many teachers.
  • Money Gone Up in Smoke: The Tobacco Use and Malnutrition Nexus in Bangladesh

    Husain, Muhammad Jami; Virk-Baker, Mandeep; Parascandola, Mark; Khondker, Bazlul Haque; Ahluwalia, Indu (Ubiquity Press, 2017)
    Background: The tobacco epidemic in Bangladesh is pervasive. Expenditures on tobacco may reduce money available for food in a country with a high malnutrition rate. Objectives: The aims of the study are to quantify the opportunity costs of tobacco expenditure in terms of nutrition (i.e., food energy) forgone and the potential improvements in the household level food-energy status if the money spent on tobacco were diverted for food consumption. Method: We analyzed data from the 2010 Bangladesh Household Income and Expenditure Survey, a nationally representative survey conducted among 12,240 households. We present 2 analytical scenarios: (1) the lower-bound gain scenario entailing money spent on tobacco partially diverted to acquiring food according to households' food consumption share in total expenditures; and (2) the upper-bound gain scenario entailing money spent on tobacco diverted to acquiring food only. Age- and gender-based energy norms were used to identify food-energy deficient households. Data were analyzed by mutually exclusive smoking-only, smokeless-only, and dual-tobacco user households. Findings: On average, a smoking-only household could gain 269-497 kilocalories (kcal) daily under the lower-bound and upper-bound scenarios, respectively. The potential energy gains for smokeless-only and dual-tobacco user households ranged from 148-268 kcal and 508-924 kcal, respectively. Under these lower- and upper-bound estimates, the percentage of smoking-only user households that are malnourished declined significantly from the baseline rate of 38% to 33% and 29%, respectively. For the smokeless-only and dual-tobacco user households, there were 2-3 and 6-9 percentage point drops in the malnutrition prevalence rates. The tobacco expenditure shift could translate to an additional 4.6-7.7 million food-energy malnourished persons meeting their caloric requirements. Conclusions: The findings suggest that tobacco use reduction could facilitate concomitant improvements in population-level nutrition status and may inform the development and refinement of tobacco prevention and control efforts in Bangladesh.
  • Development and calibration of a dietary nitrate and nitrite database in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study

    Inoue-Cho, Maki; Virk-Baker, Mandeep; Aschebrook-Kilfoy, Briseis; Cross, Amanda J.; Subar, Amy F.; Thompson, Frances E.; Sinha, Rashmi; Ward, Mary H. (Cambridge University Press, 2015-12)
    Objective: Nitrate and nitrite are probable human carcinogens when ingested under conditions that increase the formation of N-nitroso compounds. There have been limited efforts to develop US databases of dietary nitrate and nitrite for standard FFQ. Here we describe the development of a dietary nitrate and nitrite database and its calibration. Design: We analysed data from a calibration study of 1942 members of the NIH-AARP (NIH-AARP, National Institutes of Health-AARP) Diet and Health Study who reported all foods and beverages consumed on the preceding day in two non-consecutive 24 h dietary recalls (24HR) and completed an FFQ. Based on a literature review, we developed a database of nitrate and nitrite contents for foods reported on these 24HR and for food category line items on the FFQ. We calculated daily nitrate and nitrite intakes for both instruments, and used a measurement error model to compute correlation coefficients and attenuation factors for the FFQ-based intake estimates using 24HR-based values as reference data. Results: FFQ-based median nitrate intake was 68·9 and 74·1 mg/d, and nitrite intake was 1·3 and 1·0 mg/d, in men and women, respectively. These values were similar to 24HR-based intake estimates. Energy-adjusted correlation coefficients between FFQ- and 24HR-based values for men and women respectively were 0·59 and 0·57 for nitrate and 0·59 and 0·58 for nitrite; energy-adjusted attenuation factors were 0·59 and 0·57 for nitrate and 0·47 and 0·38 for nitrite. Conclusions: The performance of the FFQ in assessing dietary nitrate and nitrite intakes is comparable to that for many other macro- and micronutrients.
  • Healthcare and Wellness Practitioner Confidence in Provision of Nutrition Education and Use of Evidence-Based Nutrition Resources

