• The role of recreational reading in classrooms.

      Spaulding, Amanda (2014)
      While reading for pleasure is its own reward, an issue for classroom teachers is whether leisure reading and recreational reading have a place in the classroom. The question for this research study is, what precisely is “recreational reading” and what is its role in an elementary classroom? The most appropriate way to answer this question is with an extensive literature review and synthesis. Results of the synthesis indicate that students from grade four to college age who enjoy and engage in recreational reading experience higher academic achievement than those who do not, while time spent by students reading outside of school is impacted by factors such as access to reading materials, reading enjoyment, and other ways available to occupy their time. Results also indicate that student positive attitude toward reading declines as a student progresses through elementary school, that attitudes appear to be gender related (with girls having a more positive attitude than boys), and by adolescence, students prefer the text format of magazines. Student enjoyment of reading appears to develop in part from support and encouragement from adults who discuss what students are reading, and the common classroom practice of Sustained Silent Reading (SSR) appears to be most effective when teachers include discussion of student self-selected reading material. In addition, results suggest that classroom teachers can further encourage recreational reading by making themselves more knowledgeable about children’s literature and by providing access to student-preferred reading materials in both the school and classroom library. These results are applicable to elementary teachers and therefore will be presented in the form of a professional development video.
    • School and home.

      Jantzi, Shannon T. (2014)
      Parental involvement and cultural mismatch have been challenges for teachers, students and parents in the United States (Good, Masewicz, & Vogel, 2010). This in part is due to lack of teacher training in cultural pedagogies and cultural knowledge for teachers working with English Language Learners (ELLs). Therefore the purpose of this Masters’ project was to provide teachers in the Buffalo City Schools a resource to access when working with ELLs whose native language is Karen, Arabic, Somali or Nepali. This handbook can also serve as a resource to any teacher working with ELLs for it provides information on parental involvement ideas and strategies to help bridge the gaps between school and home. A thorough examination of the four main language groups was conducted through interviews, articles, books, and websites in order to create this handbook. The four languages chosen were selected based on the highest population of students in Buffalo Public School #45, the setting chosen for this project. The handbook was designed to provide teachers with knowledge on the different cultural norms of each language group as well as provide teachers with information on the benefits of parental involvement. It is hoped that this handbook will allow teachers to have a better understanding of the cultural backgrounds of their ELLs which will in turn allow for increased knowledge on how to bridge the gaps between school and home.
    • The Search for the BMPl Gene in a Salamander Gene Library and the identification of Several Genes from the Library.

      Feygin, Alex Z. (2013-01-11)
      Bone Morphogenetic Protein 1 (BMP 1) functions in normal embryological development. The goal of this research was to obtain the sequence of salamander BMPl. Following sequence determination, an in situ probe for BMPJ activity would be generated to ascertain if this gene plays similar roles in Salamander limb regeneration, a system that has been demonstrated as comparable to normal embryological limb development. A Salamander eDNA library was obtained as a potential source for salamander BMPl. No BMPI sequence from this eDNA library was detected. This led to the pursuit of alternative gene sequences that could be of potential interest in the study of salamander limb regeneration. Two library recombinants were generated containing genes of potential interest to the study of salamander limb regeneration as determined by their sequence similarity to established genetic sequences. Rec9 contained an insert most similar to the Gallus gallus chondroitin sulfate N-acetlygalacosylaminyltransferase 2 gene. Rec21 most closely resembled Xenopus (Silurana) tropicalis oncomodulin.
    • Seasonal movements of Paddlefish (Polyadon spathula) in the Allegheny Reservoir.

