• Teachers' perceptions of a Positive Behavior Intervention Support Program at a small rural school.

      Brushaber-Goulding, Melanie (2015)
      This study focuses on Positive Behavior Intervention Support (PBIS) and a particular implementation at a rural school district in Western New York. This study explores teachers’ perceptions of the PBIS system being implemented in the district. It focuses on time spent on PBIS duties, teachers’ opinions of the current implementation, and teachers’ views of changes in behavior due to the PBIS system. The participants in this survey were all faculty and staff at the school district, which includes grades pre-kindergarten through grade twelve, and support staff including specialty areas area teachers. The findings show teacher buy-in to the program, and opinions of success of the PBIS system.
    • Teachers' perceptions of the effects of the Common Core Standards on student academic achievement.

      Catalano, Hannah (2014)
      This project was designed to examine the how teachers feel the new Common Core State Standards were designed to integrate the requirements of high school and postsecondary education into the curriculum in order to prepare students for the educational demands of post-secondary education and the workforce by their 11th grade year. This project is an analysis of the perceptions of K-6 educators in Western New York on student academic achievement based on the implementation of Common Core State Standards in English Language Arts and Mathematics. The educators were voluntarily asked to answer simple questions based on how they feel towards the implementation of the Common Core State Standards Modules and the effects of the modules on the academic achievement of their students.
    • Teachers' perspectives of classroom management issues and strategies

      McCaw, Amanda (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2018-05)
      Classroom management and behavior issues are problematic and prevalent in elementary schools today. The purpose of this study was to identify the management strategies that are effective in reducing or eliminating misbehavior among elementary students. This study was conducted in a rural elementary school with 8 teachers of Grades 1-5, 6 were currently teaching in schools and 2 were retired. A review of the scholarship indicated that there is a correlation between student gender and misbehavior and grade level and misbehavior. The scholarship also revealed various contributing factors of student misbehavior, effective strategies to use when handling misbehavior, and teachers' knowledge and training associated with classroom management. Teachers in this study revealed that misbehavior occurred frequently and ranged from verbal disturbance to occasional higher-level forms of misbehavior, such as physical aggression. Along with discussing the types of misbehavior prevalent in elementary schools today, teachers mentioned effective behavior management strategies, which included individual behavior plans and an interactive program, called "Class Dojo." [from author's abstract]
    • Teachers’ perceptions of the benefits of recess on the development of elementary students.

      Jones, Marlena J. (08/01/2013)
      The primary purpose of this study was to examine teachers' perceptions of the effects of recess on elementary students‟ academic and interpersonal development. Recess duration in schools has declined drastically over the years in some schools and doesn't occur at all in others (Blatchford, 1998). Recess time is being taken away by increased demands for academic work that have resulted from new federal and state mandates for accountability. As a result recess has been used as a reward or motivator if work gets completed. Focus must be directed, however, on the broader developmental benefits that recess provides for students. Study participants included 38 elementary teachers from two school districts, one rural and the other urban, in Western New York. Teachers completed the Teachers' Perceptions of the Benefits of Recess for Elementary students Survey, a 5-point, Likert-type scale, anonymously and independently. Teacher ratings reflected the perceived importance and potential benefits of recess and also noted trends and barriers against its use in contemporary schools. Implications for research and discussion are provided.
    • Technical readiness of pre-service teachers to navigate and use technology in the modern day classroom

      Greiner, Meghan (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2016)
      The proposed study was based on college students, specifically pre-service teachers, planning to enter the educational field within five years. The study examined technical readiness of these pre-service teachers attending a rural, public university in Western New York and their attitudes toward information and communication technologies (ICT) in the classroom. The investigation sought to answer the question: do small, liberal arts state institutions of higher learning produce pre-service teachers with an adequate amount of exposure and training to navigate and use technology in the modern day classroom? The result of the study revealed a greater need for higher learning programs to implement technology tools and resources that reflect what technologies are in the field. [from author's abstract]
    • Techniques to suppress invasive Oriental Bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculatus) on Presque Isle State Park in Erie, Pennsylvania.

