Now showing items 21-40 of 471

    • Historical & Contemporary Immigration Curriculum

      Eschner, Samantha (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2019-05)
      With changes occuring in our current immigration laws, schools are becoming increasingly more affected by immigration as a whole. This leads to a need for both teachers and students to remain educated on immigration. However, current immigration curricula do not address immigration from a contemporary perspective. Immigration is presented as a historical event through the superficial “Ellis Island Perspective,” and does not address current laws and policies. This curriculum was created with a goal to integrate both historical immigration and current immigration in order to provide a complete curriculum that addresses all aspects of immigration no matter how controversial, or uncomfortable they may be.
    • A Project-Based Learning 6th Grade Science Unit Aligned to the Next Generation Science Standard

      Drummond, Kelsey (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2019-05)
      Project-Based Learning (PBL) has become a prevalent term in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematic (STEM) classrooms. Teachers are introducing hands on and student-centered learning into their science classrooms to create a different atmosphere. By using PBL in the classroom environment for consecutive years of education, a gain in academic development and social skills are created. The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) are used heavily throughout K-12th grade as the science curriculum. With limited resources provided for middle school science teachers, this PBL unit will focus on how 6th grade students can design a model to minimize water and land pollution in the environment around their school community. Background knowledge on pollution and human impact on the environment throughout the world will help student succeed during this unit. Guest speakers and field trips to their community water source and surrounding land will help influence students design model. This unit can be modified for 7th or 8th grade science teachers teaching the same curriculum.
    • Participatory Approach Curriculum Guide for Teachers of Incarcerated English Language Learners

      Crowley, Megan (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2019-05)
      As the number of English language learners (ELLs) in the United States educational system, a group which includes adult ELLs that are incarcerated in state prison, continues to rise, so will the demand for effective and appropriate instruction for this unique group of students. Research has shown that instruction of adult ELLs is most effective when it tactfully includes the students’ backgrounds, home cultures and languages, and actual interests or concerns in the curriculum. Further, research indicates that ELLs fare better when they are involved in creating their content and are empowered to take responsibility for their own learning and language acquisition. This curriculum project looked at the Participatory Approach as a means to empower incarcerated ELLs as they acquire English in their state-mandated educational programming. While the Participatory Approach is a method often used for adult English as a Second Language (ESL) classes, its use in a prison classroom is especially poignant given the oppressive environment. This curriculum guide is meant to aid in an ESL teacher’s execution of the Participatory Approach in a prison ESL classroom and to provide flexible options supported by researched principles of second language acquisition and critical pedagogy. Future research could follow up with this curriculum guide to document its implementation to find areas of success and promise when using the Participatory Approach in a state prison’s ESL classroom.
    • Effective Literary Resources to Support Adolescent Parents Ensuring Kindergarten Readiness for Their Children

      Castellano, Andrew (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2019-05)
      Adolescent parents often lack the skills needed in order to provide their children with the proper supports that promote efficient growth in several areas dealing with early literacy skills such as letter identification, vocabulary, and phonological awareness. When these children then enter school, they have not acquired the skills they need to be academically successful. To address the problem of adolescent parents needing more support to help foster early literacy skills at home, the research question focused on what are effective resources teachers can provide adolescent parents to help support early literacy practice at home as well as how can teachers show these parents how to use them effectively on their own? To answer that question, an extended literature review and research synthesis were completed and produced multiple findings. The findings were; adolescent parents needed more support in order to provide a larger amount of involvement with their child, letter identification, letter sounds, phonological awareness, vocabulary, lap reading, and concepts about print were the skills adolescent parents should have practiced with their children before kindergarten, adolescent parents required more strategies in responsive parenting and behavior management plans, and with the right support systems in place, adolescent parents could foster a proper at home literacy environment. These findings were the foundation of the professional development project presented through a multimedia application for adolescent parents. This application allowed parents to receive the guidance they needed in order to practice the literacy skills needed for Kindergarten.
    • Impact of Dialogic Reading Intervention on Student Vocabulary Development

