• Adolescents' out of school writing practices with technology

      Lotocki, Kimberly (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2018-05)
      Reports of writing assessment results from The Nation's Report Card (NAEP, 2011) and the New York State 2017 Grade 8 ELA assessment (NYSED Data Site, 2017) indicate that students in grade 8 are struggling with writing achievement on standardized assessments in school. Also, the use of technology is popular among most students. Research shows that the number of school aged students with personal cell phones and other electronics appears to be increasing (Lenhart, 2009). With this rise in technology use, it appears that eighth graders may be composing texts for self-expression and communication with peers every day, yet struggling with writing achievement in school. Thus, to obtain more information regarding students' writing with technology, appropriate research questions are: what are adolescents' out-ofschool writing practices?; and how do adolescents use technology in their out-of-school writing? By conducting an empirical study with a qualitative methodology, this research determined the out-of-school writing practices of three eighth grade students, specifically writing with technology. After analyzing digital writing samples, survey responses, and individual interviews of the three participants, the following findings emerged. First, the most prevalent out-of-school writing practice included texting or other typing on a cell phone, tablet, or game system. Second, following standard writing conventions was not a priority or necessity for the participants in their out-of-school writing. Third, textisms and emojis make up a large portion of the participants' writing with technology. And finally, the students prefer to type on a cell phone or computer rather than writing with paper and pencil. [from author's abstract]
    • The Affective Factors that Influence a Child's Emergent Literacy Skills and Behaviors.

      Gawron, Taylor (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2018-08)
      Emergent literacy is a child's knowledge of reading and writing skills before they learn how to read and write words. This skill should be continued to be monitored through the transition from kindergarten to first grade. There are affective factors that affect a child's emergent literacy skill, self-efficacy, motivation, attitude and family factors. It is important for parents and guardians to be educated on what emergent literacy is and what they can do to support and enhance their child's skills and behaviors. As a result, a curriculum project was developed to present to a wide variety of school districts for parents to develop a better understanding of what emergent literacy is and what factors can influence their child's skill and behaviors. Also, this website will provide ideas and activities for parents to help to enhance their child's skill and support their learning.
    • Altering the Home Literacy Environment: A Look into How Teachers are Supporting Families Through Home Literacy Interventions

      Piatek, Kaitlyn (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2019-05)
      This empirical research study investigated the following two research questions: what are kindergarten, first and second-grade teachers currently using to make improvements to the home literacy environments of their students and what supports are teachers providing to families of their students to make these improvements successful. In this study, nine elementary teachers were surveyed. An online survey containing qualitative and quantitative questions was used. The first finding from this research study was that teachers are currently provided families with literacy resources/activities to complete at home with their child/children. The second finding for this research study was that teachers stated that it would be possible to positively influence the home literacy environments of their students but they needed more literacy resources in order to adequately support their students’ literacy learning at home. The third finding was that the participants were confident in their ability to support families with home literacy practices and were knowledgeable about the most effective home literacy practices that families could use. The findings from this research study showed that kindergarten, first and second-grade teachers were supporting the home literacy environments and the families of their students by sending home literacy resources.
    • American history simulations, reenactments, and educational games: a supplemental middle school curriculum.

      Moore, Kerrie L. (10/01/2013)
      This curriculum project is designed to supplement the New York State seventh and eighth grade American history social studies course with active learning strategies. Three strategies including simulations, reenactments, and educational games will be supplemented into each unit. A total of 33 active learning activities, equal numbers of each, will be added to the 11 units that comprise the two-year course of study. Students often find it difficult to absorb the information and be motivated by the content (Russell & Waters, 2010). Teachers find it hard to teach all the necessary content and still be able to go in depth on the material (Pattiz, 2004). The three active learning strategies designed as supplements to the social studies curriculum have been proven to be effective in increasing student interest on the subject as well as their achievement.
    • An Analysis of Acceleration and Advancement Criteria in Middle School Mathematics