    Riddle, Emily; Kennedy, Caroline; Snow, Cassandra; Barre, Laura (Oxford AcademicAmerican Society for Nutrition, 2022-06)
    Objectives: Differences in messaging from healthcare and wellness practitioners can lead to consumer confusion and mistrust in nutrition. The regular use of evidence-based nutrition resources by practitioners could improve consistency in patient education. The confidence registered dietitians (RDNs) and non-RDN practitioners have in providing nutrition education and the use of evidence-based nutrition resources in patient education is not known. Objectives: 1) To evaluate how confident RDN and non-RDN practitioners are in providing nutrition education, and 2) to evaluate RDN and non-RDN use of evidence-based nutrition resources.
  • The Effects of Explore Learning’s Math and Science Simulations on Student Engagement in a Rural High School

    Pannizzo, Brittny (2022)
    Students across the nation struggle to build a conceptual understanding of scientific phenomena. The complexity of scientific concepts is difficult for students to understand, and students struggle to visualize the processes that are taught in science. New approaches that incorporate digital simulations can be used to enhance student learning of biological processes. However, more research is needed to understand how digital simulations can be used in the classroom to improve student engagement, and ultimately improve student learning. This qualitative study invited secondary teachers at rural high school who use Explore Learning’s digital simulations to teach math and science concepts. The teacher participants completed an online questionnaire which asked them to share their perspectives and opinions of Explore Learning’s simulations and how it effects student engagement. Findings suggest that Explore Learning Math and Science Gizmos increases student engagement. Based on these findings, the student researcher suggests that further research be conducted to test the effect Explore Learning's digital simulations on students' engagement when learning in math and science.
  • The crowding-out effect of tobacco expenditure on household spending patterns in Bangladesh

    Husain, Muhammad Jami; Datta, Biplab Kumar; Virk-Baker, Mandeep; Parascandola, Mark; Khondker, Bazlul Haque (PLOS, 2018-10)
    Background: Tobacco consumption constitutes a sizable portion of household consumption expenditure, which can lead to reduced expenditures on other basic commodities. This is known as the crowding-out effect. This study analyzes the crowding-out effect of tobacco consumption in Bangladesh, and the research findings have relevance for strengthening the tobacco control for improving health and well-being. Methods: We analyzed data from the Bangladesh Household Income and Expenditure Survey 2010 to examine the differences in consumption expenditure pattern between tobacco user and non-user households. We further categorize tobacco user households in three mutually exclusive groups of smoking-only, smokeless-only, and dual (both smoking and smokeless); and investigated the crowding-out effects for these subgroups. We compared the mean expenditure shares of different types of households, and then estimated the conditional Engel curves for various expenditure categories using Seemingly Unrelated Regression (SUR) method. Crowding-out was considered to have occurred if estimated coefficient of the tobacco use indicator was negative and statistically significant. Results: We find that tobacco user households on average allocated less in clothing, housing, education, energy, and transportation and communication compared to tobacco non-user households. The SUR estimates also confirmed crowding-out in these consumption categories. Mean expenditure share of food and medical expenditure of tobacco user households, however, are greater than those of tobacco non-user households. Albeit similar patterns observed for different tobacco user households, there were differences in magnitudes depending on the type of tobacco-use, rural-urban locations and economic status. Conclusion: Policy measures that reduce tobacco use could reduce displacement of commodities by households with tobacco users, including those commodities that can contribute to human capital investments.
  • Role of Phytoestrogens in Cancer Therapy

    Virk-Baker, Mandeep; Nagy, Tim R.; Barnes, Stephen (Theime Medical Publishers, 2010)
    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide, and the numbers of new cancer cases are expected to continue to rise. The main goals of cancer therapy include removing the primary tumor, preventing the spread of distant metastases, and improving survival and quality of life for the patients. To attain these goals of cancer therapy, the combination of different chemotherapeutics, as opposed to the conventional single-agent treatment, is an emerging area of research. Given the potential risks of drug toxicity in such treatment, the focus is to have a second compound that increases the anticancer potential of the primary agent but which reduces toxicity. There is an ever growing interest in treatment with natural compounds, such as plant phytoestrogens, as an adjuvant cancer therapy along with conventional cancer therapy. The question remains whether or not adding these compounds to the cancer therapy regimen as a second agent would be beneficial, and if they are safe to be used among cancer patients. The current literature suggests that phytoestrogen treatment is capable of inducing G2/M cell cycle arrest in a number of cancer cell lines, as well as upregulating cell cycle inhibitory molecules. Phytoestrogen therapy has been shown to inhibit inflammation, angiogenesis and metastases in various in vivo tumor models, and pronounced benefits have been observed when combined with radiation therapy. The lack of side effects from phase I and II clinical trials of phytoestrogens in cancer therapy points towards their safety, but to further understand their added benefit clinical studies with large sample sizes are required. We have reviewed the recent research studies in these areas in an attempt to find evidence for their role in cancer therapy as well as safety.
  • Comparative analysis of diet and tobacco use among households in Bangladesh