      Wooten, Jessica (2013-07-10)
      Oriental bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculatus) is a deciduous, woody vine native to Southeast Asia. Currently this invasive is considered a major threat to native forests in the eastern United States. Some characteristics associated with its’ competitive ability include shade tolerance, ability to colonize a wide range of suitable environmental conditions, and prolific seed production, viability and germination. These factors contribute to difficulties related to the suppression and containment of this species. In order to preserve native plant communities at Presque Isle State Park in Erie, PA, a total of 5 treatments, each having 4 replicates was established to test various procedures to suppress this invasive species and restore native plant communities. Two control treatments involved either making cuts of all stems at chest height and ground level (window cut) with no subsequent treatment or no action at all. Additional treatments consisted of a basal stump herbicide application of a 100% solution of either triclopyr or glyphosate to every cut stem immediately after window cuts were made. The last treatment method consisted of making window cuts followed by a foliar herbicide application 5 weeks post cut with a backpack sprayer containing a solution of 6% glyphosate and 3% triclopyr. Data analysis show that the most effective method to suppress C. orbiculatus is by making a window cut of all stems followed by a foliar herbicide application 5 weeks post cut. Plots with this treatment had significantly fewer regrowth stems and these stems had a trend towards shorter length as opposed to other treatments. This knowledge has the potential to assist not only Presque Isle State Park but many other locations afflicted with the presence of this invasive species.
    • A technology integration model for third grade English language arts curriculum.

      Goss, Aryle (19/10/2012)
      Educational technology in schools can be a forum for providing students with instruction. Through the use of educational technology, teachers are able to scaffold learning, engage students, increase participation and reach all student learning styles. The field of education has spent thousands of dollars on technology; therefore, there is a need to insure that this money has been well spent and that the technology is being used effectively. Teachers need to be provided with the proper training in order to deliver effective instruction using available educational technology. This paper is a curriculum project that focuses on integrating the effective use of technology, particularly: computers, personal response system (clickers) and SMART Boards, into a 3rd grade English Language Arts curriculum of a recently renovated urban elementary school. It also looks at professional development and the best way to educate teachers on how to effectively use the technology.
    • Trail's End Camp Varsity Program Director Manual.

      Pilgrim, Kathryn (31/10/2013)
      Summer camps provide valuable learning experiences for eleven million children and 1.2 million staff members every summer. Significant benefits for those at well-designed camps exist and begin with staff training. A staff manual geared toward the Non-Bunk Staff, who supervise the counselors and program areas, in particular the Varsity Program Director, starts communication before the staff member arrives at camp. Trail’s End Camp is a full season summer camp with the Varsity program designed to build leadership opportunities and added choices for the oldest 134 campers ages 13-16 during their final three years at camp. The author designed the lesson plans and wrote the accompanying manual after working at Trail’s End Camp for the summer to educate and provide a resource for future staff members in supervisory positions.
    • Transitions.

      Anderson, Marcus B. (2014)
      This empirical research thesis examines how adolescents perceive their out-of-school literacies and literacy skills, and how they see themselves using or not using these skills within their current and future school work. With a sample of two participants from a rural high school in Chautauqua County, this study uses a qualitative methodology to collect data from researcher interviews and field notes. Descriptive interview data analysis reveals that adolescents instead of making connections between outside school literacies and in-school literacies appear to use the school model of literacy skills to determine out-of-school literacy skills, rather than have the out-of-school model of literacy skills to determine out-of-school literacy skills, rather than have the out-of-school literacy activities produce their own model of literacy skills. Moreover, analysis indicates that these adolescents lack meta-cognition or metalinguistic knowledge about literacy skills and how they are transferable between various social groups or settings. Instead findings indicate a disconnect between adolescents’ out- of- school literacies and literacy skills as the adolescents attempt to apply school-based literacy concepts to non-school literacy events instead of recognizing skills as being not tied to or limited to school class work. More metacognitive metalinquistic awareness may help students to recognize and transfer literacy skills across reading tasks and reading activities.
    • Translanguaging and emerging Bilingual's academic self-efficacy in Math and ELA