      Rappole, Robert (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2016-11)
      This research explores the criteria associated with various accelerated middle school mathematics programs currently employed by New York, North Carolina and other states across the United States. In addition, a longitudinal study of a single accelerated cohort of 25, 2016 graduates was investigated, so as to discern possible gaps in their original accelerated design. It was hypothesized that school districts make use of limited mathematics acceleration criteria, often focusing solely on either teacher recommendations or standardized assessments. Also, it was expected that the majority of district policies did not offer/include provisions for students to easily transfer into the accelerated mathematics program if students exhibit qualifying mathematical talent later in their secondary school career. First and foremost the survey research showed that teacher recommendation was used by 68.75% of schools, testing was addressed in 90.63% of schools and grades were a factor for 75%, making up the primary criteria for advancing students. Other data collected revealed that only about 60% of schools give the option to join the program at a later date, approximately 40% gave parents the right to override the school's placement decision, and roughly 20% of all schools surveyed had a set number or percent of students allowed into the program each year. When examining the longitudinal study, the 12 ‘additional’ students faired almost identically to the 13 ‘primarily placed’ students, each had approximately 33% of their group drop out of advanced placement and both groups had 6 students successfully complete Calculus I or higher. Half of the students in the additional group took Calculus or more advanced courses their senior year of high school. Based on the original criteria, none of these students would have had access to the advanced/college level mathematics coursework. In a class of only 60 students to miss 6 students is to miss 10% of the class. Implications from this study were that all policies should have opt-in or opt-out options for students, a scoring rubric, parental override procedure, a balance between and use of multiple criteria, no population limit or percentile cut-off and schools should compact classes, meaning combining 6th and 7th grade mathematics, not just skip grades.
    • An analysis of language difficulties in Algebra I (Common core) assessments versus integrated Algebra assessments

      Spoth, Amy (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2016-05)
      The purpose of this study was to determine if the difficult linguistic features of mathematics assessments correspond to teachers' perceptions of the assessments. A mixed methods research design was used in order to analyze the linguistic features of each exam and also gain insight to how teachers feel about the assessments. The assessments analyzed in this study were the June 2008 Integrated Algebra Examination and the 2015 Algebra I (Common Core) Assessment. In addition to comparing linguistic features of the two assessments, interviews were conducted. Two teachers were interviewed in one school district. The results of the data collection indicated that while the Algebra I (Common Core) Assessment contained more difficult linguistic features in fourteen of the sixteen categories, readability tests showed the Integrated Algebra Examination is written at a higher reading and grade level. The results of the interviews concluded that while students may struggle with linguistically difficult features in mathematics, there are strategies which may be incorporated into instruction in order to help these students overcome these challenges. Some of these strategies may include practice reading texts with difficult linguistic features in mathematics classrooms, explicitly teaching students how to separate mathematics and language, and collaborating with other teachers to determine what strategies may work best for your students. [from abstract]
    • An analysis of the changes to New York State commissioner's regulations part 154 and the impact on the landscape of English language education

      Marks, Caroline (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2018-05)
      The purpose of this study was to identify the changes between the two most recent iterations of New York State's Commissioner's Regulations (CR) Part 154, a policy document detailing the requirements for services provided to English language learners in the state. The researcher performed a content analysis of two versions of the same policy to identify specific changes in text and additions to the policy. Readings of outside sources in print media and press releases from educational organizations were performed to assist in interpretation of the contextual features of the policy and structural influences on policymakers in order to develop an understanding of the policy and a sense of the direction in which ELL education and services may be heading in the future. Findings from the document analysis indicated five major changes and additions between the two versions of CR Part 154 as well as minor alterations that may have an effect on stakeholders in ELL education. An investigation of educational issues in the media and press releases support findings that some aspects of the Part have been given priority in educational decisions. It is suggested that future research utilize interviews and observations of all those involved in the education of ELLs in order to develop a clear picture of the implications of the expanded policy on achievement, language development, and teachers' work experiences. [from author's abstract]
    • Analyzing the linguistic landscape of Japantown and Koreatown in Manhattan, New York

      Golden, Judy (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2017-05)
      Over time, Manhattan, New York has become home to thousands of Korean and Japanese people. These groups have brought their languages and cultures with them, along with a drive to be successful. To better understand the representation of these minority languages within the landscape, an analysis must be done on the landscape and on the representation of these minority groups. This study examines the linguistic landscape of Koreatown and Japantown in Manhattan, focusing on the representation of culture and identity in the landscape. In addition, language policies and linguistic boundaries are examined for insight into the formation and representation of signs in these linguistic landscapes. All signs in Koreatown and signs pertaining to Japanese establishments in the unofficially labeled Japantown were photographed and categorized. Surveys were randomly conducted with pedestrians and shop workers of Korean or Japanese ethnicity. Signs were examined for representation of the respective languages in their linguistic landscapes and surveys were studied to obtain attitudes about language, landscape and policy. The findings revealed that the linguistic landscape of Manhattan is English dominant, there is language and cultural representation in these linguistic landscapes. Yet, one linguistic landscape has suffered due to a small number of speakers and negative language attitudes. Overall, the linguistic landscapes in Koreatown and Japantown, to a lesser degree, does reflect the groups language and cultural identity. However, inconsistencies on language attitudes are found between the survey answers and photographs. Implications are discussed with regards to Korean ANALYZING THE LINGUISTIC LANDSCAPE and Japanese communities and the ethnolinguistic vitality they may have towards areas of Manhattan, NY's linguistic landscape. [from author's abstract]
    • Analyzing the multilingual landscape of Buffalo, New York.