    Virk-Baker, Mandeep; Husain, Muhammad Jami; Parascandola, Mark (European Publishing, 2019-03)
    Introduction: While studies from developed countries have reported dietary differences between tobacco users and non-users, less is known about the influence of tobacco on diet in developing countries where malnutrition is a major public health challenge. Methods: In this study we used the nationally representative Household Income Expenditure Survey 2010 from Bangladesh. Detailed household-level food consumption data including both ethnic and region-specific foods were collected over 14 days, consisting of 7 visits each collecting two days of dietary recall information. Results: Out of 12240 households, 2061 consumed smoking tobacco only (16.8%), 3284 consumed smokeless tobacco only (26.8%), and 3348 consumed both (27.4%). Overall, 71% of the households reported expenditure on tobacco (smoking and/or smokeless) and were considered any-tobacco use households. Our results indicate that after controlling for household expenditure, household size, household child to adult ratio, place of residence (urban/rural), and region fixed effects, any-tobacco households consumed significantly lower amounts (g/ day) of milk and dairy products (β = -17.11, p<0.01) and oil/fat (β = -10.30, p<0.01) compared to tobacco non-use households (β: adjusted mean difference in food amount g/day/household). Conversely, consumption of cereal grains (β = 152.46, p<0.0001) and sugar (β = 8.16, p<0.0001) were significantly higher among any-tobacco households compared to non-tobacco households. We observed similar patterns for smoking-only, smokeless-only, and dual tobacco product households. Conclusions: Evidence of dietary differences between tobacco-use and non-use households may play an important role in developing strategies to address poor diet and malnutrition among tobacco-use households in a developing country like Bangladesh. This study provides one of the first reports addressing diet in relation to tobacco use from a developing country, particularly using nationally representative data. The finding that tobacco-use households have poorer dietary consumption than non-use households suggests that it is important to address tobacco use in the context of nutrition and development programs in low-income environments.
  • A Retrospective Chart Review to Determine the Prevalence of Malnutrition in the Elderly and the Effects of Nutrition Interventions

    Isaacs, Cheyenne (2022)
    Background: The prevalence of malnutrition in elderly patients continues to increase with an aging population. Patients with malnutrition are at risk for longer hospital stays, increased risk of frailty, at higher risk for having a poor quality of health, poor health outcomes and increased mortality. Objectives: Evaluate the effectiveness of new nutritional interventions to help correct malnutrition diagnosis criteria. Setting: Presbyterian Home and Services an Acute Rehab and Long Term Care Nursing Facility Participants: 27 elderly patients initially met the malnutrition criteria, at the time of the interventions there were only 20 patients Study Design: Retrospective Study to evaluate the effectiveness of nutritional interventions. That data was utilized to help develop new nutritional interventions. Methods: The newly developed interventions were implemented and the data was collected over a 3 week span. data was collected on weight change, Pre and Post-BMI. The data was analyzed utilizing SPSS Software. Intervention: A high calorie diet was implemented for patients that met the criteria for malnutrition, patients with BMI of 23 were screened to prevent BMI <22, whole milk was programmed in house diet in place of 2% milk Results:100% of the patients had a beneficial wt gain of .10 to 1.25#. This was clinically relevant as evidenced by the score of the paired T-test. During the time frame of the interventions none of the patients had their malnutrition criteria diagnosis corrected. Conclusions: Early screening and implementing nutritional interventions can help prevent malnutrition. Once a patient is diagnosed with malnutrition it is difficult to correct.
  • Effectiveness of Education on Knowledge and Participation in Community Programs