      Budnik, Richard Raymond (2013-01-25)
      We used radio telemetry to determine the distribution and movements of paddlefish Polyadon spathula in the Allegheny Reservoir. Thirty-one adult and subadult paddlefish collected from spring congregation areas in the Allegheny Reservoir, New York and Pennsylvania, were implanted with radio transmitters and relocated from 29 May to 29 October 2008 and 10 March to 29 September 2009. Paddlefish showed a significant increase in average size and little variation in condition from 2008 to 2009. In both pre-spawning and spawning periods, paddlefish moved upstream and congregated near predicted spawning areas where the Allegheny River widens and becomes the Allegheny Reservoir. During the post-spawning period paddlefish moved downstream into lower reservoir regions. Forty-five percent of individuals tracked ended up below the dam of the Reservoir by the end of the study. Restoration and stocking efforts may now need to focus on determining if natural spawning is taking place and how individuals traveling through the dam may be affecting the paddlefish population.
    • Seeing Oneself: A Contextual Analysis of Diversity in Commonly Read Young Adult Literature

      Carson-Davis, Jessica (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2018-07)
      The purpose of this study is to observe the quality and variance of the representations of culturally and linguistically diverse populations within commonly read young adult literature. This study was conducted through the use of qualitative and quantitative contextual analysis methodologies, and consisted of a sample of nine commonly read young adult novels. The literature were analyzed through the theoretical lenses of critical race theory, the transactional theory of reading, and multicultural pedagogy. The literature were coded for representations of race, ethnicity, language, gender, sexuality, disability and illness, and socioeconomic status. These themes were then coded and analyzed based on varying emerging sub-themes, such as tokenized race representations, the use of accents to represent language, and various other subthemes. The main findings included the frequency of the representations of the previously stated populations. Out of the 1,195 coded representation samples found within the literature, race was present in 48 samples, ethnicity in 128 samples, language in 149 samples, gender in 282 samples, sexuality in 279 samples, disability and/or illness in 201 samples, and socioeconomic status in 108. The quality of the samples were also analyzed, and are contained within this study.
    • Selecting Instruments for beginners.

      Dangler, Anthony G. (2014)
      This study investigated how music teachers in Western New York State prepare beginning instrumental music students to select a musical instrument. Participants comprised music teachers in Cattaraugus, Chautauqua, Erie, and Niagara Counties. Eighty-one participants completed an online questionnaire or adaption of the online questionnaire relating to their instrumental selection process. The purpose of the study was to explore the factors that determine the instrument selection process for beginning band students. Additional explored areas included educational setting, professional background, specific instrument selection procedures, the effects of gender on instrument choice, the role of testing in the instrument selection process, and influences of the instrument selection process. Most participants in the study earned their master’s degrees and had an average of 16 years of teaching experience. Participants reported that the instrument selection process was briefly mentioned in their pre-service education and that personal experience had the most influence in their selection procedure. Participants also reported that students preferred instruments that coincided with traditional gender roles. The findings of this study indicate that more emphasis on the instrument selection process is needed by music teachers and pre-service programs to address important issues such as gender bias.
    • Self-advocacy in college students with learning disabilities.

      Hills, Cory J. (2014)
      College has become a critical component of career success, and students with disabilities are the fastest growing section of college students. Despite this growth, many students with disabilities take longer to graduate; they choose 2-year degree programs over 4-year degree programs, and struggle with graduating from college. One crucial element of success for students with disabilities is the ability to self-advocate. Self-advocacy is a skill that many students with disabilities will be doing for the first time independently upon graduating from high school. The ability of students with disabilities to understand educational law and apply it in order to obtain the services entitled to them is crucial for academic success in college. This study evaluates multiple studies, court cases, educational law and transition programs in order to determine key components of self-advocacy. Additionally, this study will define self-advocacy and a methodology for determining if students with disabilities can self-advocate in college.
    • The SHAPE of an IRES: Secondary Structure Determination of the Internal Ribosomal Entry Site in the 5’UTR of the gurken mRNA Using SHAPE Chemistry