      Carlson, Aldyn (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2019-05)
      The language learning gap between students has become greater as students enter school. It was also noticed that parental involvement seems to be lacking. To address these problems a research question was created to be studied which included “Does using a dialogic reading intervention have an effect on early childhood language development?” To answer this question, literature was collected that fell into four different themes. These themes were then analyzed and coded for commonalities and two new themes derived from the research in which included teacher shared book reading and parent shared book reading. Four findings were collected from the synthesis of the data. The first finding included that elaborating on vocabulary words increased students vocabulary knowledge. The second finding concluded that asking questions that were connected to the text increased students comprehension of the text. The third finding inferred that expanding on the student's response to the questions being asked by a teacher or parent showed to have a major impact on student comprehension of the text. The fourth finding indicated that students learned vocabulary words when parents asked yes/no questions. These findings were used in the creation of the professional development project in-person training to educate teachers on how to efficiently implement reading techniques supported by research. These techniques were used to increase student vocabulary knowledge.
    • Students with Disabilities in a Less Restrictive Environment and Learning Social Skills

      Carlo, Julianna (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2019-05)
      Students with disabilities (SWD) are often placed in more restrictive environments and there has been an ongoing debate on whether more restrictive environments are beneficial as opposed to inclusive or less restrictive environments in regard to social skills and academics. Research has shown that SWD are more successful in less restrictive environments, but still struggle in their social skill area. The curriculum is designed to incorporate social skills into a third-grade literacy curriculum and incorporates the New York State Literacy Learning Standards in an inclusive room to both SWD as well as general education students. This curriculum is designed for third grade literacy but may be modified for any grade level and may be aligned and modified to fit in any standards.
    • Implementing the Common Core State Standards to Students with Disabilities

      Benson, Natalie (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2019-05)
      With the implementation of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) in 2010, challenge and rigor for all students is a must. With the passing of No Child Left Behind (NCLB), the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and the Least Restrictive Environment (LRE), students with disabilities (SWD) are required access to these challenging standards with any necessary supports and modifications needed. A multitude of research has already been made on the instructional strategies, such as explicit and scaffolded instruction, that would be helpful in implementing the standards and the concerns teachers who have SWD have on instructing these standards, such as time constraints and academic ability. Although much research has been conducted on the strategies to use in order to help implementation, there was little to no research on the implementation of actual modified lessons. Due to this, I created a curriculum project where I modified a Common Core 6th grade ELA figurative language unit in order to appropriately teach it to my special education class. The unit resulted in 17 lessons and two summative assessments. After evaluating the results upon completion of the modified unit, results indicated three major areas where I made appropriate accommodations in order to fit the needs of my students. Those accommodations include, adding in a lesson of the teaching the different types of figurative language before reading the required texts, creating exit tickets for formative assessments that were easier to understand and limited the number of questions given, and adding in accommodations to the summative assessments in order for the students to not feel overwhelmed. The use of this modified unit can be used as a guide for other teachers creating a modified unit and future research and work will be completed in order to create other modified units for other grades and subject areas.
    • Real World Experiences in Social Studies Curriculum in a Kindergarten Classroom

      Walczak, Christina (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2018-12)
      Kindergarten curriculum has vastly changed in the United States since Elizabeth Peabody started the first English speaking kindergarten started in 1860 (Fromberg, 2006). The curriculum has changed from play-based, exploratory learning to a more academic learning process focusing on meeting standards, instruction, and assessment (McLennan, 2011). For teachers, it is extremely difficult to balance the required curriculum/assessments and to implement more developmentally appropriate practices such as play for kindergarten aged children in social studies. The main purpose of my project is to incorporate more exploratory social studies curriculum into my kindergarten classroom. By including more social studies in an elementary classroom, it helps to create a deeper community of thinkers, learners, and civilians that can work together to understand and solve problems in society. I reviewed the C3 Framework, Inquiry Design Model (IDM), National Curriculum Standards for Social Studies, and the New York State social studies resource toolkit, including all their resources in order to generate ideas for my curriculum project. The curriculum allotted three to five days for this curriculum. It can be modified to take longer than 5 days depending on the classroom and community. Therefore, through reading this curriculum, teacher can get clear guidance in implementing hands on social studies in a meaningful way. This curriculum project was made as a tool of reference to guide the findings of a single way to use hands on experiences in social studies in a kindergarten classroom.
    • Using Project-Based Learning in Special Education Classrooms