    Riddle, Emily; Patricelli, Isabella; Griffin, Matthew; Corgel, Isabelle (2022)
    Introduction: A Quasi-experimental study was performed to determine if education in the form of handouts would increase participant use in the Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP), and the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP Ed) programs. Methods: Participants were recruited for this study the day of the intervention. The effectiveness of this study was based on changes in pre- and post- questionnaire responses. Participants completed a pre- questionnaire prior to the intervention, and a post questionnaire 3 weeks later. Results: There was a significant change in the number of participants who stated they received education/information on LIHEAP, and SNAP Ed (p = 0.023). All other results were not statistically significant. Conclusions: Further studies should be completed to evaluate the effectiveness of education on increasing knowledge, and participation in community programs. While this study provided insight to the benefit that education may have on community program participation, there was limited significance in results and further studies should be altered.
  • Mental Health-Focused Nutrition Education Intervention in Secondary School

    Riddle, Emily; Kelley, Lindsey G.; Parker, Jacqueline (2022)
    Many high schools in the US have insufficient nutrition education programs to inspire behavior change, resulting in a nutrition knowledge deficit in adolescents. School-based nutrition education programs typically do not cover the association between nutrition and mental health. The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to evaluate the change in nutrition knowledge and behaviors of secondary school students following a nutrition education intervention. Students enrolled in their required health course received a two 80-minute session nutrition education intervention. Student nutrition knowledge and behavior changes were assessed in the intervention group (n=56) and a previous needs assessment control group (n=8) using a nutrition knowledge survey and food frequency questionnaire. Compared to the needs assessment group, the intervention group had improved nutrition knowledge test scores (28% vs. 68%, p=0.000). Nutrition knowledge test scores among the intervention group was correlated with confidence in reading food labels (r=.351, p<0.001) and choosing healthy foods (r=.453, p<0.001), but was not correlated with confidence in macronutrient (r=.183, p>0.05) or micronutrient knowledge (r=.167, p>0.05). The intervention group reported low intake of breakfast, vegetables, fruit, and simple carbohydrates. This study did support the effectiveness of inclusion of mental health in a nutrition education intervention to improve nutrition knowledge and behaviors.
  • Effectiveness of a Nutrition Intervention in Older Adults Aged 55+

    Riddle, Emily; Williams, Emily R.; McGee, Patty (2022)
    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention designed to improve behaviors, knowledge, and self-efficacy around chronic disease management in older adults. Design: Quasi-experimental design with one intervention group of older adults Methods: Participants were recruited for this study via an email from facility director, Joan Scotti and other marketing tactics. Effectiveness of the study was evaluated based on changes in pre and post survey questionnaires Setting: Slingerlands, NY Participants: 18 participants completed the study Intervention: The intervention included two days of instruction. Topics discussed included adequate intake to combat malnutrition and easy ways to prepare nutritious foods. The second day included a cooking demonstration. The intervention was conducted over two days one week apart. Participants completed pre and post survey questionnaires which included questions related to general nutrition knowledge, confidence reading nutrition fact labels, and preparing fruits and vegetables to assess the effectiveness of the intervention Results: Quantitative data was analyzed using Mann-Whitney U tests in SPSS. Participant confidence in using and interpreting food labels, confidence including fruits and vegetables in meals and snacks, and familiarity with different methods of cooking fruits and vegetables significantly increased (p<0.05). Conclusions and Implications: A hands-on nutrition intervention and cooking demonstration can be effective at increasing nutrition-related knowledge and self-efficacy in older adults living at an independent senior living center.
  • Community Marketing and Recipe Distribution Project to Improve Food Security and Food Choices

    Riddle, Emily; VanAmburg, Katherine; Perl, Sandra (2022)
    Introduction: This study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of a two-part community intervention on fresh and frozen produce access and self-perceived diet quality among participants of a local food pantry through a Quasi-experiment design. The study took place at The Living Well Mission in Penn Yan, New York which consisted of 10 selected participants. Social media marketing efforts took place to advocate for fresh and frozen produce donations over the course of four weeks. Three recipes per week, totaling 12 recipes, were also provided with the required ingredients and tips for substitutions. Methods: A two-part intervention consisting of marketing efforts and recipe distribution was examined through a pre and post-survey to examine the changes in pantry food donations as well as nutrition intake and self-perceived efficacy of meal preparation and diet quality. Results: Four participants did not partake in the post-survey intervention. Low level marketing efforts had no impact on food donations. The weekly grocery supplies and recipes did not significantly improve intake of fresh or frozen despite no waste being reported by post-survey participants. The intervention did prevent hunger during the last week of the month for one participant. Conclusion: The intervention did not reveal significant results. Low level marketing efforts were ineffective towards changing food donations and recipe and ingredient distribution did not improve self-efficacy and diet quality despite similar studies finding significant results. Recipe sampling or more nutrition education may be necessary in future studies.
  • The Effectiveness of Nutrition Education in Seniors Over the Age of 65 in Leading a Heart Healthy Lifestyle