      Martin, Allison (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2017-05)
      Internal Ribosomal Entry Sites (IRESs) are conserved secondary structural elements present in the 5’ untranslated regions (UTR) of some essential eukaryotic mRNAs and many viral RNA genomes. IRESs allow the mRNA or viral RNA to bypass canonical cap-dependent translation initiation and entice the ribosome to assemble directly onto the RNA strand and initiate translation. Viruses utilize this method of translation initiation to hijack cellular translation machinery and eukaryotes utilize this to maintain levels of critical proteins when most translation is shut down due to cellular stress. Gurken (Grk) protein is an EGFR ligand essential for determining polarity and eggshell patterning in Drosophila melanogaster development. The gurken mRNA is believed to have an IRES for several reasons, including steady regulation of grk translation under nutrient limited conditions when canonical cap-dependent translation is repressed and the necessity of a RNA helicase for cap-dependent translation to occur under non-starvation conditions. Here we are interested in finding structural features corresponding to a potential internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) in the 5’ UTR of the gurken mRNA from D. melanogaster. Selective 2’-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension (SHAPE) chemistry is a powerful tool used to investigate secondary structure in RNA molecules. We used this procedure to probe the grk 5’ UTR secondary structure and then compare the predicted structure to known IRES structural motifs. In collaboration with in vitro translation Luciferase assays and selective deletion or mutation of structural features, individual secondary structural features can be selectively analyzed and included or excluded as a potential IRES. Here I present the wild-type structure of the gurken 5’ UTR and correlations between the structural elements present there and known IRES structural features.
    • Sheltered Instruction Observational Protocol (SIOP) implementation by K-12 mainstream teachers.

      Mundo, Korrin E. (29/08/2012)
      This paper discusses a study that solicited data from teachers within two small city school districts. The study resulted from a five year federal education grant whose main objective was to provide intensive training and follow-up training to teachers in these two school districts on the Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) Model. The SIOP Model is research-based and designed to help address the struggles that English Language Learners (ELLs) have when learning English, especially in the content areas. While many school districts across the United States have begun to utilize SIOP, there exists a lack of research on teacher implementation post-training. The purpose of the study was to survey K-12 teachers in two school districts on the level of implementation of the SIOP Model‟s components and features after receiving intensive training in the model one to four years prior. Additionally, for any features the teachers identified as not implemented, they were asked what types of supports, if any, would facilitate implementation. The data derived from this study extends the current knowledge base on SIOP implementation and the specific components and features used regularly.
    • ‘Sign’ing the Nation’s Contract: Constructing the Walls of American Citizenship

      Drzewiecki, Margaret (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2017-08)
      This paper investigates the way language constructs and reinforces national identity. In other words, I am examining how the role of the “citizen” is defined within the confines of language. Using a primarily sociolinguistic lens, my thesis analyzes the language used in political speeches and legal documents (including U.S. legislation; judicial opinions of Associate Supreme Court Justice Robert H. Jackson; and speeches of former Lieutenant Governor of New York Stanley N. Lundine). In doing so, I explain how the American “citizen” has been constructed through language utilized in various formats and contexts. Overall, my thesis is a reflection on what it has meant and currently means to be “American” alongside an examination of how citizenship status is attained.
    • Simplifying structurally comparable expressions.

      Humbert, Michael P. (2013-01-24)
      This study explores the connection between student understanding of arithmetic and algebra through the evaluation of numeric expressions and the simplification of structurally comparable algebraic expressions. It is hypothesized that non-major college mathematics students are more likely to correctly simplify an algebraic expression than to correctly evaluate a numeric expression of comparable structure. One hundred students from four non major mathematics courses were given a six-problem assessment to test this hypothesis. The results suggest that students are more successful at evaluating numeric expressions than algebraic expressions. Possible correlations between the two subject areas are discussed in the findings.
    • The SIOP model