      Kilby, Ashley (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2018-12)
      This curriculum project investigates the use of Project-Based Learning (PBL) within special education classrooms. PBL is a student centered, evidence based practice that allows students to connect academic content to real-life investigations. Using PBL allows special education teachers to increase student motivation & socialization, target students’ Individualized Education Plans (IEPs), imbed cross-curricular concepts into one project, and begin IEP transition services in order to prepare students for life after school. Specifically, this curriculum is designed for a fourth grade resource room. This curriculum allows students to further investigate the Haudensaunee Culture that resides within New York State. Students play the role of a museum curator and design various artifacts to display in their museum to parents and community members.
    • Explicit Instruction in the Special Education Classroom

      Hayes, Leah (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2018-12)
      Explicit instruction has been proven to improve the abilities and outcomes in academics for students with special needs. According to Lyon, et. al. (2001), students with disabilities are at particular risk for experiencing reading difficulties; for a majority of students with learning disabilities, reading is their primary area of difficulty. This project was created in order to streamline and to incorporate explicit instruction into the district-mandated curriculum for students with special needs in the area of reading in Kindergarten and First Grade. With the addition of explicit instruction into specific curricula, can students with special needs improve academic abilities in the resource room setting? The benefits of the addition of explicit instruction to the Read Well curriculum were successful and productive. Students were able to grow not only academically, but also in confidence and appropriate behavior. Although there are some limitations of time and materials, this project was successful for my Kindergarten and First Grade students. They were engaged in the lesson through the activities and modeling. The students were able to produce taught sounds, blend words with known sounds and read sentences based on the data collected. This curriculum was built as a basis for teachers who utilize the curriculum with the hope that it will be built upon and future grade levels and various subject areas will use the core concepts when building lessons in the future.
    • Differentiated Instruction in the General Education Elementary Classroom

      Adesso, Briana (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2019-07)
      Differentiated instruction is the way in which a teacher anticipates and responds to a variety of students' needs in the classroom. To meet students needs, teachers differentiate instruction by modifying the content, the process, and the product of the way that students demonstrate their learning. Differentiation involves making a learning task fit students need instead of the other way around. The goal of differentiated instruction is to bring the ideas and concepts of the curriculum to the learner at a pace and a depth that is appropriate for the ability of each student. I created a handbook for teachers to utilize when they need suggestions on differentiating instruction in the classroom. Different learning styles, and tips for teachers to accommodate to those learning styles will be categorized in the handbook. It will also include information on how the teacher can set up the classroom to promote differentiated instruction. The purpose of this handbook is to provide teachers information about differentiated instruction and give ideas about how it can easily be done. It is important to keep each student in mind when lesson planning, and making sure everyone is on the same page with the content being taught.
    • The SHAPE of an IRES: Secondary Structure Determination of the Internal Ribosomal Entry Site in the 5’UTR of the gurken mRNA Using SHAPE Chemistry