      Dixson, Amanda E. (2015)
      In recent years, Buffalo, New York has become home to thousands of immigrants and refugees from across the globe. These people have brought with them diverse cultures, desires for the future, and their home languages. As a designated refugee resettlement city, Buffalo is an incredibly diverse city that welcomes thousands of refugees from all over the world each year; Buffalo also has an established Latino/a community. This study examines how these linguistic communities are represented in the linguistic landscape, and what deeper symbolic meanings signs in the linguistic landscape hold for them. All signs on six streets within a two mile radius of Buffalo's most diverse neighborhoods were photographed and categorized. Signs entirely or partially in non-English languages were plotted on an electronic map and examined for potential symbolic meanings. The linguistic landscape of Buffalo, although vastly English dominant, reflects some of the diversity of the area. However, the signs in Buffalo’s linguistic landscape reveal language ideologies are present and sometimes promote one language over another. Since languages are tied to identity, relegating languages can promote ideologies against ethnic groups tied to those languages. Overall, the linguistic landscape reflects the need to learn English to function in American society, but inconsistencies are found throughout the city that reflect the presence of non-English speakers in the area, and occasionally the promotion of their culture and language.
    • Anxiety in action.

      Gulick, Mimi E. (2013-01-24)
      Math Anxiety is a term used to describe the anxious symptoms felt by those who suffer from it while confronted with mathematics. This study investigated the levels of math anxiety experienced by college students. It was hypothesized that students in non-major mathematics courses would score higher on the Gulick Math Anxiety Scale than their peers enrolled in mathematics courses for mostly mathematics majors. Furthermore, those students who identified themselves as having medium to high levels of math anxiety, would attribute that anxiety to a negative past experience in a mathematics classroom. Data collected was both qualitative and quantitative in nature, and revealed that students in the non-major classes scored higher on the Gulick Math Anxiety Scale than the students in the classes for mostly mathematics majors. The math anxiety that existed in students was highest when associated with testing anxiety, and the main reason students reported math anxiety was due to a lack of confidence.
    • Application of cooperative learning approach.

      Xuan, Ling (2015)
      This paper makes a study of the feasibility of CL application and the teachers and student’s attitudes towards it in the foreign language classroom in China. The study adopted a mixed-methods design- an online questionnaire for the students regarding their attitudes of CL, and individual interviews of 7 English teachers toward the use of CL. Her participants were 166 students and 7 of their English language teacher of English class in Wenzhou, China. By doing this research, the researcher hopes that CL can receive more attention and enjoy more popularity among EFL teachers at all grade levels, so that English education in China can be actually improved. Along with the results that the researcher found from this research, she puts forward her suggestions about application of CL in foreign language classroom in china. What's more, the findings of this study will have a potential to alert Chinese policy-makers to improve the current college English learning instructions through better understanding of students’ and teachers’ attitudes.
    • Are teachers promoting extracurricular activities to low achieving students?

      Kirsch, Stephen (2014)
      This research investigates teacher support of extracurricular programs to low-achieving students. Students who participate in extracurricular activities generally benefit from the many opportunities offered to them. Benefits of participation in extracurricular activities include better grades, scoring higher on standardized tests, fewer school absences, learning life skills that are not learned in the classroom, and a feeling of connectedness to their school. This study was designed to determine teachers’ perceptions of extracurricular activities and their advantages, as well as how they encourage or discourage these opportunities to low-achieving students. A survey containing both Likert-scale and free response questions was administered to teachers in a rural middle and high school to analyze the aforementioned research questions.
    • Are you smarter than a high-schooler?

      Martin, Ashley R. (2013-01-14)
      This research examines the ability of students in introductory level college mathematics courses to recall fundamental information they learned in high school mathematics courses. During the first week of the Spring 2012 semester, students from three college mathematics classes were given a nineteen-problem quiz that consisted of problems on high school mathematics topics. Immediately following the quiz, the students were asked to complete a six question survey which was used to measure students’ prior mathematical knowledge, their outlook on mathematics, and how easily the students felt they could complete the quiz based on their ability to recall previously learned material. Results from the quiz and survey were compared and analyzed to draw conclusions. At the conclusion of this research study, it was determined that a significant difference existed in the students’ scores on individual questions based on the type of mathematics problem and a significant difference existed in the students’ total quiz scores based on their previous mathematics experience.
    • Area Awareness : a preadolescent perspective.

      Bland, Reid (2013-01-25)
      No author abstract.
    • Artifacts and actors

      Voegler, Emily (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2016-05)
      The linguistic landscape is a powerful indicator of the linguistic communities within an area, their prevalence, and their position within the social and political hierarchy. Therefore, language artifacts in the physical space reflect the attitudes toward different languages in the area and toward language revitalization projects. This study examines the linguistic landscape on the Seneca Nation Cattaraugus Reservation. The physical language representations in this area are analyzed in conjunction with interviews from community members to understand how the linguistic landscape represents the local population, and their attitudes toward Seneca language revitalization. The intentions of this study are to understand how the linguistic landscape is influenced by, and how it influences, the population's attitudes toward different languages on the Seneca Nation, how the linguistic landscape is being used for Seneca language revitalization, and how it could be used for language revitalization in the future. [from abstract]
    • Attitudes and opinions on the current Seneca language revitalization efforts.