    Riddle, Emily; Ziomek, MaKayla M. (2022)
    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a nutrition educational program on increasing individual knowledge in leading a heart healthy lifestyle among seniors aged 65 years and older. The design of the study was Quasi-experimental and was completed at the Amherst Senior Center, Amherst, Massachusetts. Participants were recruited through paper flyers as well as verbal recruitment during an exercise program at the senior center. Participant knowledge was assessed utilizing a pre-and post-test which included a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). Duplicate tests were given prior to an educational session and two weeks post-education. Participant performance was evaluated by comparing test grades and results from the FFQ. Five men and women over the age of 65 years were included in the study. Data analysis was completed using IBM SPSS Statistics 26. Results showed participation in the educational session increased test scores by 24.6% (p<0.005) on average. There were no significant results between pre-and post-test FFQ between educational sessions. This indicated no significant difference in dietary changes. This limitation may be related to the number of education sessions that were conducted. Ideally, nutrition education sessions can be tailored to individual, or group needs, with the idea that these programs can be repeated for future use leading to positive health results.
  • Overcoming Barriers to Mindful Eating in Adult Women

    Riddle, Emily; Kauffmann, Danielle A. (2022)
    Objective: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention designed to improve the knowledge and behaviors related to mindful eating in study participants. Design: A quasi-experimental study design was used in this experiment. Methods: Participant knowledge was evaluated by using a pre and post Mindful Eating Questionnaire (28-item self-report validated instrument), the Hunger and Fullness Scale, and qualitative observations. Quantitative data from the Mindful Eating Questionnaire and Hunger and Fullness Scale were compared using a Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test using IBM SPSS Statistics 26. Setting: This study was conducted virtually. Participants: 11 adult women who are followers of Toni Marinucci participated in this study. Intervention: Participants attended one, 45-minute zoom (virtual) group coaching session each week for a total of 3 weeks. Results: The coaching calls did not significantly increase knowledge and behavior change. The coaching calls were well received and positive feedback was given. Participants noted that the barriers to implementing mindful eating included time, bad habits, and distraction. Conclusions and Implications: The three mindful eating group coaching calls were not effective in increasing knowledge and behavior change in regards to awareness, distraction, and overeating.
  • Changes in Knowledge, Beliefs, and Behaviors Following a Remote Diabetic Education Session Among Adults Living with Diabetes in a Rural Community

    Riddle, Emily; Sheerin, Mary A. (2022)
    Introduction: The incidence of Type 2 diabetes has been a rising concern for Americans since 1994. According to the CDC, in the last 20 years, the number of adults diagnosed with diabetes has more than doubled as the American population has aged and become more overweight or obese. Health services are struggling with the morbidity, mortality, and cost associated with the complications of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Self-Management Education and Support (DSMES) services have been shown to have a positive impact. United Health Services (UHS) in New York State offers in-person diabetic teaching classes in the form of a DSMES service. To date, there is no official educational program for patients unable to attend in-person diabetic teaching classes within the UHS hospital system. The purpose of this study is to evaluate any changes in knowledge, behaviors, and beliefs of a rural population after have completed a remote diabetes education session to help identify if patients would benefit from a formal remote education class. Methods: This study was conducted remotely in February 2022 using patients from the UHS database. The total number of rural participants was 4. Participant knowledge was evaluated by comparing scores on a pre-test and post-test. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used for all statistical analysis as neither of the data being assessed had normality. Qualitative data were thematically examined. Results: The most common theme for barriers related to exercise and dietary change were "work" and "physical limitation". Seven of the 14 questions included in the questionnaire were assessed for statistical significance and despite seeing some data shifts; the diabetes education intervention did not produce a statistically significant change in test scores (Z= -1.342, p = .180). BMI and HbA1c were also tested for statistical significance. Participants appeared to have lost weight between the time of the needs assessment and the intervention as the mean BMI measurement from 2022 is less than the mean BMI from 2021. Although this may seem favorable, there was no significant change in BMI from when the needs assessment was conducted in October, 2021 to the completion of the education intervention in February, 2022 (p = .854). Participants had a reduction in their HbA1c after starting this study as the minimum value for HbA1c is lower in 2022 when compared to data in 2021. Again, despite this observation, there was no significant difference in average blood sugar measurement between 2021 and 2022. Conclusion: This study showed that the diabetic education intervention conducted over the telephone did not elicit a statically significant change in test scores, weight, or HbA1c among the rural participants with type 2 diabetes. Despite observing some data shifts the sample size was simply too small to show any significant change. Although this study did not use sophisticated technology to conduct interviews and deliver education, it opened up the opportunity to possibly introduce a more enhanced way of communication, especially for those unable to attend in-person diabetes teaching classes.
  • Effectiveness of an Online Nutrition Course on Emotional Health and Energy Levels