      Lundgren, Ryan (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2018-05)
      This curriculum project synthesizes the Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) model by unifying the curriculum for the subjects of English Language Arts (ELA), mathematics, science, and social studies. Notwithstanding, this project unifies the SIOP model by simplifying the English as a New Learner (ENL) teacher role, the SIOP model's pedagogical approach; as well as, it provides ENL teachers with charts and teaching materials to give helpful reminders of tiered language, scaffolds, Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS), and the proper roles of teaching whenever engaging ELLs within an integrated classroom setting. Thus, the Results of this curriculum project produced the guidebook ˗ The SIOP model: Uniformity of components, features, and other translanguaging strategies ˗ in order to give ENL teachers of New York State (NYS) a one-way implementation of the SIOP model across the curriculum for schools to have a means to understand, implement, and quickly access the SIOP model's precepts and concepts in order to simplify and unify instruction for ELLs while utilizing this popular English as a Second Language (ESL) program of instruction. [from author's abstract]
    • SIOP model and 5th grade social studies.

      Nohlquist, Danielle N. (29/03/2013)
      This curriculum project consists of lessons following the SIOP model for English Language Learners (ELLs) to supplement the New York state fifth grade social studies curriculum. This project was designed to complement and extend the 5th grade social studies curriculum at Fredonia Middle School. The eight components of the SIOP model are addressed specifically: Preparation, Building Background, Comprehensible Input, Strategies, Interaction, Practice and Application, Lesson Delivery and Review and Assessment. The SIOP model builds meaning through student interaction and comprehensible input. The nine units that SIOP lessons were created for in this curriculum project are: September 11th, 2001; the United States Constitution; the Louisiana Purchase; the Gold Rush; the Civil War; the Industrial Revolution; World war I; the 1920’s/Great Depression, and World War II. The purpose of this curriculum is to give teachers resources to make social studies instruction more meaningful to ELL students.
    • The social and emotional adjustment of siblings of children with disabilities.

      Gerfin, Rhianna M. (2014)
      The question addressed in this study is: Are siblings of children with disabilities affected socially and emotionally? This study will take place through interviews with four siblings of children with disabilities, specifically Autism Spectrum Disorder and Down syndrome. The participants vary in age from 16-20, and each of their siblings each fall on a different part of the Autism Spectrum. The Bowen Family Systems theory states that anything that happens to a specific family member has an impact on the rest of the family. The theory also states that a family is a unit and that all members are interacting parts that cannot be separated from one another as they are dependent on one another and unified (Bowen, 1966). This study will build upon the Family Systems Theory, and will focus on the factors that contribute to the social and emotional adjustments that may affect the siblings of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Down Syndrome. Although research has been completed in this area of study, there have been little to no consistences found. This study will potentially identify consistencies among siblings of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Down syndrome and guide future researchers and educators to identifying intervention services, differentiated instruction, and other accommodations that these siblings may need.
    • SPEEDY 3-D.

      Maiorana, Sara A. (2014)
      This research investigates how college students’ spatial skills vary by age, gender, college major and additional factors. Specifically, it explores students’ abilities to visualize two-dimensional air nets corresponding to two-dimensional illustrations of three-dimensional cubes. Also, this study examines how the use of a tangible air net manipulative affects performance. During this study, students answered a five-problem quiz involving matching and creating two-dimensional air nets for a given cube and vice versa. The results of the assessment were compared to those from a survey on the students’ age, gender, college major, ethnicity, and students’ perceptions of which problems were the most difficult and least difficult. It was hypothesized that male mathematics majors with access to a manipulative would perform best on the given spatial skills problems. The results of this study indicated that gender and college major had no statistical significance in spatial ability test score. Additional results revealed that there was a significant difference in test score by class, particularly with the use of a manipulative, and that the most difficult problem and least difficult problem on the assessment were both of the unfolding-type spatial ability task. These findings have noteworthy implications for in-service and pre-service mathematics teachers, particularly at the secondary level, regarding lesson planning and implementation when teaching spatial reasoning.
    • Strategic plan for switching from a transitional bilingual education program to a two-way immersion program.