      Gautieri, Gina G. (12/11/2013)
      Indigenous languages all over the world, including Native American languages, are being lost at a rapid rate (Baker, 2011). This is often the result of years of suppression and assimilation to the dominant White culture. Therefore, there is a need for heritage language revitalization and maintenance to ensure the languages remain. Today, efforts to revitalize these indigenous languages are ongoing, including those for the Seneca language. Very few studies, however, have focused specifically on these efforts with the Seneca language. The goal of this study was to determine the attitudes and opinions of those learning or involved in the current Seneca language revitalization effort and thus add to the literature on language revitalization. The participants of this study included teachers and students from schools in Western New York near the Cattaraugus Indian Reservation where Seneca language classes are offered. An online Likert-scale survey was used to collect data from teachers, while a paper version of the survey was given to student participants in their Seneca language classes. Results indicated that the current Seneca language revitalization efforts are effective, but may need some improvement to fully revitalize the language. In addition, the Seneca language, culture, and traditions are valued in the schools, but not as much as in the communities outside of the schools. This study may serve as a basis for further research in this area.
    • Attitudes of parents and children toward maintaining their heritage language.

      LaRotonda, Ashley (2015)
      The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes of refugee parents and children in terms of maintaining the heritage language (HL) in an environment that is ethnically dominant in a different culture. A qualitative research design consisting of interviews was used to examine how refugee parents and children felt about keeping their HL, and also culture. The languages in this research include Nepali, Burmese, Karen, and Chin. The researcher interviewed parents and children about HL maintenance. The parents that were interviewed were newcomers (living in the United States for less than four years), and not newcomers (living in the United States for more than four years). The purpose of this research was to understand why refugee parents and children have negative or positive attitudes on the topic of maintaining HL. The researcher used Fishman's (1990, 1991) Graded Intergenerational Disruption Scale for Threatened Languages as a framework to describe how likely it is that populations can maintain their language. Results of this research state that HL maintenance was an occurrence in both newcomer and not newcomer families. All children and parents that were interviewed in this research had positive attitudes toward maintaining their HL. This research concludes with recommendations on how schools can maintain HL. The researcher recommended having a culturally relevant classroom, and using translanguaging as an instructional strategy. Another recommendation included how cities, such as Buffalo, can maintain HLs. A recommendation is to create a widespread message of acceptance toward HLs in public schools.
    • Attitudes, beliefs, and confidence of speech-language pathologists when working with English Language Learners with communication disorders.

      Caruso, Krista R. (2014)
      Research has shown a self-reported lack of training by Speech-language Pathologists (SLPs) regarding working with English language learners (ELLs) with communication disorders. Along side this lack of training, SLPs are identifying specific problem areas encountered when working with the ELL population, as well as a desire for more training opportunities. This study examined Western New York SLPs attitudes and beliefs regarding the confidence they feel when working with the ELL population, as well as their background knowledge and prior training on specific topics pertinent to ELLs via an online survey. Further, a case study was conducted analyzing the participating SLPs’ practice and identified problem areas encountered with regard to ELLs. Overall, findings identified problem areas self-reported by SLPs that were congruent with the current literature in the field. Largely, findings also indicated that more training in practicum areas that relate to working with the ELL population is desired and important to SLPs. A compiled resource booklet was created for information including best practices and language resources with regard to optimal service delivery in an effort to increase knowledge and confidence when working with the ELL population. Implications and suggestions for further research are discussed with regard to SLPs and their practice when providing service delivery to the ELL population on their caseloads.
    • Avifaunal Biodiversity and Land Use on Indonesia's Palau Penida Archipelago

      Abrantes, Ashlee (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2018-05)
      Understanding anthropogenic alterations to land use and their effects can inform conservation efforts in tropical biodiversity hotspots. In 2004 the Indonesian Palau Penida Archipelago, off the coast of Bali, was established as an unofficial bird reserve; however, studies of the islands’ land use and avian biodiversity were never conducted and have not been monitored. I surveyed birds across 32 transects in land use categories designated: agriculture, deforested, developed, and forest. Forest transects presented the greatest endemic species richness, but overall Shannon diversity different significantly among land use categories, particularly forested and deforested. ANOVA indicated exotic bird density was significantly higher than endemic bird density across all transects. Birds serve as a common biodiversity barometer and this study can serve to inform land use management decisions on the Archipelago and throughout reserves and protected areas throughout the tropics.