      Megan, Kane (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2016)
      The population of Emergent Bilinguals (EB) in schools continues to rise annually in the United States (García et al., 2008) and with this consistent increase comes the question of how to best educate these students. Currently EBs are reporting lower levels of academic self-efficacy than their native English speaking peers (LeClair et al., 2009), which can lead to lowered academic performance (Bandura, 1993; Fan et al., 2012; Raoofi et al., 2012). Translanguaging is a revolutionary concept that rejects the classic perception of languages as separate entities within the brain. Instead, TLG views a person's multiple languages as part of one united linguistic code (Celic & Seltzer, 2012; Otheguy et al., 2015; Velasco & García, 2013). The purpose of this study was to determine the level of academic self-efficacy in math and ELA of EBs enrolled in a bilingual program that uses translanguaging in class. Furthermore, this study investigated if there was a difference in the academic self-efficacy of EBs who use translanguaging in class and EBs who do not. The results indicated that EBs who use translanguaging in class have a high level of academic self-efficacy in math and ELA. This group of participants reported slightly higher academic self-efficacy than the participant group that does not use translanguaging. However, the results of a t-test found this difference to be statistically insignificant. The results of this study were intended to add to the small body of literature on the academic self-efficacy of EBs to inform best practices for this population of learners. [from abstract]
    • Typha Latifolia versus Phragmites Australis.

      Cross, Michael A. (2014)
      Phragmites australis and Typha latifolia rhizomes were planted in a factorial experiment under a number of intra- and inter-specific competition scenarios, two salinities and three moisture levels. Typha rhizome mortality was 100% and Phragmites rhizome mortality was 64%. Phragmites plants were not significantly different in final height or biomass across density, salinity or moisture treatments. Typha rhizomes were planted into Phragmites patches with five and monitored for two seasons. At Bonita Swamp all of the Typha rhizomes survived and sprouted. There were no clear differences in Typha cover, density or height between treatments. At Presque Isle all of the rhizomes in the Phragmites removal treatments sprouted but the rhizomes did not sprout in the plots without Phragmites removal At Tifft none of the Typha rhizomes sprouted. Also, at these three wetlands plots were monitored at the boundary between Phragmites and Typha patches and monitored for two years. Over that time little spread of the species occurred. The short duration of field observations renders conclusions difficult to make but the results do support the possibility that Typha rhizomes can be planted into Phragmites patches as part of a restoration project.
    • U.S.history curriculum adapted for English language learner through flipped learning

      McCarthy, Daniel (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2017-12)
      The purpose of this project was to provide educators an alternative method to the traditional method of teaching content courses. Many areas of content are taught through the instructional method of lecture style where students are passive learner instead of active learners. This curriculum project was to address the change to active learning and the need to improve content course learning for English Language Learners (ELLs). As technology becomes a vital part of the classroom, teachers are in need to find effective ways to implement it. One effective way that would improve content learning education for ELLs is through the flipped learning or flipped classroom. Research has shown that flipped classrooms can impact student achievement, student learning outcome, student motivation, and teacher preparation. Flipping the classroom allows for educators to change the environment of the classroom to become more interactive and also suit each individual needs more. This curriculum project created videos and material for flipped classroom on the American Colonies unit, is to provide an active learning environment for teachers to use towards developing their flipped classroom. [from author's abstract]
    • Under the microscope

      Harper, Tyrus (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2016)
      During the past two decades, an alarming trend has emerged in American education. Students in the United States are consistently plummeting in the global standings on international standardized assessments. Research suggests that scores on one such assessment, the PISA (Program for International Student Assessment), especially illustrate that students in the United States are continually falling behind those in other nations. Globalization and its relationship with instruction in the United States have also proven to be an important inquiry in regard to attempting to understand the current national education landscape. [from author's abstract]
    • Unveiling words within a picture