      Uhlman, Sarah G. (13/11/2013)
      Bilingual education can be presented to learners in a variety of ways. This project focuses on Transitional Bilingual Education (TBE) and Two-Way Immersion (TWI). This is because an urban school in the Buffalo district is in process of converting the current TBE program into a TWI program. When considering this switch of educational philosophies, a deeper look at the philosophical and educational implications is necessary to ensure that the conversion is smooth and research-based. In the process of considering each of these bilingual education programs and philosophies, the history of the Bilingual Center, #33, was taken into consideration. Then, discrepancy analyzes were performed to consider general and specific changes that will affect the educational environment.
    • Strategies and therapies for English language learners as refugees (STELLAR).

      Clayton, Sarah Marie (04/01/2013)
      Literature in the fields of education and psychology focuses on cognitive and linguistic development and/or rehabilitation for individuals overcoming Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Some refugee students dealing with PTSD are also English language learners (ELLs). Not only may refugee ELLs need to manage living with PTSD, but they also need to simultaneously master English as a second language to succeed in school. From the spectrum of strategies and therapies for PTSD, it was the goal of this study to investigate what methods may work best specifically with individuals who are refugee ELLs. The purpose of this study was to contextualize (in a specific urban school district) which approaches work best in for these ELLs in the opinions of teachers, therapists, counselors, and administrators. Using a snowball sample, professionals working with refugee ELLs who may be suffering from PTSD were interviewed. Results and implications for those people working with this unique group of students will be discussed.
    • Student choice in continuing to study high school science.

      Al Mutir, Arwa (2015)
      This study implemented a quantitative approach to examine the factors that affect whether students continue to study science at the high school level. Data was collected through closed-ended surveys to answer the research questions: 1) “What factors impact a female student’s choice to continue to study science at the high school level in Saudi Arabia?” This research took place in Najran City in Saudi Arabia. The sample for this research study consisted of 148 female high school students, aged 16 to 18. Stratified sampling was appropriate for the nature of the study because it aimed to include female survey respondents. The participants in this research study were 26% first-year students, 52% second-year students, and 22% third-year students. The research instrument that was utilized was the "ROSE (The Relevance of Science Education), which is a questionnaire mostly consisting of closed questions with Likert scales" (Schreiner & Sjøberg, 2004, p. 35). After data was gathered, the responses of each participant were analyzed and given a point value based on a scale from 1 to 5. The obtained data was translated into graphs and tables in order to provide a comprehensive and easy-to-understand presentation of the data for in-depth analysis. This study concluded that the main factors that contribute to the female students' desire to continue studying science in high school are interest, attitude, and motivation. Also, it can be seen clearly that effective factors influence students' learning. Lastly, the researcher suggests recommendations for future research.
    • Student perception of different testing modes in seventh grade English language arts computer-based testing administration

      Kashino, Nicole (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2016-12)
      The purpose of this research was to determine which computerized devices are most appropriate when administering a high-stakes computer-based assessments to students. Participants in the study included twenty-two seventh grade students. The study was designed to have students complete a New York State Grade 7 English Language Arts Computer-Based Assessment using one of three electronic devices. The researcher collected data in the form of anecdotal notes, student questionnaires, and student interviews. The results of the study concluded that students were uncomfortable testing on electronic devices however, students preferred larger screens and the ability to use handheld manipulatives such as a mouse or stylus to navigate a screen rather than a touch pad or touch screen. [from abstract]
    • Students with Disabilities in a Less Restrictive Environment and Learning Social Skills

      Carlo, Julianna (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2019-05)
      Students with disabilities (SWD) are often placed in more restrictive environments and there has been an ongoing debate on whether more restrictive environments are beneficial as opposed to inclusive or less restrictive environments in regard to social skills and academics. Research has shown that SWD are more successful in less restrictive environments, but still struggle in their social skill area. The curriculum is designed to incorporate social skills into a third-grade literacy curriculum and incorporates the New York State Literacy Learning Standards in an inclusive room to both SWD as well as general education students. This curriculum is designed for third grade literacy but may be modified for any grade level and may be aligned and modified to fit in any standards.