    Riddle, Emily; Ward, Christine Nicole; Stote, Kim S. (2022)
    Mental health is an extremely important component of health that is not discussed enough. Emotional health, a component of mental health, plays an essential role in an individuals overall health status. Studies have shown that there is a positive correlation between poor diet, obesity and the development of poor mental/emotional health. Therefore the aim of this present study that was to determine the effect an Online Nutrition Course that promoted healthy eating habits had on the Emotional Health and Energy Levels of SUNY Empire college Staff.
  • Online Weekly Educational Newsletters Improve High-School Athlete’s General and Sports-Related Nutrition Knowledge to Prevent a Risk of Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport

    Riddle, Emily; Shannon, Caroline; DeLorenzo, Theresa (2022)
    Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of educational nutrition newsletters on nutrition knowledge in high school athletes, designed to reduce the risk of relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S) through improved dietary habits. Design: Quasi-experimental. Methods: General nutrition knowledge, sports nutrition knowledge and eating habits and patterns in high school athletes were compared using pre- and post- surveys. Athletes’ nutrition related knowledge was evaluated by comparing final grades of the surveys. Athletes’ eating habits and patterns were evaluated by comparing specific survey questions. The intervention was developed utilizing the social cognitive theory. Setting: New York (online/remote). Participants: 6 high-school athletes scored on the pre- and post-surveys and received the weekly newsletters. 4 athletes were female, and 2 athletes were males. Intervention: A series of 4 weekly newsletters were emailed to participants at the start of each week. Topics of the newsletters pertained to RED-S and included an overview of RED-S, carbohydrates, protein, and vitamin D/calcium. Intervention: A series of 4 weekly newsletters were emailed to participants. Topics pertained to RED-S and included an overview of RED-S, carbohydrates, protein, and vitamin D/calcium. Results: Weekly newsletters significantly increased high school athletes’ knowledge pertaining to RED-S, general nutrition, and sports related nutrition (p < 0.05). 33% of participants showed an improvement in dietary habits and behaviors. The weekly newsletters had no significant effect on improving eating habits or eating patterns (p > 0.05). Conclusions and Implications: Online weekly educational newsletters utilizing the social cognitive theory is an effective mass media teaching technique to significantly improve high school athletes’ general and sports nutrition knowledge. Further research is needed on interventions to improve dietary habits.
  • Eat Right, Think Bright! Nutrition Changes in 5th and 6th Grade Students

    Riddle, Emily; Robinson, Lindsay M.; Futtner, L. (2022)
    Body image dissatisfaction has risen in recent years in children and adolescents. Changes in eating behavior can be a result of dissatisfaction with one's body. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention designed to positively impact body image and nutrition knowledge in 5th and 6th grade students. This quasi-experimental design with intervention included pre & post surveys and focus groups. Participants included 46 students, ages 10 - 12 years who were in 5th and 6th grade. All students were attending Randolph Elementary School and were recruited by their health educator. Data was collected pre- and post-intervention through Kahoot quizzes, body image surveys, and food frequency questionnaires. This 3-week intervention was based on social cognitive theory and included presentations, videos, handouts, and food demonstrations related to food groups, intuitive eating, and body image. Changes in nutrition-related knowledge, body dissatisfaction, and body image were evaluated using paired t- tests and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. After the intervention, both student knowledge and body image significantly increased (p<0.001). A Spearman correlation was used to evaluate the association between changes in knowledge scores and changes in body image scores. No significant association was found between the two scores (p = 0.53). These results indicate that a 3-week program integrated into the school curriculum can improve body image and nutrition knowledge in 5th and 6th grade students.

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