      Wells, Lea (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2017-05)
      The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) for New York State include a set of standards for Reading Informational texts (RI). RI Standard #7 details the requirements for students from preKindergarten to grade 6 related to the reading of expository texts and their visuals. Moving from requiring an understanding of the relationship of pictures to words to the contribution of pictures to a topic requires some visual literacy skills. This capstone project has explored the question of the role of visual literacy when reading pictures in an expository text, and how educators might tap into this role to assist struggling readers. The most appropriate way to answer this question was with a research synthesis. The exhaustive literature review and subsequent synthesis for this study produced three findings. The first is that the role of visual literacy and the reading of graphics changes as grade levels increase, from connecting to a reader's interest and attention in the preKindergarten to grade 1 levels, to inspiring mental imagery or drawing that increases topic comprehension by the grade 10 level, to providing accurate and detailed information in addition to that provided by the words at the collegiate level. The second finding is that students at all grade ranges appear to benefit from direct instruction on reading comprehension strategies that specifically address reading the visuals in an expository text, and the third finding is that direct instruction and implementation of research based reading strategies increase students' comprehension of expository text structure including visuals. [from abstract]
    • The use of concrete manipulatives in third grade special education and student achievement.

      Corsi, Laura (2014)
      This action research project was designed to examine the effects of student achievement using concrete manipulatives versus traditional lecture style teaching in mathematics education. A fraction tile set of manipulatives was used to study individual’s achievement of mathematical understanding. While substantial evidence exists to support the empirical foundations of this approach, very little, if any, systematic research has been conducted on its impact on student earning. This project, therefore, examined the effects of concrete manipulatives on the acquisition and retention of new knowledge by 5 third grade special education students. The effects of concrete manipulatives were compared to a more traditional didactic teaching approach. Results suggested that concrete manipulatives were more effective than that of the traditional lecture style. Students were compared to themselves in terms of scores, mean and percent change. An identical paper and pencil pretest and post test was given before and after both interventions. The findings showed that all students improved from the baseline data to the post test scores. Students' mathematical achievement was positively impacted when students used concrete manipulatives during the equivalent fraction unit.
    • The use of incentives for motivating students to read.

      West, Trina M. (2014)
      Motivating students to read seems to be a near universal problem for teachers. To address that problem, the question for this research synthesis is, what does research say about the relationship between reading incentives and a student’s motivation to read? Results of this synthesis indicate that research into motivation and incentives, both generally and for reading, focuses mainly on students in the elementary school age range. For the effects of incentives in general, findings indicate that while tangible extrinsic rewards are used by teachers and schools, the greater impact on motivation and academic performance comes from teacher verbal encouragement and activity selection, and student interests and intrinsic motivation. For the effects of incentives specifically for reading motivation, findings indicate that these effects are similar to effects of incentives generally: that tangible extrinsic rewards are used by teachers and schools but appear to have little impact on student motivation to read, and that the greater impact on reading motivation and academic performance can come from certain types of reading instruction, student access to books, and student intrinsic motivation. These findings are relevant to the professional development of elementary teachers and will therefore be disseminated to them through a professional development video.
    • The Use of Musical and Visual Interventions for Transitions in Children with Autism.

      McGarry, Erin M. (2013-10-24)
      The purpose of this descriptive survey study was to describe teachers' and therapists' reported use and perceptions of musical and visual transition interventions they use to help children with autism at an early childhood special education program. The perceived effectiveness was defined as the educational support team's perceptions of the effects musical interventions and visual interventions have on transition behaviors. Participants (N=19) were certified special education teachers and therapists who were employed by the early childhood program. An online survey consisting of 16 questions was sent electronically to participants via the employee email system. The survey questions consisted of five sections based on demographic information and the following research questions: 1) How often do teachers and therapists report using music interventions, visual interventions, or a combination of musical and visual interventions to aide children who have autism? 2) Which intervention is perceived to be the most effective? 3) What is the perceived effectiveness of musical interventions, visual interventions, and a combination of musical and visual interventions on social and communicative responsiveness in children with autism? and 4)What strategies do teachers and therapist use when selecting a transition intervention (musical, visual, or a combination of musical and visual) for children who have autism? Data from this survey was also analyzed for variation in perceptions based on professional background. The results showed participants used more musical interventions than visual interventions or a combination of musical and visual interventions, with 50% (n=9) stating they almost always used music when addressing transition behaviors. The results of this study also indicated a combination of musical and visual interventions was perceived as the most effective transition intervention by the teachers and therapists at this early childhood program, as almost all of the participants (n=18, 85.74%) chose this method as the most effective. Nine of these participants reported the musical component should be emphasized when combining musical and visual interventions, while the other nine reported the visual component should be emphasized. In regards to promoting social responsiveness and communication in children with autism, an overwhelming majority of the teachers and therapists in this study (17 out of 19 participants for the social responsiveness category, and 18 out of 19 participants for the communication category) reported a combination of musical and visual interventions was the most effective method for promoting these two key areas of need. When using this combined intervention approach, the musical component was reported as the most important modality in promoting social responsiveness (52.63%, n=l 0), while the visual component was reported as the most important modality in promoting communication (52.63%, n=IO). The results of this study also suggested that the individual needs and preferences of the child were a major factor professionals consider when selecting a transition intervention, as all of the participants in the study (n=19) reported this as a factor. It is the researcher's hope that these results may be used to inform our understanding of which interventions are perceived to be the most effective for children with autism. This study, along with future research, may help to improve transitional performance for children with autism. Keywords and themes for this study include "autism," "music therapy," and "transitions."
    • The use of student written web logs in ESL classes to improve composition.