      Martin, Allison (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2017-05)
      Internal Ribosomal Entry Sites (IRESs) are conserved secondary structural elements present in the 5’ untranslated regions (UTR) of some essential eukaryotic mRNAs and many viral RNA genomes. IRESs allow the mRNA or viral RNA to bypass canonical cap-dependent translation initiation and entice the ribosome to assemble directly onto the RNA strand and initiate translation. Viruses utilize this method of translation initiation to hijack cellular translation machinery and eukaryotes utilize this to maintain levels of critical proteins when most translation is shut down due to cellular stress. Gurken (Grk) protein is an EGFR ligand essential for determining polarity and eggshell patterning in Drosophila melanogaster development. The gurken mRNA is believed to have an IRES for several reasons, including steady regulation of grk translation under nutrient limited conditions when canonical cap-dependent translation is repressed and the necessity of a RNA helicase for cap-dependent translation to occur under non-starvation conditions. Here we are interested in finding structural features corresponding to a potential internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) in the 5’ UTR of the gurken mRNA from D. melanogaster. Selective 2’-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension (SHAPE) chemistry is a powerful tool used to investigate secondary structure in RNA molecules. We used this procedure to probe the grk 5’ UTR secondary structure and then compare the predicted structure to known IRES structural motifs. In collaboration with in vitro translation Luciferase assays and selective deletion or mutation of structural features, individual secondary structural features can be selectively analyzed and included or excluded as a potential IRES. Here I present the wild-type structure of the gurken 5’ UTR and correlations between the structural elements present there and known IRES structural features.
    • College Students' Exploration of Isomorphic Numerical and Word Percent Problems

      Tronolone, Emily (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2016-06)
      This study examines students' ability to solve percent problems when in word form versus numeric form. The work of University Pre-Calculus students was analyzed with two isomorphic assessments measuring the accuracy of the problem solution when given in word versus numerical form. It was hypothesized that college students would perform better on numerical percent problems, specifically working with discount, tax, and tip problems. Furthermore, it was hypothesized that the words would hinder the students' ability to accurately solve percent problems when in word form compared to numeric form. The results of this study prove the hypothesis to be inaccurate. In contrast to the hypothesis, students performed better on word problems versus numerical problems (p-value of 0.013) when the problem specifically dealt with discounts, tax, percent increase, and percent decrease.
    • The Great Divide: A Study That Examines the Understanding of Long Division Across Multiple Generations

      Sturm, Steven (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2016-06)
      This research explores the understanding of the long division algorithm across multiple generations. It was hypothesized that over time, people either forget how to complete long division problems, or become more inaccurate when asked to solve a long division problem. Specifically, it was hypothesized that students between the ages of 12 and 17 would be more accurate than those between 18 and 23, and adults 24 or older. The results of this study indicate that students between the ages of 12 and 17 and adults 24 and older outperformed students between the ages of 18 and 23. However, there was no significant difference between 12 to 17 year olds and adults 24 or older as well as no significant difference in gender as a whole. Student work samples were collected and analyzed to observe the common mistakes made when dealing with the long division algorithm and inferences were made about how educators can combat these mistakes and misconceptions.
    • Writing Radical Wrongs: A Study of Students' Misconceptions With Radicals and Rational Exponents

      Sikora-Press, Collene (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2016-07)
      This research serves to analyze college students’ misconceptions with regard to computations involving radicals and rational exponents. The goal of this study was to attempt to explain some misconceptions that students exhibit when simplifying radicals, working with rational exponents, and solving equations that contain radical expressions. It was hypothesized that college students in introductory mathematics courses would be able to simplify expressions containing radicals and rational exponents with little success. These students would experience greater success on problems containing radicals than rational exponents and they would use factor trees as the main approach to solve problems containing radicals. The results of this study indicate that students performed better on problems containing radicals than those containing rational exponents. These results were found to be statistically significant with a p-value of 0.000. Furthermore, factor trees were the most common method used among students who obtained accurate answers to problems containing radicals. Students revealed that radicals and rational exponents were difficult to work with and not valuable in their current, day-to-day lives.
    • The Effects of Conspecific Songs on the Aggression and Phonotaxic Behavior of House Crickets (Acheta Domesticus)

      Sendi, Kawthr (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2016-12)
      Mating in crickets has continued to be an especial topic because of the interesting phenomena of female mate preferences and male-male aggression. Most crickets produce three distinct song types, with each one produced under a different social circumstances. A clear understanding of the responses of crickets to different song types will help clarify the function of multiple song types. We carried out two experiments with related tests: the effect of the calling song, the courtship song, and the aggression song, on male-male aggression and on male and female phonotaxis. In the aggression experiment, we played back a single song during male-male contest, and the results showed low values of aggression intensity in the presence of calling and aggression songs. Playback songs significantly affected the duration of a fighting contest and the aggressive encounters were resolved at low intensity compared to muted treatment. In the phonotactic experiment, we played a single song and female crickets showed non-significant tendency to respond less to the courtship song compared to the aggression and calling songs. Overall, the results show no significant phonotactic preference for both male and female crickets.
    • Gender Games/Trauma Games: Gender and Victimology in the Hunger Games Trilogy

      Scherer, Ellen (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2015-08)
      In this thesis, I claim that victimhood and vulnerability can be used as a form of agency. I argue that many of the problems associated with the concept of vulnerability come from an outdated and binary way of thinking about gender. A brief review of media and literature reveals that this way of thinking has a history of plaguing the YA novel, thus limiting the ways in which YA readers think about women and vulnerability. Using elements of queer, feminist and trauma critical theory, I prove Suzanne Collins' Hunger Games trilogy creates the opportunity for the trauma of victimhood and vulnerability to be used for individual agency.
    • An Analysis of Acceleration and Advancement Criteria in Middle School Mathematics

      Rappole, Robert (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2016-11)
      This research explores the criteria associated with various accelerated middle school mathematics programs currently employed by New York, North Carolina and other states across the United States. In addition, a longitudinal study of a single accelerated cohort of 25, 2016 graduates was investigated, so as to discern possible gaps in their original accelerated design. It was hypothesized that school districts make use of limited mathematics acceleration criteria, often focusing solely on either teacher recommendations or standardized assessments. Also, it was expected that the majority of district policies did not offer/include provisions for students to easily transfer into the accelerated mathematics program if students exhibit qualifying mathematical talent later in their secondary school career. First and foremost the survey research showed that teacher recommendation was used by 68.75% of schools, testing was addressed in 90.63% of schools and grades were a factor for 75%, making up the primary criteria for advancing students. Other data collected revealed that only about 60% of schools give the option to join the program at a later date, approximately 40% gave parents the right to override the school's placement decision, and roughly 20% of all schools surveyed had a set number or percent of students allowed into the program each year. When examining the longitudinal study, the 12 ‘additional’ students faired almost identically to the 13 ‘primarily placed’ students, each had approximately 33% of their group drop out of advanced placement and both groups had 6 students successfully complete Calculus I or higher. Half of the students in the additional group took Calculus or more advanced courses their senior year of high school. Based on the original criteria, none of these students would have had access to the advanced/college level mathematics coursework. In a class of only 60 students to miss 6 students is to miss 10% of the class. Implications from this study were that all policies should have opt-in or opt-out options for students, a scoring rubric, parental override procedure, a balance between and use of multiple criteria, no population limit or percentile cut-off and schools should compact classes, meaning combining 6th and 7th grade mathematics, not just skip grades.
    • College Students' Performance on Isomorphic Visual vs Non-Visual Regents Level Geometry Problems

      Leitner, Dylan (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2017-09)
      This study explores students' misconceptions regarding pictorial geometry problems. Specifically, to investigate misunderstandings students experience when solving visual and nonvisual geometry problems. During this study, college students completed two identical 6-problem assessments on the topics of area, volume, and surface area. The instrument was administered several weeks apart and directly generated from past state tests: New York State Geometry Regents and Mathematics A Exams. It was hypothesized that given an assessment composed of visual and non-visual isomorphic geometry problems college students would score lower on non-visual problems. Furthermore, students would struggle most to complete volume problems compared to area and surface area problems. After analyzing the data the hypothesis was partially confirmed. The scores were compared to a survey students completed following each assessment recording their confidence on the overall exam and each problem. The results of this study indicated there was no significant difference on student scores when comparing visual and non-visual Regents geometry problems. Additional results revealed the topic that students struggled with most was volume.