      Reimer, Kyle A. (28/02/2014)
      With an increasing amount of technology being incorporated into teachers’ lessons, there is need for research to be done so teachers can include technology in a way that most benefits students. Previous research has found that, in the university setting, implementing student written web logs into ESL writing instruction and practice has shown improvement in the quality of student composition. The present study took place over six weeks, and included five intermediate level English language learners in a middle school setting. After receiving lecture-based instruction from the classroom teacher, each participant completed a writing assignment. The experiment group completed five assignments using a web log created on EDUblogs.org for this study while the control group completed five writing assignments using a word processor or pen and paper. Each assignment was scored using an ESL composition profile by the classroom teacher. The results showed that the participants in the control group showed the most improvement in their writing scores.
    • Use of tablets with Saudi girls, ages 5-7 to improve reading skills

      Bin saran, Ohud (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2016)
      Reading is a fundamental literacy skill that must be taught to children at early ages for them to master. The integration of technology in reading skills helps to make the learning process easier and fun. Tablets have the ability to enhance the literacy skills of young children. This study was designed to answer the following research question : Does the use of tablets with Saudi girls, ages 5-7 improve reading skills? A review of the literature on the use of tablets and and e-books as educational tools is included as a foundation to this study. Also, literature on specific reading skills and the first grade reading level is included. The study was conducted in summer 2015 in Saudi Arabia. The participants of this study were 12 female students in the first grade at three public primary schools. The students were divided into two groups consisting of six students. For the first group, the experimental group, each student used a tablet with downloaded educational applications. Lessons on the same letters and sounds were given to the second group, the control group, by the traditional way of education. The study investigated if the use of tablets with children learning to read improved their literacy skills through a comparison of pre and post intervention reading comprehension tests. The results of this study showed that the use of tablets with students helped to improve reading skills for the students. Also, the use of tablets with students is a helpful way to encourage an increase in students' reading and learning. [from author's abstract]
    • The use of virtual manipulatives in fourth grade to improve mathematic performance.

      Morris, Jaimie (28/02/2014)
      Virtual manipulatives are mathematical tools recommended by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM), which are underutilized within elementary schools. This study investigated the impact of virtual manipulatives on fourth-grade students’ mathematic performance. Students in one general education math class were randomly assigned to either a treatment group or one of two control groups. Together the three groups were comprised of twelve fourth-grade students who were taught by the same math teacher. The treatment and both control groups studied adding and subtracting three to six digit whole numbers. The treatment group used virtual manipulatives to practice the concepts from the lesson, while one control group used concrete manipulatives and the other control group used paper and pencil worksheets to practice the concepts. An identical paper and pencil pre-test was given prior to instruction to all groups as well as an identical paper and pencil post-test after the unit of adding and subtracting whole numbers. The findings showed that all three groups scores improved between the pre-test and post-tests. However, there was a significant improvement with the students who participated in the virtual manipulative group. Students’ mathematical performance was positively impacted when students used virtual manipulatives during the adding and subtracting whole numbers math unit.